Lymphatic and immune systems#6presentation


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Lymphatic and immune systems#6presentation

  1. 1. Lymphatic and Immune Systems Sirinthip Thanomphon June 22, 2010
  2. 2. Lymphatic System
  3. 3. Consisting of Three Parts… <ul><li>1. Lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><li>- Is an elaborate system of drainage vessels that collect the excess protein-containing interstitial fluid and return to bloodstream. </li></ul><ul><li>- Once interstitial fluid enters the lymphatic, it is called “ lymph ”. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2. Lymph </li></ul><ul><li>- Is the fluid contained in those vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lymph Nodes </li></ul><ul><li>- is a small circular ball-shaped organ of the immune system, distributed widely throughout the body and linked by lymphatic vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>- It acts as filters or traps for foreign particles </li></ul>
  5. 6. Other Organs in Immunity System <ul><li>Tonsils </li></ul><ul><li>- They are collection of lymphatic tissue located on each side of the throat or pharynx. </li></ul><ul><li>- There are three sets of tonsils: palatine tonsils, pharyngeal tonsils, lingual tonsils. </li></ul><ul><li>- All tonsils contain a large number of leukocytes and act as filters to protect the body. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Other Organs in Immunity System (cont) <ul><li>Spleen </li></ul><ul><li>- It locates in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen. </li></ul><ul><li>- Consisting of lymphatic tissues that is highly infiltrated with blood vessels. </li></ul><ul><li>- it filters out and destroys old red blood cells, recycles the iron, and also stores some of the blood supply for the body. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Other Organs in Immunity System (cont) <ul><li>Thymus Gland </li></ul><ul><li>- It locates in the upper portion of the mediastinum. </li></ul><ul><li>- It is essential for the proper development of the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>- It assists the body with the immune function and the development of antibodies. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Overview Functional of Immune and Lymphatic Systems <ul><li>The immune system is part of our general body defenses against disease. </li></ul><ul><li>It functions by recognizing viruses and bacteria and converting that information into hormones that activate the immune process. </li></ul><ul><li>The function of the lymph system is to remove excess tissue fluids that do not return through the circulatory system. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the lymph system is responsible for absorbing protein form this fluid and returning it to the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Although our defensive system is simple, there are also problems that can occur. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Sarcoidosis <ul><li>It is a disease that results from a specific type of inflammation of tissues of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>It can appear in almost any body organ, but it starts most often in the lungs or lymph nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>The cause of sarcoidosis is unknown but thought to be associated with an abnormal immune response. </li></ul>
  10. 11. What are symptoms of sarcoidosis? <ul><li>Dyspnea (shortness of breath). </li></ul><ul><li>Erythema nodosum (red bump) on the face, arms, or shins. </li></ul><ul><li>inflammation of the eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Fatique and lack of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>A dry hacking cough. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Aches and pain. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Diagnosis <ul><li>X-ray </li></ul><ul><li>CT scan </li></ul><ul><li>PET scan </li></ul><ul><li>CT-guided biopsy </li></ul><ul><li>Endoscopic ultrasound with FNA of mediastinal lymph nodes(EBUS FNA) </li></ul><ul><li>mediastinoscopy </li></ul>
  12. 13. Treatment and Prognosis <ul><li>Using Corticosteroid drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent checkups are important so that the doctor can monitor the illness and, if necessary, adjust the treatment. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Allergy <ul><li>Is a disorder of the immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Allergic reactions occur to normally harmless environmental substances known as allergens. </li></ul><ul><li>Many types of allergy such as food, non-food proteins, genetic basic, or hygiene hypothesis etc. </li></ul>
  14. 15. What are the Symptoms? <ul><li>Due to different types of allergy so the symptom are vary such as; </li></ul><ul><li>- Allergic rhinitis are: sneezing, coughing, itching, or watery eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>- Asthma are: a feeling of tightness in the chest, breathlessness, difficulty inhaling and exhaling, or noisy breathing (&quot;wheezing&quot;). </li></ul><ul><li>- Eczema, contact dermatitis and urticaria are : red and itching skin, inflamed skin, and welts. </li></ul>
  15. 16. General Symptoms of a Common Allergic Reaction <ul><li>Rapidly worsening symptoms (or previously severe reactions to this allergen). </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling of tissues such as lips or joints. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of consciousness. </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Itching of the skin, mouth, throat, and eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>Nausea and vomiting. </li></ul><ul><li>chest pain and tightness. </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating. </li></ul>
  16. 17. How to Treat Allergies? <ul><li>Avoidance of the allergens such as using air filters or using a dehumidifier. </li></ul><ul><li>Medication commonly used are Decongestants, Steroid nasal sprays, Steroid nasal sprays, or Cromoglycate (Nalcrom) that related agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Immunotherapy . </li></ul>
  17. 18. Hodgkin’s Disease (HD) <ul><li>Hodgkin's Disease is one of a group of cancers called &quot;lymphomas.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphoma refers to cancers that develop in the lymphatic system. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells in the lymphatic system become abnormal. </li></ul><ul><li>The disease usually spreads from the lymph nodes in the neck, chest, and armpits to the spleen, and then to the liver or nodes bordering the aorta. </li></ul>
  18. 19. What causes that? <ul><li>Sex: most likely happens in men than women. </li></ul><ul><li>Ages: Between 15–40 and over 55 are higher risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Family history. </li></ul><ul><li>History of infectious mononucleosis or infection with Epstein-Barr virus, a causative agent of mononucleosis. </li></ul><ul><li>Weakened immune system, including infection with HIV. </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged use of human growth hormone. </li></ul><ul><li>Exotoxins. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Night sweats </li></ul><ul><li>Chills </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite and weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>loss of bladder and/or bowel control </li></ul><ul><li>Itching numbness in the arms and legs and loss of strength </li></ul><ul><li>Pain after drinking alcoholic beverages </li></ul><ul><li>Swelling of one or more lymph nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Coughing or shortness of breath </li></ul>
  20. 21. Complication <ul><li>As Hodgkin's lymphoma progresses, the immune system becomes less effective at fighting infection. </li></ul><ul><li>May have common infections caused by bacteria and unusual infections. </li></ul><ul><li>Tumors may also begin to form. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>The lymphatic and immune systems are a complex of organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly specialized cells which work together to clear infection from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, the basic of defense mechanism for the body is good taking care of yourself! </li></ul>
  22. 23. Reference Sites <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>