Results of the Error Analysis• Verb Tenses- Most difficulty• Subject Verb Agreement- difficulty• Adjective and Adverbs- difficultyExamples of errors:• “She walk to the store”, Ann forgot to add “ed” to the end of walk.• “He pick up his sister at the store”. Ann again forgot to add the “ed” to the end of pick.
French Language History• The French Language is spoken by over 70 million people in 5 different countries: – France – Belgium – Switzerland – Africa – Canada (“French Language,” n.d.)
French Language History• French has served as an international language in diplomacy and commerce for many years.• French is still used today by the United Nations (“French Language,” n.d.)(“French Language,” n.d.)
Distinctive Features of the French Language• Two distinctive sounds: – Nasal vowels – Uvular r• Three accents over vowels – The acute (´) over e – The Grave (`) over a and e – The Circumflex (^) over a, e, i, o, and u. (“French Language,” n.d.)
Distinctive Features of the French Language• When an accent is visible it means: – The pronunciation of a vowel – To distinguish homonyms – To mark the discarding of the setter s from a word• There is also a Cedilla found under the letter c (ç): – It is pronounced as an s usually before the vowels e and i. – The letter c without the Cedilla is pronounced as k and is in front of a, o, u, and consonants. (“French Language,” n.d.)
Distinctive Features of the French Language• There are many silent letters in the French language. – The last consonant in most words is silent. – An x or s at the end of a noun to signal a plural is also silent. (“French Language,” n.d.)
The Phonology Comparison Between English and French• Both English and French use a Latin alphabet – English uses a Latin alphabet that consists of 26 letters and ligatures. – French uses a Latin alphabet that consists of 26 letters, 2 ligatures, and 5 diacritics. (“French Alphabet,” n.d.)• Vowels – Both English and French have five vowels • In French: a, e, i, o, and u with 12 distinctive sounds. • In English: a, e, I, o, and u with 20 distinctive sounds. (“Descriptive Grammar,” n.d.)
The Phonology Comparison Between English and French• Diphthongs – English has eight diphthongs; here are three of them: ([ai], [au], and [oi] – French also has diphthongs; the most common ones being: the letter “i” before a vowel, the “u” before an “i”, and the letters “oi” in combination (“English Vowel,” n.d.)• Consonant Sounds – Many of the French Consonant sounds are very similar to English except: • The “r” sound which is pronounced in the back of the mouth • The letters “k” and “w” are not used in French words. (World Language,” n.d.)
The Syntax and Morphology Comparison between English and French• Syntax – The Syntax is similar in both English and French • They both use a Subject-Verb-Object formation. • In French, the indirect object is marked by the presence of a preposition and the direct object is marked by the lack of a preposition.• Articles – In English, articles (definite, indefinite, and partitive) or determiners are usually absent and in French they are found after the noun. (World Language,” n.d.)
The Syntax and Morphology Comparison between English and French• Adjectives – In both English and French they are usually found after the noun. – However in French, a few exceptions like the ones that fall into the categories of age, beauty, goodness, and size.• Adverbs – In both English and French the are found next to the word they modify.• Pronouns – In French are used a lot in sentences. – In English are usually omitted. (World Language,” n.d.)
The Syntax and Morphology Comparison between English and French• Tenses – In French there are 8 tenses and four moods. – In English there are a similar number of tenses depending on the article you read. – There are no continuous forms in French.• Morphology – French Language is more inflected than English. – Also in French, all words must agree with each other in gender and number, unlike in English. (“World Language,” n.d.)
The Writing Comparison between English and French• English uses a Latin Alphabet• French uses the same Latin Alphabet but with diacritic marks.• Five Diacritic Marks(“World Language,” n.d.)
The Writing Comparison between English and French• 5 Diacritic Marks – accent aigu (like é) – accent grave (like è): when used on the letter a and u separate homophones. – accent circonflexe (like ê): used to note a long vowel. – trémas (like ë): used to separate the sounds of two vowels. – cédille (like ç): cedilla added to a c (before vowels other than e and i) will change a k sound to an s sound (“World Language,” n.d.)
Instructional Implications• Anns errors definitely comes from confusing L1 with her L2.• There are a few activities that could help Ann practice what she is having problems with: – Cloze activities for verb tenses, subject verb agreement, and adjective and adverbs. – Computer websites that will help her practice verb tenses, subject verb agreement, and adjective and adverbs.
References• Descriptive Grammar of the Standard French Language. (n.d). Retrieved from• http://www.orbilat.com/Languages/French/Grammar/index.html.• English Vowel Sounds. (n.d). Retrieved from• http://www.eslgold.com/pronunciation/english_vowel_sounds.html.• French Alphabet. (n.d). Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_alphabet.• French Language. (n.d). Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0819661.html.• World Language Fair for Educators. Welcome to the French Website. (n.d). Retrieved fromhttp://lerc.educ.ubc.ca/LERC/courses/489/worldlang/french/frame_1.htm