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Open BIM: bridging the gap between BIM and GIS

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Building Information Modelling is changing the way the engineering, architecture and construction industry is operating.
The availability of BIM models provide a very rich source of data but due to the use of specific data models and standards integrating this data with GIS introduces challenges.
In this presentation we introduce BIM and the major differences with GIS, we give an overview of the standards in the BIM end Geo domain, introduce the major open source BIM tools and demonstrate the integration of BIM models in a GIS environment.

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Open BIM: bridging the gap between BIM and GIS

  1. 1. www.gim.be Open BIM: bridging the gap between BIM and GIS Brussels, 24 October 2019 Stijn Goedertier
  2. 2. BIMy – BIM in the city • ITEA research project: 2018 – 2021 • Belgian and Turkish partners • open platform • for sharing, storing and filtering BIMs among different BIM owners/users • integrating and visualizing them in their built and natural environment Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 3
  3. 3. BIM versus GIS GIS • lower scale • geospatial CRS • surfacic (2D) • Topological relations • Surveying as source • Standards: GML (OGC), … • variety: vector data, coverages, point clouds, orthoimagery, elevation models, …BIM • higher scale • engineering CRS • volumetric (3D) • element composition • human design as source • standards: DWG, IFC (BuildingSMART) • vector data (documents) Source: BuildingSmart, Thomas Liebich Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 4
  4. 4. Standards – Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) IFC is an open, vendor-neutral data standard Standardised by the buildingSMART consortium, also legal ISO standard (ISO 16739) IFC data model defined using EXPRESS modelling language (ISO 10303) IFC data in STEP or STEP-XML format (ISO 10303) IFC defines types like IfcSpace, IfcBuildingStorey, IfcWall, etc. Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 5 Source: buildingSMART
  5. 5. Standards – Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) IFC adopts the STEP geometry and topology model from ISO 10303-42, using  Constructive Solid Geometry (e.g. union operations)  Boundary Representation (e.g. extrusion operations) See also: FME CSGBuilder, CSGEvaluator Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 6 Constructive Solid Geometry (Source: wikipedia)
  6. 6. Standards – CityGML • CityGML is a data model for virtual 3D city models • GML 3 application schema • OGC Standard • Application Domain Extensions (ADEs) • CityGML 3.0 in the making (with CityJSON encoding) BIM-naar-GIS dataverwerking - FLAGIS - 11 December 2018 7
  7. 7. Standards – CityGML GML defines a 3D geometry model used in application profiles like CityGML, InfraGML, etc. 3D geometry types in GML:  Surface: a planar area in 3D space  Solid: a volume closed in 3D space, defined by connected surfaces Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 8 Source: FME SurfaceBuilder Source: FME TinGenerator source: http://en.wiki.quality.sig3d.o rg
  8. 8. CityGML 3.0 – Geometry model Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 9 class Core - Geometry and LoD concept «type» Geometry root::GM_Object GM_Primitive «type» Geometric primitive:: GM_Point AbstractCityObject «FeatureType» AbstractSpace AbstractCityObject «FeatureType» AbstractThematicSurface «FeatureType» AbstractPhysicalSpace «FeatureType» AbstractOccupiedSpace GM_Primitive «type» Geometric primitive:: GM_Solid GM_MultiPrimitive «type» Geometric aggregates:: GM_MultiSurface GM_MultiPrimitive «type» Geometric aggregates:: GM_MultiCurve Core module - Geometry and LoD concept «FeatureType» ImplicitGeometry «Property» + libraryObject: URI [0..1] + mimeType: Code [0..1] + transformationMatrix: TransformationMatrix4x4 [0..1] * +lod1MultiSurface «Property» 0..1 * +lod3TerrainIntersectionCurve «Property» 0..1 * +lod3MultiSurface «Property» 0..1 * +lod2TerrainIntersectionCurve «Property» 0..1 * +referencePoint «Property» 1 * +lod2MultiSurface «Property» 0..1 * +lod3Solid «Property» 0..1 * +lod0MultiSurface «Property» 0..1 * +lod3MultiCurve «Property» 0..1 +bounds «Property»* +boundary «Property» * * +lod3ImplicitRepresentation «Property» 0..1 * +relativeGMLGeometry «Property» 0..1 * +lod1ImplicitRepresentation «Property»0..1 * +lod1TerrainIntersectionCurve «Property» 0..1 * +lod2ImplicitRepresentation «Property» 0..1 * +lod1Solid «Property» 0..1 * +lod2MultiCurve «Property» 0..1 * +lod0Point «Property»0..1 * +lod3MultiSurface «Property» 0..1 * +lod2Solid «Property» 0..1 * +lod2MultiSurface «Property» 0..1 * +lod0MultiCurve «Property» 0..1
  9. 9. Open issues • Tool support for IFC • Information delivery specifications for georeferencing BIMs • Inevitable information loss when converting IFC to CityGML Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 10
  10. 10. Storage – Postgres/PostGIS 3D geometries in PostGIS: POINT, LINE, POLYGON, TIN, POLYHEDRAL surface 3D functions in PostGIS: ST_3DClosestPoint, ST_3DDistance, ST_3DDWithin, ST_3DDFullyWithin, ST_3DIntersects, ST_3DLongestLine, ST_3DMaxDistance, ST_3DShortestLine 3DCityDB: CityGML data model for PostGIS, 3DCityDB importer- exporter Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 11
  11. 11. Storage – BIMServer IFC data store: (IFC2x3, IFC4) based on BerkleyDB Stores: native geometry ánd triangular meshes ReST API Plugins for visualisation, management, model merging, model checking, etc: BIMviews, BIMSurfer, etc.… http://bimserver.org/ Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 12
  12. 12. Storage – GeoRocket GeoRocket is a "high-performance data store for geospatial vector data". GeoRocket splits any XML or GeoJSON file up in chunks, indexes them using ElasticSearch, and is capable of responding to (spatial) queries by merging those chunks back together. https://georocket.io/ Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 13
  13. 13. Transformation – IfcOpenShell Geometry engine: uses Open CASCADE to convert IFC B-Rep geometry into triangulated meshes. Plug-ins for Blender, BIMserver, 3DS Max, etc. Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 14
  14. 14. Transformation – CGAL Geometry types: point, line, 3D polyhedral surfaces, TINs Operations: • Afine transformations • 3D mesh generation, • mesh approximation (simplification) • … Qt5 visualisation Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 15
  15. 15. Transformation - SFCGAL geometry types aligned with OGC Simple Features Access standards: Points, LineStrings, Polygons, TriangulatedSurfaces, PolyhedralSurfaces, GeometryCollections, Solids Operations: WKT reading and writing, Intersection operations and predicates, Convex hull computation, Tessellation, Extrusion, Area and distance computation, Minkovski sums, Contour offsets, Straight skeleton generation Available for PostGIS http://www.sfcgal.org/ Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 16
  16. 16. Desktop – FreeCAD 3D parametric modeller via Arch Workbench module Open CASCADE Built-in support for STEP (ifc) Import/export: ifc, dae, obj, https://www.freecadweb.org Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 17
  17. 17. Visualisation - BIMSurfer Requires BIMserver backend WebGL 2.0 Focus on performance https://github.com/opensourceBIM /BIMsurfer Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 18
  18. 18. Visualisation – CesiumJS • An open specification by AGI that allows for efficiently streaming 3D geospatial data on the Web • OGC Community Standard • 3d syntax based on glTF • Each tile desribed by one JSON file with CRS, attribute, and refinement information Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 19
  19. 19. Conclusion Open-source building blocks available. Let’s build! Open BIM: open-source solutions for BIM-GIS integration 20

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