IronyA literary or rhetorical device in which there is a gap (or incongruity) between what a speaker or a writer says and what is generally understood
Verbal Irony Irony produced intentionally by speakers e.g.- a person reports to her friend that rather than going to a medical doctor to treat her ovarian cancer, she has decided to see a spiritual healer instead. In response her friend says sarcastically, "Great idea! I hear they do fine work!" (Note that this could easily be spoken literally by a person who believes in spiritual healing as a legitimate treatment for cancer.) The friend could have also replied with any number of ironic expressions that should not be labeled as sarcasm exactly, but still have many shared elements with sarcasm.
Situational IronyA kind of irony in which there is a discrepancy between the expected result and actual results when enlivened by perverse appropriateness. Examples: O. Henry’s The Gift of the Magi
Dramatic IronyA kind of irony that occurs when a character on stage or in a story is ignorant, but the audience knows his/her actual fate e.g.- Romeo and Juliet
Symbolism The practice of representing things by symbols.
Tone The mood or feeling of a literary work e.g.- Formal, Informal, Serious, Humorous, Amused, Angry, Playful, Neutral, Satirical, Fictional, Imaginary, Fanciful, Idealistic, Romantic, Realistic, Optimistic, Pessimistic, Gloomy, Melancholic , Mournful , Sorrowful