Good morning, I am COL OTSUKA, from Japan Ground Self Defense Force. It is my great pleasure and honor to have this opportunity to present you my opinion on Role of the Military in homeland Security and Civil Support , and discuss with you all. My English is not great. Please be patient with me.
This is the contents of my presentation.
Introduction In recent years, the U.S. and Japan have reoriented their defense policies because of the 9.11 terrorist attacks for the U.S., and the 9.11 terrorist attacks and North Korea’s missile-launching tests for Japan. These reorientations include taking serious homeland security measures due to the anxiety that both mainlands may become potential battlefields in warfare. The expectations of Americans and the Japanese toward military disaster relief operations have been increasing considerably, particularly after the Hurricane Katrina and the great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake.
In the U.S., when homeland security and the role of the military are discussed, the term homeland security is categorized into “Homeland Defense”, “Homeland Security” and “Civil Support.” Each definition is as follows. Each definition is as shown in the screen .
Thus far the study concerning the role of the military in homeland security and civil support is insufficient, and there is much room for improvement in both the U.S. and Japanese governments. Therefore, in this research, I will examine problems in the role of the military in homeland security and civil support in the United States and Japan, and suggest appropriate future directions.
Threats facing the U.S. and Japan
A continental state shielded by two oceans. The 9.11 terrorist attacks made the United States recognize that its geographic advantage could not make its territory free from a direct attack. The National Security Strategy of the United States of America (NSS) state that the United States can protect its nation by leading an effort of the international community to end tyranny and promote democracy. The United States, however, cannot achieve such idealistic goals alone, and so the United States is committed to taking a realistic approach that relies on cooperation with allies, partners, and the international community. The NSS has addressed nine chapters in order for the United States to achieve its goal. Strengthen alliances to defeat global terrorism and work to prevent attacks against us and our friends Work with others to defuse regional conflicts Prevent our enemies from threatening us, our allies, and our friends with weapons of mass destruction (WMD), etc
This chart shows the capability of loading Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, or High yield explosives (CBRN) warhead. Also, today, small teams or even single individuals can use CBRN weapons.
In addition, newly evolved influenza and other large-scale natural and man-made disasters are serious threats to the U.S. and Japan. Due to these threats, the U.S. and Japan recognize the role they play in non-proliferation of WMD, civil support in CBRNE attacks and the disaster relief operations. In addition, these are common problems to the U.S. and Japan.
U.S. Efforts in Homeland Security and Civil Support
With the 9.11 attacks, the United States government felt the urgent need to establish an overarching institution with comprehensive and integrated authorities and functions. They established t he Homeland Security Council (HSC) in 2001, and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2003. The DOD created a new combatant command, the U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) in 2002, authorizing the responsibility to consolidate homeland defense missions. The NORTHCOM is in charge of the entire roles of the DOD concerning homeland security. In addition, the DOD established “the Joint Force Headquarters-National Capital Region” and “WMD Civil Support Teams ”.
This chart shows Roles of Related Organizations in Homeland Security and Civil Support One of the fundamental response principles is that all incidents should be handled at the lowest jurisdictional level possible. The military work at state level and federal level in homeland security and civil defense.
This chart shows Roles of the DOD in Homeland Defense and Civil Support. The DOD stated that it had overlapping roles with the DHS over Homeland Defense and Civil Support Joint Operating Concept, specifically in the area of consequence management of maritime security and CBRNE.
The primary mission of the SDF is defense of the country against direct and indirect invasions stipulated in the Self-Defense Forces Law. The role of the SDF is defined by the National Defense Program Guidelines/Outline (NDPG/NDPO) which is approved by the Cabinet Council. During the Cold War, the mission and role the SDF assumed were in case of a scale invasion by foreign armed military, but these mission and role were reviewed in order to deal effectively with menaces such as the North Korea’s missile-launching tests and the 9.11 terrorist. Interception and destruction of ballistic missiles and Civil protection dispatches, etc., were added to the primary mission of the SDF. The 2004 NDPG has set new roles for the SDF.
Japan experienced many incidents which posed serious effect on Japan’s security. In response to these incidents, Japan has enacted various defense-related laws from 2003 to 2004. The Armed Attack Situation Response Law serves as the basic law for responses to armed attack situations, and provides for the fundamental principles regarding responses to armed attack situations, and the responsibilities and roles to be shared by the national and local governments, as well as a basic plan regarding responses to armed attack situations (basic response plan). The Civil Protection Law provides for the responsibilities of the national and local governments, the cooperation of the people, measure to evacuate residents, measures to support displaced residents, measures to respond to disasters caused by armed attacks, and other measures that should be performed or implemented to protect the lives of the people and to minimize the effects on the daily lives of the people.
