Persuasive Aimis used to accomplish one of two basic purposes: 1) To change the reader’s attitudes or beliefs. 2) To get the reader to do something.
Logical Persuasive Arguments are built on an opinion supported by reasons and evidence.
ReasonsReasons tell why everyone should accept an opinion as true. Ex: A ban on smoking in public places would reduce the risk of developing lung cancer via secondhand smoke inhalation.
Evidence- Facts & statistics -are strong because it’s hard to argue with the facts. Ex: Prolonged exposure to secondhand smoke increases one’s risk of developing cancer by 55%.- Expert testimony- statements made by experts in the field are convincing. Ex: “The risk of developing lung cancer from secondhand smoke is significant,” said Dr. Jim Williams, a leading pulmonary oncologist at Johns Hopkins Medical Research Center.
Logical fallacies are statements that sound logical andfactual, but they’re not.
Hasty Generalization is coming to a conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.Ex: All of my friends whose parents smoke have asthma and are certain to develop lung cancer as a result.
Name Calling is attacking the person who holds the view rather than the view itself.Ex: Mayor Smith is calling for restaurant and bars to ban smoking, but he recently was arrested for DWI and cannot be trusted.
Either/or is describing a situation as though there were only two choices when there may actually be several.Ex: Either smoking be banned in public places, or citizens are doomed to die slow, painful deaths.
False Cause and Effect asserting that because Event B followed Event A, A caused B. Ex: Since Arlington banned smoking in restaurants and bars, my favorite restaurant chain went out of business two weeks later.
should reinforce logical arguments, not replace them.
Loaded Words are words that are heavy with emotional connotations.Ex: Smokers endanger the lives of innocent children and sentence them to lives riddled with health problems.
Glittering Generalities A type of loaded words, they are so strongly positive that they “glitter” and make you feel good.Ex: Smoking a Camel after a satisfying meal---it’s the American way.
Bandwagon Appeal the belief that something should be done because the majority of people do it (or wish to do it).Ex: 20 of the 30 major U.S. cities have already enacted a ban on public smoking and Dallas shouldn’t be the last.
Testimonials when a celebrity endorses a product unrelated to his or her field of expertise.Ex: Tony Hawk supports the ban on smoking in public places.
• appealing mostly to logic (facts & expertise)• keeping emotional appeals to a minimum• avoiding all fallacies