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Iconference 2018 stiller trkulja-digital literacy session-27-03

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This paper examines the digital skill level of refugee migrants in Germany while pursuing a job, a training position, or following an educational path on the Internet. For that, we conducted a lab experiment designing tasks with varying difficulty to position the digital competencies of refugee migrants on the digital skill scale. Problems with operational and formal skills were observed whereas fact-based information seeking was often successfully completed. The most complex tasks could not be completed by any participant. The study contributes to a better understanding of the varying degrees of digital skills of refugee migrants. Results can be used to design targeted courses and curricula that address digital deficits. Further training in this area will enable refugee migrants to benefit from the many opportunities that arise through the Internet and its services, improving their chances for labor market integration.

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Iconference 2018 stiller trkulja-digital literacy session-27-03

  1. 1. Assessing Digital Skills of Refugee Migrants during Job Orientation in Germany Juliane Stiller & Violeta Trkulja Berlin School of Library and Information Science, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany March 27, 2018 - iConference 2018, Sheffield, UK „Querz“ by montillon.a (CC BY 2.0)
  2. 2. Agenda ○ Situation in Germany ○ Digital Skills: Concepts & Definitions ○ Methods ○ Results ○ Discussion & Future Work 2
  3. 3. 3 ○ In 2015 over one million refugee migrants sought asylum in Germany ○ Integrating refugee migrants is the ultimate challenge for public authorities ○ Own experience of voluntarily teaching German, support in overcoming bureaucratic obstacles and apply for jobs ○ Support refugees to acquire the needed skills for becoming actively participating members of the society Situation in Germany
  4. 4. Why is this important? ○ Integration activities in Germany for refugee migrants are not designed for job orientation ○ Untapped potential of refugee migrants’ qualifications ○ Job-seeking activities increasingly move online ○ Digital skills are necessary to be able to enter the labor market 4
  5. 5. Analyzing Digital Skills ○ Understand deficits in finding, processing and analyzing information on the Internet ○ Benefit from the opportunities that arise through the Internet ○ Improve chances for labour market integration ○ Contribute to forced migration research ○ Design targeted courses to develop digital skills 5
  6. 6. Digital Skills Concepts & Definitions
  7. 7. Definitions ○ Digital skills, digital literacy, information literacy, digital competences … ○ According to Iordache et al. (2017) we define: ○ Digital Knowledge: knowledge about digital tools ○ Digital Skills: ability to apply this knowledge ○ Digital Competence: use these sets of knowledge and skills for one’s personal development 7
  8. 8. Digital Skills ... ○ Are indispensable for the work of tomorrow through increased use of ICT ○ OECD (2016) recognizes a need for ○ specialist skills to programme, develop applications and manage networks ○ generic skills to use such technologies for professional purposes ○ complementary skills to perform new tasks associated to the use of ICTs at work, e.g.: information-processing, self-direction, problem-solving and communication 8 What are digital skills and how can they be measured?
  9. 9. Digital Literacy Frameworks ○ Iordache et al. (2017) examined the commonalities and differences of 13 Digital Literacy Frameworks ○ 5 groups of competencies: ○ Operational, technical, and formal ○ Information and cognition ○ Digital communication ○ Digital content creation ○ Strategic → explicitly mention the framework of van Deursen and van Dijk 9
  10. 10. Internet Skill Scale (v. Deursen, 2010; v. Dijk & v. Deursen, 2014; v. Deursen u.a., 2015) strategic Developing an orientation toward a particular goal, taking the correct actions & making the right decisions to reach this goal 10 Defining the information problem, choosing a search system, & search queries, selecting & evaluating information sources information operational Recognizing and operating the Internet service’s toolbars, buttons, and menus formal Navigating the Internet by using hyperlinks embedded in different formats
  11. 11. Methods 11
  12. 12. Method ○ Lab-study with 7 participants in August 2017 ○ Survey on internet activities ○ 9 tasks for digital skill assessment ○ Participants: ○ Between age of 18-33 from Syria and Iraq ○ 6 male and 1 female participants ○ Level of German language skills = B1 and higher ○ Status of residency with long-term perspective ○ High educational level (academics, students) 12 Purposeful sample to include participants that fulfill formal requirements (as envisioned by the German government) to enter German workforce
