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Notes mutations

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Notes mutations

  1. 1. Notes: Mutations (page 10)• Mutation = A change in DNA sequence
  2. 2. Notes: Mutations (page 10)• Mutation = A change in DNA sequence• Caused by copying errors during DNA replication or by mutagens (UV light, certain chemicals)
  3. 3. Notes: Mutations (page 10)• Mutation = A change in DNA sequence• Caused by copying errors during DNA replication or by mutagens (UV light, certain chemicals)• Usually harmful, but sometimes beneficial
  4. 4. Gene Mutations1. Point mutation = a change in a single base pair of DNA
  5. 5. Gene Mutations1. Point mutation = a change in a single base pair of DNA• Example: ATTCCG becomes ATACCG
  6. 6. Gene Mutations1. Point mutation = a change in a single base pair of DNA• Example: ATTCCG becomes ATACCG• Can have no effect or a large effect (sickle cell anemia)
  7. 7. 2. Frameshift Mutation = Insertion or deletion of a DNA base
  8. 8. 2. Frameshift Mutation = Insertion or deletion of a DNA baseExample: ATTCCG becomes ATCCG
  9. 9. 2. Frameshift Mutation = Insertion or deletion of a DNA baseExample: ATTCCG becomes ATCCGChanges every amino acid in the protein after the insertion or deletion
  10. 10. 2. Frameshift Mutation = Insertion or deletion of a DNA baseExample: ATTCCG becomes ATCCGChanges every amino acid in the protein after the insertion or deletionUsually have a large negative effect
  11. 11. Chromosomal mutations• Usually we have 2 copies of each chromosome (1 from mom, 1 from dad)
  12. 12. Chromosomal mutations• Usually we have 2 copies of each chromosome (1 from mom, 1 from dad)• Errors in meiosis (the process of making eggs and sperm) can cause people to end up with 1 copy (monosomy) or 3 copies (trisomy) of a chromosome
  13. 13. Chromosomal mutations• Usually we have 2 copies of each chromosome (1 from mom, 1 from dad)• Errors in meiosis (the process of making eggs and sperm) can cause people to end up with 1 copy (monosomy) or 3 copies (trisomy) of a chromosome• Example: 3 copies of Chromosome 21 = Downs syndrome
  14. 14. • Polyploidy = extra copies of all chromosomes
  15. 15. • Polyploidy = extra copies of all chromosomes• Common in plants
  16. 16. • Polyploidy = extra copies of all chromosomes• Common in plants• Example: Triploid plants have 3 copies of each chromosome, Tetraploid have 4 copies, etc.

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