Notes: Thyroid and Parathyroid (pg 6)
Thyroid gland
• Located at the base of the throat, just behind
the Adam’s apple
• Butterfly-shaped
• Produces 2 hormones
1. Thyroid Hormone: Consists of 2 hormones
95% is Thyroxine (contains 4 Iodine atoms) and
5% is Triiodothyronine (contains...
2. Calcitonin: Decreases blood calcium levels by
causing calcium to be deposited in the bones.
Thyroid Disorders
Goiters
• Usually caused by iodine
deficiency
• Without iodine, thyroid can’t
make hormones
• Hypothalamus tells pituitary...
Cretinism
• Caused by low levels of
thyroid hormones in
newborns
• Often caused by iodine
deficiency in the mother
• Resul...
Hyperthyroidism

• Thyroid produces too much hormone
• High metabolic rate, nervousness, irritability,
insomnia, weight lo...
Parathyroid Glands
• 4 small masses of glandular tissue found on
the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
Parathyroid Glands
• 4 small masses of glandular tissue found on
the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
• Make Parathy...
Parathyroid Glands
• 4 small masses of glandular tissue found on
the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
• Make Parathy...
Drawing (pg 7)
• Illustrate negative feedback loop for blood
calcium
Thyroid
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Thyroid

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Thyroid

  1. 1. Notes: Thyroid and Parathyroid (pg 6)
  2. 2. Thyroid gland • Located at the base of the throat, just behind the Adam’s apple • Butterfly-shaped • Produces 2 hormones
  3. 3. 1. Thyroid Hormone: Consists of 2 hormones 95% is Thyroxine (contains 4 Iodine atoms) and 5% is Triiodothyronine (contains 3 Iodine atoms). Have the same function: Control the rate at which glucose is turned into energy. Target tissue: Every cell in the body
  4. 4. 2. Calcitonin: Decreases blood calcium levels by causing calcium to be deposited in the bones.
  5. 5. Thyroid Disorders
  6. 6. Goiters • Usually caused by iodine deficiency • Without iodine, thyroid can’t make hormones • Hypothalamus tells pituitary to release more Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, which makes the thyroid grow
  7. 7. Cretinism • Caused by low levels of thyroid hormones in newborns • Often caused by iodine deficiency in the mother • Results in short stature and mental retardation
  8. 8. Hyperthyroidism • Thyroid produces too much hormone • High metabolic rate, nervousness, irritability, insomnia, weight loss, exopthalmos (bulging eyes)
  9. 9. Parathyroid Glands • 4 small masses of glandular tissue found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland
  10. 10. Parathyroid Glands • 4 small masses of glandular tissue found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland • Make Parathyroid Hormone (PTH): Raises blood calcium levels by stimulating bone destroying cells (osteoclasts) to break down bone and release calcium into the blood.
  11. 11. Parathyroid Glands • 4 small masses of glandular tissue found on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland • Make Parathyroid Hormone (PTH): Raises blood calcium levels by stimulating bone destroying cells (osteoclasts) to break down bone and release calcium into the blood. • PTH and Calcitonin are antagonists and maintain blood calcium levels through negative feedback
  12. 12. Drawing (pg 7) • Illustrate negative feedback loop for blood calcium

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