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  1. 1. Cardiovascular System and the Procedures Sirinthip Thanomphon June 23, 2010
  2. 2. Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System <ul><li>It is also called Circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><li>The major function of the circular system is to maintain the distribution of blood throughout the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It is composed of the heart and the blood vessels-arteries, capillaries, and veins. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Circulatory System <ul><li>It is composed of two parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The pulmonary circulatory , between the heart and lungs, transport deoxygenated blood to the lungs to get oxygen and then back to the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Systemic circulatory , carried oxygenated blood away from the heart to the tissues and cells and then back to the heart. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Heart Chambers <ul><li>It is divided into four chambers- two atria ( upper chambers) and two ventricles ( lower chambers). </li></ul><ul><li>These chambers are divided into right and left sides. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Blood Vessels <ul><li>There are three types of blood vessels; </li></ul><ul><li>1. Artery : is the large, thick-wall and carry the blood away from the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Capillary: are the network of tiny blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Vein: Carrying blood back to the heart. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How to Take Good Care of Your Heart <ul><li>Every single day you hear of people having heart attacks or suffering sometime of ailment that weakens their heart. </li></ul><ul><li>As the 2007, heart disease is the leading cause of dead in the United state. </li></ul><ul><li>So it is good to check your heart and health because the earlier detected is the better chance to be survive. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Heart <ul><li>It is a muscular pump that made up of cardiac muscle fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>It has four chambers. </li></ul><ul><li>Beating average of 60-100 beats per minute. </li></ul><ul><li>It is located in the mediastinum. </li></ul><ul><li>The tip of the heart is called apex . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>“ There are a number of medical procedures and health issues associated with heart disease”. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For example… </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Thrombolytic Therapy <ul><li>It is the progress in using medicine to dissolve blood clot. </li></ul><ul><li>The medicines are injected into a blood vessel to dissolve clots and restore blood flow. </li></ul><ul><li>The picture shows lumen of the coronary artery is almost completely occluded by recent thrombus. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Thrombolytic Drugs Include: <ul><li>Tissue plasminogen activator- t-PA – alteplase (Activase) </li></ul><ul><li>Reteplase (Retavase) </li></ul><ul><li>Tenecteplase (TNKase) </li></ul><ul><li>Anistreplase (Eminase) </li></ul><ul><li>Streptokinase (Kabikinase, Streptase) </li></ul><ul><li>Urokinase (Abbokinase) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Precaution <ul><li>For thrombolytic therapy to be effective in treating stroke or heart attack, prompt medical attention is very important. </li></ul><ul><li>It may cause bleeding. </li></ul><ul><li>Women who pregnant should consult the physician before get a treatment. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cardiac Scan <ul><li>It is a test that uses an x-ray machine to take clear, detailed pictures the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>During a cardiac CT scan, the x-ray machine will move around your body in a circle and take a picture of each part of your heart. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What Does a Cardiac CT Detect and Evaluate? <ul><li>Problems in the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with the aorta. </li></ul><ul><li>Aneurysm which are diseased areas of a weak blood vessel wall that bulge out. </li></ul><ul><li>Blood clots in the lungs. </li></ul><ul><li>Pericardial disease that occurs in the pericardium, a sac around your heart. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Risk and Concern of Cardiac Scan <ul><li>There is a very small chance that cardiac scan will cause cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people feel side effects from the contrast dye that’s used during the cardiac scan. </li></ul><ul><li>People who have asthma or emphysema may have breathing problems during cardiac scan if they’re given beta blockers to slow down their heart rates. </li></ul>
  15. 15. A Stress Testing <ul><li>Sometimes called a treadmill test or exercise test. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps a doctor find out how well the heart handles work. </li></ul><ul><li>A stress test can be used to test for heart disease. </li></ul>
  16. 16. About the Procedures <ul><li>The person is hooked up to equipment to monitor the heart. </li></ul><ul><li>Walking slowly in place on a treadmill, then the speed is increased for a faster pace. </li></ul><ul><li>The person may be asked to breath into a tube for a couple of minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>The person can stop the test at any time if needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards the person will sit or lie down to have their heart and blood pressure checked. </li></ul>
  17. 17. A Stress Test is Useful for… <ul><li>Diagnose coronary artery disease </li></ul><ul><li>Diagnose a possible heart-related cause of symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath or lightheadedness </li></ul><ul><li>Determine a safe level of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Check the effectiveness of procedures done to improve coronary artery circulation in patients with coronary artery disease </li></ul><ul><li>Predict risk of dangerous heart-related conditions such as a heart attack. </li></ul>
  18. 19. References; <ul><li>  Fremgen, Bonnie F., and Suzanne S. Frucht. Medical Terminology: a Living Language . Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009. Print. </li></ul><ul><li>Marieb, Elaine Nicpon, and Katja Hoehn. Human Anatomy & Physiology . San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2010. Print. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Reference Sites <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  20. 21. Thank you…