Presently, the central governments and the local governments have formulated its own Civil Protection and have been conducting civil protection related exercises. The Cabinet Office and the Fire and Disaster Management Agency play a leading role in guiding the local governments. Ministry of Defense, the SDF and National Police Agency are supporting the local governments to improve their capacity building measures by participating in exercises and meetings hosted by the Cabinet Office and local governments.
Homeland Security and Civil support has become a pressing issue for both countries as the danger of an immediate involvement of the public has increased with the development of missiles and CBRNE weapons. Meanwhile, three common problems can be identified.
First, Ambiguity of SDF Roles and the U.S. Hesitation of a Role Expansion. U.S.: Hesitation of a Role Expansion While the DOD recognizes that most non-military government institutions and the public expect the military to contribute further in homeland security and civil support, it has been hesitant to expand its civil protection roles due to the ongoing war in Iraq and Afghanistan. Up to now, the DOD has neither clarified whether it will expand its homeland security and civil support roles nor clarified the extent of an expansion if it chooses to do so. Japan: Ambiguity of SDF Roles The ambiguous civil protection roles of the SDF, as stipulated in the Armed Attack Situation Response Law and the Civil Protection Law, have been the main cause for rift between the people's expectations towards the SDF and the recognition on part of the SDF.
Secondly, Lack of Human and Material Resources. U.S.: Dispute about a duty of a federal army, the reserve, and National Guard Although homeland security represents importance-increased mission for the military, no other missions are being removed or downgraded to accommodate this task. While fighting the Long War in Iraq and Afghanistan, would it be possible for the DOD to allocate additional human resources to focus on homeland security and civil support? Japan: Lack of Human and Material Resources The SDF has been faced with serious human and material resource shortages due to the severe public financial situations. Despite the enactment of the Civil Protection Law, Japan has failed to organize a new force that could focus on civil protection. This is due to the ambiguity of SDF roles in the homeland security and civil defense, as well as defense budget shortage.
Thirdly, Anxiety to Cooperate with Related Organization. In future warfare or terrorist attacks, the military will need to carry out their own missions while respecting the roles of thousands of other partners in a very short time.
Next, Potential Solutions to Homeland Security Issues First, Clarifying the Role of the Military. Today’s advanced technologies have necessitated the two militaries to engage in civil crisis at an early stage including situations such as during a CBRNE attack or a large-scale contagious. The U.S. and Japanese militaries will need to reconsider and expand their roles in such cases since their organizations are among the few to possess with high-tech equipment and advanced command & control capabilities. However, resource shortage will continue. Both the U.S and Japan may need to improve the capacity building measures of non-military organizations. As for the U.S., expanding the tours and roles of reserves may be a part of the solution. In the case of Japan specifically, it needs to clarify its SDF roles in homeland security and civil support, and review its defense budget and organization.
Secondly, Improving the Capacity Building Measures of Non-Military Organizations. Local authorities need to improve their capacity building measures and the military on the other hand needs to assist their efforts such as in the command post exercise and formulation of the Civil Protection Plan. NGOs and the volunteers can respond to incidents frequently exceeds the resources of government organizations, and support response efforts in many ways. Since a peacetime military needs to support their activity.
Conclusion 1. The U.S.and Japanese militaries will need to reconsider and expand their roles in such cases since their organizations are among the few to possess high-tech equipment and advanced command & control capabilities. 2. The U.S. and Japan need to improve the capacity building measures of non-military organizations.
In the United States, there are various discussions about the disaster dispatch of a federal army to hurricane Katarina. For instance, Japan has the know-how to dispatch the SDF without hesitation in disasters from the lessons learned from the Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) Earthquake. Therefore, the SDF may be able to offer the know-how to dispatch the units to disaster relief quickly without hesitation, to the U.S. militaries. U.S.forces and the SDF already began to build the experience in assisting others in the aftermath of large-scale disasters. For example, the two militaries have cooperated in activities of international disaster-relief operations after the large-scale earthquake off Indonesia’s Sumatra Island and consequent tsunami in Indian Ocean from the very early stage. In the future, U.S.forces and the SDF can continue to share and exchange their know-how in civil support and homeland security as well as in international disaster relief, and can cooperate in response to an increasing needs for the military to play important roles in humanitarian relief elsewhere.
This concludes my presentation. Thank you very much for your attention. I hope this research will be of great use to future U.S.-Japan security studies. Do you have any questions ?