Kidney physiology

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Kidney physiology

  1. 1. Kidney Physiology (pg 4)
  2. 2. Macroscopic Structure of the Kidney • Cortex: Outer region
  3. 3. Macroscopic Structure of the Kidney • Cortex: Outer region • Medulla: Inner region
  4. 4. Macroscopic Structure of the Kidney • Cortex: Outer region • Medulla: Inner region • Renal pelvis: large cavity that collects the urine as it is produced. Continuous with ureter
  5. 5. Nephrons • Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney
  6. 6. Nephrons • Nephrons are the functional unit of the kidney • Over 1 million nephrons per kidney
  7. 7. Nephron Structure Nephrons have two parts:
  8. 8. Nephron Structure Nephrons have two parts: 1. Renal corpuscle a. Glomerulus: cluster of capillaries
  9. 9. Nephron Structure Nephrons have two parts: 1. Renal corpuscle a. Glomerulus: cluster of capillaries b. Glomerular (Bowman’s) Capsule: cup that surrounds the glomerulus and receives blood filtrate from it
  10. 10. 2. Renal tubule a. Proximal convoluted tubule: Highly coiled. Located in cortex
  11. 11. 2. Renal tubule a. Proximal convoluted tubule: Highly coiled. Located in cortex b. Loop of Henle: A hairpin loop that dips into the medulla, makes a U-turn, and ascends back to the cortex
  12. 12. 2. Renal tubule a. Proximal convoluted tubule: Highly coiled. Located in cortex b. Loop of Henle: A hairpin loop that dips into the medulla, makes a U-turn, and ascends back to the cortex c. Distal convoluted tubule: Coiled, in cortex
  13. 13. Urine Formation • Nephrons form urine in 3 steps 1. Filtration: Water and small solutes enter the nephron (blood cells and proteins do not enter). Filtrate is similar to blood plasma.
  14. 14. Urine Formation • Nephrons form urine in 3 steps 1. Filtration: Water and small solutes enter the nephron (blood cells and proteins do not enter). Filtrate is similar to blood plasma. 2. Reabsorption: Useful substances (water, glucose, amino acids, needed ions) are transported out of the filtrate and back into the blood
  15. 15. Urine Formation • Nephrons form urine in 3 steps 1. Filtration: Water and small solutes enter the nephron (blood cells and proteins do not enter). Filtrate is similar to blood plasma. 2. Reabsorption: Useful substances (water, glucose, amino acids, needed ions) are transported out of the filtrate and back into the blood 3. Secretion: Harmful substances (H+, excess K+, some drugs and poisons) are removed from the blood and put into the filtrate
  16. 16. Output (pg 5) • Color code nephron diagram
  17. 17. Hormonal Control • Hormones regulate the reabsorption of water and electrolytes by the kidneys
  18. 18. Hormonal Control • Hormones regulate the reabsorption of water and electrolytes by the kidneys • If blood volume drops, the pituitary gland releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  19. 19. Hormonal Control • Hormones regulate the reabsorption of water and electrolytes by the kidneys • If blood volume drops, the pituitary gland releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH) • ADH causes the kidney duct cells to reabsorb more water and produce less urine
  20. 20. Hormonal Control • Hormones regulate the reabsorption of water and electrolytes by the kidneys • If blood volume drops, the pituitary gland releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH) • ADH causes the kidney duct cells to reabsorb more water and produce less urine • Alcohol inhibits ADH production
  21. 21. Hormonal Control • Hormones regulate the reabsorption of water and electrolytes by the kidneys • If blood volume drops, the pituitary gland releases antidiuretic hormone (ADH) • ADH causes the kidney duct cells to reabsorb more water and produce less urine • Alcohol inhibits ADH production • Inability to produce ADH is called diabetes insipidus (water diabetes). Affected individuals produce up to 25 liters of very dilute urine per day and are constantly thirsty

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