A Time of ChangeLondon becomes most important city in EuropePopulation of London expands from two millionto six millionShift from ownership of land to modern urbaneconomyImpact of industrialismIncrease in wealthWorld’s foremost imperial powerVictorian people suffered from anxiety, a senseof being displaced persons in an age oftechnological advances.
Queen Victoria and the Victorian TemperRuled England from1837-1901Exemplifies Victorianqualities: earnestness,moral responsibility,domestic proprietyThe Victorian Period wasan age of transitionAn age characterized byenergy and high moralpurpose
The Georgian Period1911-1936A reaction against theachievements of theVictorian Period
The Early Victorian Period 1830-1848In 1830, the Liverpool andManchester Railway opened,the first public railway line inthe world.By 1850, railway linesconnected England’s majorcitiesBy 1900 , England had 15,195lines of railroad and anunderground rail systembeneath London.The train transformedEngland’s landscape,supported the growth ofcommerce, and shrank thedistance between cities.
The Reform Bill of 1832Transformed Englishclass structureExtended the right tovote to all malesowning propertySecond Reform Billpassed in 1867Extended right to voteto working class
The Time of Troubles 1830’s and 1840’sUnemploymentPovertyRiotingSlums in large citiesWorking conditionsfor women andchildren were terrible
Impact on Victorian LiteratureThe novelists of the 1840’s and the 1850’sresponded to the industrial and politicalscene: Charles Kingsley- The Water Babies Elizabeth Gaskell – North and South; Life of Charlotte Bronte Benjamin Disraeli- Sybil
The Mid-Victorian Period 1848-1870A time of prosperityA time of improvementA time of stabilityA time of optimism
The Crystal PalaceErected to display theexhibits of modernindustry and science atthe 1851 Great ExhibitionOne of the first buildingsconstructed according tomodern architecturalprinciplesThe building symbolizedthe triumphs of Victorianindustry
The British EmpireMany Between 1853 and1880, large scaleimmigration to BritishcoloniesIn 1857, Parliament tookover the government ofIndia and Queen Victoriabecame empress of India.Many British people sawthe expansion of empireas a moral responsibility.Missionaries spreadChristianity in India, Asia,and Africa.
Religious DebateEvangelical movementemphasized spiritualtransformation of theindividual by conversionand a moral Christian life.Their view of life wasidentical with Dissenters.The High Churchemphasized theimportance of tradition,ritual, and authorityThe Oxford Movementled by NewmanThe Broad Church wasopen to modern ideas.
UtilitarianismDerived from the ideas ofJeremy Bentham and hisdisciple James Mill, thefather of John Stuart MillRationalist test of valueThe greatest good for thegreatest numberUtilitarianism failed torecognize people’sspiritual needs
Challenges to Religious BeliefScience Huxley Darwin- the Origin of Species and The Descent of ManHigher Criticism Examination of the Bible as a mere text of history Source studies Geology Astronomy
The Late Victorian Period 1870-1901Decay of Victorian valuesBritish imperialismBoer WarIrish questionBismarcks Germany became a rival powerUnited States became a rival powerEconomic depression led to mass immigrationSocialism
The 1890’sBreakdown of VictorianvaluesMood of melancholyAesthetic movementThe beginning of themodern movement inliteratureAubrey Beardsley’sdrawingsProse of George Mooreand Max BeerbohmPoetry of Ernest Dowson
The Role of WomenThe Woman QuestionChanging conditions of women’swork created by the IndustrialRevolutionThe Factory Acts (1802-78) –regulations of the conditions oflabor in mines and factories The Custody Act (1839) – gave amother the right to petition thecourt for access to her minorchildren and custody of childrenunder seven and later sixteen.The Divorce and MatrimonialCauses Act – established a civildivorce courtMarried Women’s Property Acts
Educational Opportunities for WomenFirst women’s collegeestablished in 1848 inLondon.By the end ofVictoria’s reign,women could takedegrees at twelveuniversity colleges.
Working Conditions for Women Bad working conditions and underemployment drove thousands of women into prostitution. The only occupation at which an unmarried middle-class woman could earn a living and maintain some claim to gentility was that of a governess.
Victorian Women and the HomeVictorian society waspreoccupied with the verynature of women.Protected and enshrinedwithin the home, her rolewas to create a place ofpeace where man couldtake refuge from thedifficulties of modern life.
Literacy, Publication, and Reading By the end of the century, literacy was almost universal. Compulsory national education required to the age of ten. Due to technological advances, an explosion of things to read, including newspapers, periodicals, and books. Growth of the periodical Novels and short fiction were published iin serial form. The reading public expected literature to illuminate social problems.
The Victorian NovelThe novel was the dominant formin Victorian literature.Victorian novels seek to representa large and comprehensive socialworld, with a variety of classes.Victorian novels are realistic.Major theme is the place of theindividual in society, the aspirationof the hero or heroine for love orsocial position.The protagonist’s search forfulfillment is emblematic of thehuman condition.For the first time, women weremajor writers: the Brontes.Elizabeth Gaskell, George Eliot.The Victorian novel was aprincipal form of entertainment.
Victorian PoetryVictorian poetry developed in thecontext of the novel. Poets sought newways of telling stories in verseAll of the Victorian poets show thestrong influence of the Romantics, butthey cannot sustain the confidence theRomantics felt in the power of theimagination.Victorian poets often rewrite Romanticpoems with a sense of belatedness.Dramatic monologue – the idea ofcreating a lyric poem in the voice of aspeaker ironically distinct from the poetis the great achievement of Victorianpoetry.Victorian poetry is pictorial; poets usedetail to construct visual images thatrepresent the emotion or situation thepoem concerns.Conflict t between private poetic selfand public social role.
Victorian DramaThe theater was aflourishing and popularinstitution during theVictorian period.The popularity of theaterinfluenced other genres.Bernard Shaw and OscarWilde transformed Britishtheater with their comicmasterpieces.