Upper respiratory tract

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Upper respiratory tract

  1. 1. Notes: Upper Respiratory Tract (pg 4)
  2. 2. Nasal Cavity• External nares: Nostrils
  3. 3. Nasal Cavity• External nares: Nostrils• Internal nares: openings from nasal cavity into pharynx
  4. 4. Nasal Cavity• External nares: Nostrils• Internal nares: openings from nasal cavity into pharynx• Nasal septum: Divides nasal cavity in half. Formed by vomer and ethmoid bones
  5. 5. Nasal Cavity• External nares: Nostrils• Internal nares: openings from nasal cavity into pharynx• Nasal septum: Divides nasal cavity in half. Formed by vomer and ethmoid bones• Palate: Forms floor of nasal cavity. Anterior = hard palate (bone). Posterior = soft palate (no bone)
  6. 6. Nasal Cavity• External nares: Nostrils• Internal nares: openings from nasal cavity into pharynx• Nasal septum: Divides nasal cavity in half. Formed by vomer and ethmoid bones• Palate: Forms floor of nasal cavity. Anterior = hard palate (bone). Posterior = soft palate (no bone)• Uvula: “Dangly thing” in throat.Prevents food from entering nasal cavity.
  7. 7. Nasal Cavity• External nares: Nostrils• Internal nares: openings from nasal cavity into pharynx• Nasal septum: Divides nasal cavity in half. Formed by vomer and ethmoid bones• Palate: Forms floor of nasal cavity. Anterior = hard palate (bone). Posterior = soft palate (no bone)• Uvula: “Dangly thing” in throat. Prevents food from entering nasal cavity..• Nasal conchae: Three bony ridges (superior, middle, and inferior) in nasal cavity. Increase surface area to warm and moisten air. Trap dust.
  8. 8. Paranasal sinuses• Air-filled cavities in frontal, maxillae, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones
  9. 9. Paranasal sinuses• Air-filled cavities in frontal, maxillae, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones• Surround nasal cavity and open into it
  10. 10. Paranasal sinuses• Air-filled cavities in frontal, maxillae, ethmoid, and sphenoid bones• Surround nasal cavity and open into it• Functions: Reduce weight of skull, produce mucus, act as resonating chambers for voice
  11. 11. Pharynx (Throat)• Nasopharynx: portion posterior to nasal cavity. Eustachian tubes from middle ear end here. Pharengeal tonsils (adenoids) are located on posterior wall
  12. 12. Pharynx (Throat)• Nasopharynx: portion posterior to nasal cavity. Eustachian tubes from middle ear end here. Pharengeal tonsils (adenoids) are located on posterior wall• Oropharynx: portion posterior to oral cavity. Receives air, food, and water from mouth. Palatine tonsils are on lateral walls and lingual tonsils are behind the tongue
  13. 13. Pharynx (Throat)• Nasopharynx: portion posterior to nasal cavity. Eustachian tubes from middle ear end here. Pharengeal tonsils (adenoids) are located on posterior wall• Oropharynx: portion posterior to oral cavity. Receives air, food, and water from mouth. Palatine tonsils are on lateral walls and lingual tonsils are behind the tongue• Laryngopharynx: portion between oropharynx and larynx
  14. 14. Larynx (Voicebox)• 5 cm long. Made of pieces of cartilage connected by muscles and ligaments
  15. 15. Larynx (Voicebox)• 5 cm long. Made of pieces of cartilage connected by muscles and ligaments• Thyroid cartilage: “Adam’s apple”
  16. 16. Larynx (Voicebox)• 5 cm long. Made of pieces of cartilage connected by muscles and ligaments• Thyroid cartilage: “Adam’s apple”• Cricoid cartilage: Base of larynx. Attaches larynx to trachea
  17. 17. Larynx (Voicebox)• 5 cm long. Made of pieces of cartilage connected by muscles and ligaments• Thyroid cartilage: “Adam’s apple”• Cricoid cartilage: Base of larynx. Attaches larynx to trachea• Epiglottis: Leaf-shaped movable flap. During swallowing, epiglottis covers opening of larynx to prevent food and water from entering.
  18. 18. Larynx (Voicebox)• 5 cm long. Made of pieces of cartilage connected by muscles and ligaments• Thyroid cartilage: “Adam’s apple”• Cricoid cartilage: Base of larynx. Attaches larynx to trachea• Epiglottis: Leaf-shaped movable flap. During swallowing, epiglottis covers opening of larynx to prevent food and water from entering.• Vocal cords: ligaments that function in sound production. Muscles control the length and tension, affecting pitch.

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