Joints and fractures

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Joints and fractures

  1. 1. Joints and Fractures (pg 10)
  2. 2. Types of Joints 1. Synarthroses: Immovable joints. Example: sutures of the skull
  3. 3. Types of Joints 1. Synarthroses: Immovable joints. Example: sutures of the skull 2. Amphiarthroses: Slightly movable joints. Bones are connected by cartilage. Examples: Ribs and sternum, symphysis pubis, vertebrae
  4. 4. Types of Joints 1. Synarthroses: Immovable joints. Example: sutures of the skull 2. Amphiarthroses: Slightly movable joints. Bones are connected by cartilage. Examples: Ribs and sternum, symphysis pubis, vertebrae 3. Diarthroses: Freely movable joints. Most common type
  5. 5. Diarthroses (Synovial) Joints • Ends of bones are covered with articular cartilage
  6. 6. Diarthroses (Synovial) Joints • Ends of bones are covered with articular cartilage • Bones are separated by a space called the synovial cavity, which is filled with synovial fluid for lubrication
  7. 7. Diarthroses (Synovial) Joints • Ends of bones are covered with articular cartilage • Bones are separated by a space called the synovial cavity, which is filled with synovial fluid for lubrication • Some diarthroses have a cartilage pad called a meniscus and/or fluid-filled sacs between the skin and the bone called bursae
  8. 8. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body
  9. 9. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface
  10. 10. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface 2. Popliteal ligaments: strengthen posterior surface
  11. 11. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface 2. Popliteal ligaments: strengthen posterior surface 3. Medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MCL and LCL): Strengthen the sides of the joint
  12. 12. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface 2. Popliteal ligaments: strengthen posterior surface 3. Medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MCL and LCL): Strengthen the sides of the joint 4. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): Extends from tibia to femur. Prevents anterior sliding of the tibia. 70% of serious knee injuries involve the ACL
  13. 13. Ligaments of the knee Knee is the largest and most complex joint in the body 1. Patellar ligament: extends from patella to tibia. Strengthens anterior surface 2. Popliteal ligaments: strengthen posterior surface 3. Medial and lateral collateral ligaments (MCL and LCL): Strengthen the sides of the joint 4. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL): Extends from tibia to femur. Prevents anterior sliding of the tibia. 70% of serious knee injuries involve the ACL 5. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL): Prevents posterior sliding of tibia
  14. 14. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone
  15. 15. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone 1. Partial: Incomplete break, such as a crack
  16. 16. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone 1. Partial: Incomplete break, such as a crack 2. Complete: The bone is broken into two or more pieces
  17. 17. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone 1. Partial: Incomplete break, such as a crack 2. Complete: The bone is broken into two or more pieces 3. Closed (simple): Fractured bone does not break through the skin
  18. 18. Fractures Bone fracture = any break in the continuity of a bone 1. Partial: Incomplete break, such as a crack 2. Complete: The bone is broken into two or more pieces 3. Closed (simple): Fractured bone does not break through the skin 4. Open (compound): Broken ends of bone protrude through the skin. Increased chance of infection

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