Referanse: Marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages to children. Report of a WHO Forum and Technical Meeting, Oslo, 2-5 May 2006: We know that diets high in energy, saturated fat, free sugars, salt and low in certain nutrients are putting children at risk of overweight and obesity and other diet-related diseases which are increasing public health problems worldwide The marketing of energy-dense micronutrient-poor foods and beverages to children has been identified as one of the many factors contributing to this in a series of expert consultations
From WHO Set of recommendations, page 10: ” Evidence from systematic reviews on the extent, nature and effects of food marketing to children conclude that advertising is extensive and other forms of food marketing to children are widespread across the world (Ref: Hastings 2003, IOM, 2006 og Cairns G, Angus K, and Hastings G, 2009) Most of this marketing is for foods with a high content of fat, sugar or salt. Evidence also shows that television advertising influences children’s food preferences, purchase requests and consumption patterns”. Referanse: Marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages to children. Report of a WHO Forum and Technical Meeting, Oslo, 2-5 May 2006 Scientific evidence shows that food and beverage marketing to children is extensive Most of this promotion is for products that are high in saturated fat, free sugars and low in micronutrients and fibre Such marketing influences children’s food choice The participants in the Technical meeting in Oslo in May 2006 concluded that there is a robust evidence base to support the fact that exposure to the commercial promotion of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor foods and beverages adversely affects children’s diets, and that a large body of literature supports this view, as summarized in the background paper by Hastings et al (2006) as well as the 2006 report of the Institute of Medicine in the United States. Fra Cairns, et al, 2009: The evidence reviewed confirms that the food products promoted continue to represent a very undesirable dietary profile, with heavy emphasis on energy dense, high fat, high salt and high sugar foods, and almost no promotion of foods that public health evidence encourages greater consumption of – for example fruit and vegetables.
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has developed a set of recommendations on marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children. The set of recommendations are one of the measures of the Non-Communicable Disease strategy which aims to counteract the obesity epidemic. The set of recommendations were presented to the World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2010 RECOMMENDATION 1. The policy aim should be to reduce the impact on children of marketing of foods high in saturated fats, trans -fatty acids, free sugars, or salt. RECOMMENDATION 2. Given that the effectiveness of marketing is a function of exposure and power, the overall policy objective should be to reduce both the exposure of children to, and power of, marketing of foods high in saturated fats, trans -fatty acids, free sugars, or salt. RECOMMENDATION 3. To achieve the policy aim and objective, Member States should consider different approaches, i.e. stepwise or comprehensive, to reduce marketing of foods high in saturated fats, trans -fatty acids, free sugars, or salt, to children. RECOMMENDATION 4. Governments should set clear definitions for the key components of the policy, thereby allowing for a standard implementation process. The setting of clear definitions would facilitate uniform implementation, irrespective of the implementing body. When setting the key definitions Member States need to identify and address any specific national challenges so as to derive the maximal impact of the policy. RECOMMENDATION 5. Settings where children gather should be free from all forms of marketing of foods high in saturated fats, trans -fatty acids, free sugars, or salt. Such settings include, but are not limited to, nurseries, schools, school grounds and pre-school centres, playgrounds, family and child clinics and paediatric services and during any sporting and cultural activities that are held on these premises. RECOMMENDATION 6. Governments should be the key stakeholders in the development of policy and provide leadership, through a multi-stakeholder platform, for implementation, monitoring and evaluation. In setting the national policy framework, governments may choose to allocate defined roles to other stakeholders, while protecting the public interest and avoiding conflict of interest. RECOMMENDATION 7. Considering resources, benefits and burdens of all stakeholders involved, Member States should consider the most effective approach to reduce marketing to children of foods high in saturated fats, trans -fatty acids, free sugars, or salt. Any approach selected should be set within a framework developed to achieve the policy objective. RECOMMENDATION 8. Member States should cooperate to put in place the means necessary to reduce the impact of cross-border marketing (in-flowing and out-flowing) of foods high in saturated fats, trans -fatty acids, free sugars, or salt to children in order to achieve the highest possible impact of any national policy. RECOMMENDATION 9. The policy framework should specify enforcement mechanisms and establish systems for their implementation. In this respect, the framework should include clear definitions of sanctions and could include a system for reporting complaints. RECOMMENDATION 10. All policy frameworks should include a monitoring system to ensure compliance with the objectives set out in the national policy, using clearly defined indicators. RECOMMENDATION 11. The policy frameworks should also include a system to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the policy on the overall aim, using clearly defined indicators. RECOMMENDATION 12. Member States are encouraged to identify existing information on the extent, nature and effects of food marketing to children in their country. They are also encouraged to support further research in this area, especially research focused on implementation and evaluation of policies to reduce the impact on children of marketing of foods high in saturated fats, trans -fatty acids, free sugars, or salt.
The action network on marketing is a follow-up to the Resolution on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases (WHA 60.23) and the Second WHO European Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy. The network was established in close cooperation with the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The network was established January 2008 as a response to several calls for actions to reduce the marketing pressure on children of foods and non-alcoholic beverages The network was established during its first meeting in Oslo in January 2008. Network leader Knut-Inge Klepp, Director General of Division, Public Health, Norwegian Directorate of Health. Norwegian Directorate of Health is the network secretariat The WHO Regional Office for Europe facilitated setting up the network. 2 working groups were established during the first meeting in Oslo, one worked on the Content of regulations, such as regulatory approaches, marketing methods and channels and age limits etc and the other group worked on different ways of monitoring marketing regulation, exposure, content etc. The network has made a Network Code, and sweep protocols under development. Today the network currently consists of over 20 countries in the WHO European Region. In addition, there are observers from World Health Organization (WHO), Consumers International (CI), International Association for the Study of Obesity, International Obesity TaskForce (IASO – IOTF). New time frame decided on the last network meeting in May: 2013-2015.