  13. 13. Experiment design ○ Study duration: 2,5h ○ Survey on internet activities ○ 9 online tasks for determining skill level on internet skill scale ○ from easy to hard task ○ related to job search activities ○ task structure similar to tasks of v. Deursen & v Dijk, 2009 ○ time recording for each task (visible to participants) ○ screen recording 13
  14. 14. Nine tasks operational 1. Download and save a file formal 2. Use specified site search and remove filter 3. Find address of jobcenter with specified website strategic 8. Find three jobs with highest salary during training and career 9. Match perks for employees to three given companies information 4. Find information on a specified website 5. Determine standard size of an application photo 6. Determine the minimum wage per hour 7. Determine minimum vacation days
  15. 15. Results 15
  16. 16. High level of Internet affinity ○ All participants used laptops and mobile phone to access the Internet in their daily lives 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Administrating Contracts Communicating with public authorities Finding information and reading news Shopping Using Social networks (Facebook, Twitter) Listening to music, watching videos Which activities do you use the Internet for?
  17. 17. How would you rate your skills? 17 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Programming Creating content for blogs and websites Installing of Software Searching and finding Information in the… Using webbrowsers like Chrome, Firefox Using and participating in social networks Using Internet search engines Downloading and saving files No skills some skills average skills good skills very good skills
  18. 18. Results of the online tasks 4 1 7 6 4 5 6 18 0 0 operational 1. Download and save a file formal 2. Use specified site search and remove filter 3. Find address of jobcenter with specified website strategic 8. Find three jobs with highest salary during training and career 9. Match perks for employees to three given companies information 4. Find information on a specified website 5. Determine standard size of an application photo 6. Determine the minimum wage per hour 7. Determine minimum vacation days
  19. 19. Results ○ only basic search strategies ○ information seeking process is inefficient, advanced search functionalities not used ○ lack of website orientation, understanding of structure of website ○ fact-based information seeking was successful, whereas strategic searches was rather unsuccessful ○ perceived skills were higher than measured skills ○ no observation of information source evaluation 19
  20. 20. Discussion & Future Work 20
  21. 21. Some learnings ○ Countdown timer was stressing participants ○ Participants were under pressure to “perform well” ○ Chose real-world scenarios in job seeking but they were artificial to the way refugee migrants normally find work (via personal networks) ○ Concept of choosing work you like or that matches your talents 21
  22. 22. Discussion ○ “Cultural information space” and digital literacy are connected ○ Influence of language proficiency on understanding and successfully operating the tasks ○ Teaching concepts are missing that convey digital skills and the cultural information space 22
  23. 23. Future work ○ Evaluate videos and analyse the applied search strategies ○ Conduct an extended lab-based experiment with interviews and surveys (OCLC/ALISE Research Grant 2018) ○ Establish a training program for the acquisition of digital skills for refugees 23
  24. 24. References van Deursen, A. J. A. M., & van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2009). Improving digital skills for the use of online public information and services. Government Information Quarterly, 26(2), 333– 340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.giq.2008.11.002 Iordache, C., Mariën, I., & Baelden, D. (2017). Developing Digital Skills and Competences: A Quick-Scan Analysis of 13 Digital Literacy Models. Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, 9 (1), 6-30, doi:10.14658/pupj-ijse-2017-1-2 OECD (2016), "Skills for a Digital World: 2016 Ministerial Meeting on the Digital Economy Background Report", OECD Digital Economy Papers, No. 250, OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5jlwz83z3wnw-en van Deursen, A. J. A. M., & van Dijk, J. A. G. M. (2014). Digital Skills - Unlocking the Information Society. Palgrave Macmillan US. Abgerufen von http://www.palgrave.com/br/book/9781137437020 van Deursen, A. J. A. M., Helsper, E. J., & Eynon, R. (2015). Development and validation of the Internet Skills Scale (ISS). Information, Communication & Society, 19(6), 804–823. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1078834 Deursen, A. J. A. M. van. (2010). Internet skills : vital assets in an information society. https://doi.org/10.3990/1.9789036530866 24
  25. 25. 25Questions ○ Contact juliane.stiller@ibi.hu-berlin.de violeta.trkulja@ibi.hu-berlin.de

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