Historical BackgroundBC 2800 - StonehengeObservatory? Temple? Calendar?Link to video about Stonehenge: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6oxmxPKoSE
2000 - 800 BCs First people on the island came from Iberian peninsula (Spain & Portugal).s Still used Stone Age weaponry and tools.s Most important of early conquerors were Celts (two groups).s Brythons settled on large island, Gaels on small island (Ireland).s The modern name of the large island, Great Britain, evolved from the Brythons: Brython = Briton = Britain
800 - 600 BCs Druids - Celtic priests with many responsibilities.s Duty of priests to memorize and recite heroic poems in order to pass along tribal history and values.s They worshipped Germanic gods.
Druids, con’ts Religious, political, cultural leaders of Celtic tribess Believed all natural elements had a spirit (rocks, trees, water, etc.) Oak=power of life, Mistletoe=balancing power of deaths Came to an end with the influx of Christianity (monotheism-belief in one true god) briefly during Roman occupation, permanently in 597 AD when Pope Gregory sent emissaries to convert Anglo- Saxon kings and establish monasteries in G.B. (Augustine was principal emissary)
55 BCs In 55 BC, Julius Caesar made a hasty invasion and declared land.s True Roman invasion occurred in 45 AD.
Romans broughts Arts Architectures Organized religions Roadss Legal system (laws)s Latin Languages Towns/cities (London=Londinium)s Military infrastructures (Hadrian’s Wall-built and patrolled by Romans to keep Vikings out)Romans called home in 5th century because of continued attacks to the territory-needed for defenses Bad news for the remaining inhabitants on G.B.!
Anglo-Saxon Period 449-1066 ADs Next invaders of British Isles--Anglos, Saxons, and Jutes.s This is where we get the modern term for England: Angloland = Angland = Englands Sailed from Denmark and Germany in 449--in search of farm land.s Drove Britons to west portion of island and to the smaller island.s There were resistance groups--villagers who tried to fight off the invasion. One such group was led by a Roman descendant by the name of Artorius who may be part of the basis for the fictional King Arthur.
Christianitys Although present since 45 A.D., not strong until:s St. Augustine, along with 50 monks, arrived in England in 597 A.D., and converted King Ethelbert (King of Kent) to Christianity.s Effect: building of churches and monasteries (educational places).
Conversion of England changed thelanguage in three main ways:s introduced large church vocabularys introduced words and ideas from as far away as India and Chinas gave incentive for Anglo/Saxons to apply existing words to new concepts.s Also played role in unifying people-- beliefs about wives, children, slaves
The Danish (Viking) Invasions Occurred in 793 A.D. Invaders were more barbaric than the previous Anglo-Saxon invaders--killing, raping, and setting fire to entire villagess Norwegians to N. Eng. and Irelands Danes to E and S Englands By 850 half of England was in hands of Danes; it was then they turned to Wessexs Link to video about Viking Invasion: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iLPlmo3SS_0
Barbarian InfluenceBritain’s inhabitants were greatly influenced by Viking and tribal invaders eradicating any Roman influenceBarbarians lived in a tribal community structure:s King=AKA ring-givers Witan=Elders or wise men/king’s advisorss Earl/thane=nobility of tribe-can trace lineage to king’s familys Scop=bearer of historys Warriors=central figure of societys Freemen/Churls=independent landholderss Thralls=Slavess Women=of no importance unless queen of tribe
Unification of Great Britains King Alfred-871-899 AD- responsible for unifying all warring territories of Great Britains Negotiated Danelaugh (treaty name) with King Canute, leader of the Danish Vikings-gave England 50 years of peaces Intended to unify all tribes and territories through religion and education-encouraged writing in Anglo-Saxon language, not Latins Responsible for The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the Ecclesiastical History of the English People
End of the Anglo-Saxon Eras In January 1066, King Edward "the Confessor" died. He was succeeded by the Earl of Wessex, Harold. This bothered a duke named William across the English Channel in Normandy. The royal family at Wessex had intermarried with royalty in Normandy. William had been the cousin of Edward the Confessor, and Edward had promised to make him his heir. William believed that he had a right to rule in England. Link to Youtube video of re-enactment: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tF0U7olkPPgs Harold and William, the Duke of Normandy met in battle in 1066 at the Battle of Hastingss William was victorious (only because he and his troops were positioned on the TOP of a hill as Harold and his troops attempted to climb it to defeat William), and the Anglo-Saxon era came to an end