Working group jointly headed by the Ministry of Health and Care Services and The Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion – established in 2011 The working group consisted of representatives from the MoH, the Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion, the Norwegian Food Safety authority, Consumer Ombudsman and the Norwegian Directorate of Health
Dr. Corinna Hawkes’ presentation at the WHO European Network meeting in Ankara, Turkey, May 2013: Key lessons from Dr. Hawkes’s presentation: There is more convincing evidence to support restrictions on food marketing relative to many other policies Implementation of statutory, government-oversight of self-regulation & voluntary pledges is workable &enforceable Restrictions have an effect – but are undermined by migration to other channels, so it is impossible to say what effect they are having on the objective of reducing total exposure of children to unhealthy food marketing Comprehensive approach is needed – but worth trying step-by-step restrictions if only political option Monitoring using consistent indicators is crucial
Knut-Inge Klepp, Directorate of Health, Norway
Marketing of food to childrenProfessor Knut-Inge Klepp, Acting Deputy Director GeneralNorwegian Directorate of HealthThe 8th Global Conference on Health Promotion, Helsinki, Finland, June 2013
| 2Children: Dietary habits, health andmarketing of foods• Diets high in energy, saturatedfat, free sugars, salt and low incertain nutrients are puttingchildren at risk of overweightand obesity and other diet-related diseases• The marketing of energy-densemicronutrient-poor foods andbeverages to children is oneimportant contributing factor
| 3Food and beverage marketing to childrenis extensive and affects diets• Evidence from systematic reviews on the extent,nature and effects of food marketing to childrenconclude that advertising is extensive and otherforms of food marketing to children arewidespread across the world• The food products promoted represent a veryundesirable dietary profile, with heavy emphasison energy dense, high fat, high salt and highsugar foods, and almost no promotion of foodsthat public health evidence encourages greaterconsumption of• Such marketing influences children’s knowledge,attitudes, and food choices• Evidence also shows that television advertisinginfluences children’s food preferences, purchaserequests and consumption patterns
Publications WHO – Marketing foods to children2004-20122006200420072007200920102012
WHO Set of recommendations on marketing of foodsand non-alcoholic beverages to children - 2010• The recommendations were endorsed bythe World Health Assembly in May 2010• The main purpose is to guide efforts byMember States in designing new and/orstrengthening existing policies on foodmarketing communications to children inorder to reduce the impact marketing offoods with a high content of fat, sugar orsalt has on children.• Consists of 12 recommendationsstructured in 5 sections: Rational, policydevelopment, policy implementation,policy monitoring and evaluation, andresearch
WHO European Network on reducingmarketing pressure on childrenGoal: To protect children’s health throughsharing experiences and best practices inorder to identify and implement specificactions to reduce the extent and impact ofall marketing to children of unhealthyfoods and beveragesThe network was established in 2008 in Oslo,and it involve a diverse set of countries inthe WHO European Region:Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia,Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,Greece, Latvia, Ireland, Israel, Macedonia,Moldova, Montenegro, the Netherlands,Norway, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia,Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the UnitedKingdom, Turkey and Uzbekistan+ Observers such as WHO, EU, FAO, SCN, CI, IOTF
Applying the WHO set of recommendationsin Norway2011•MOH & ministry for consumeraffairs established a workinggroup to explore whether theWHO recommendations weremet by current Norwegian lawand practice2012•Public consultation on aproposal for new statutoryregulation, restrictingmarketing to children under theage of 18 years2013•Revised proposal for statutoryregulation submitted for publicconsultation•The food industry was invited tosubmit a proposal for self-regulation(that would be sufficiently effective)•The Government decided last week totest the voluntary industry code for atwo year period•Future implementation of anystatutory regulation depends on theevaluation of this self-regulation| 7
Countries with restrictions on foodmarketing to childrenC Hawkes, WCRF, May 2013Statutory - food•South Korea•Ireland•United Kingdom•(France = messaging)Self-regulation“approved” bygovernment•Australia•Canada•Denmark•EU•Norway•Portugal•Spain•USAStatutory - childrenSwedenQuebec, CanadaIndependentvoluntary pledgesBrazilEUIndiaMexicoPeruPhilippinesRussiaSingaporeSouth AfricaSwitzerlandThailandTurkey
• Peer-reviewed research papers show high levels of exposurecontinue to be found in several countries worldwide• The evidence provided in industry-sponsored reports indicates aremarkably high adherence to voluntary codes• Adherence to voluntary codes may not sufficiently reduce theadvertising of foods which undermine healthy diets, or reducechildren’s exposure to this advertisingGalbraith-Emami S, Lobstein T: Obesity Reviews, In pressIs self-regulation working?A systematic review of children’s exposure tomarketing of foods and beverages 2008-2012
| 10Conclusions and implicationsThe growth of marketing activities in emerging economies anddeveloping countries is of special concern and demonstrate theglobal relevance of this issueInternational action is essential to ensure an effective overallapproachThere is more convincing evidence to support restrictions on foodmarketing relative to many other policiesImplementation of statutory action, government overseen self-regulation and voluntary pledges are workable and enforceableRestrictions have an effect, but are underminedby migration to other channelsConsistent monitoring and nutrient profiling iscrucial