Adrenal, Pancreas, Pineal, Thymus,
Gonads, Placenta (pg 8)
Adrenal Glands
• Sit on top of the kidneys
• Separated into the cortex (outer region) and
the medulla (inner region)
Adrenal Cortex
1. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone): Regulate
blood volume and composition by conserving
sodium ions and el...
Adrenal Cortex
1. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone): Regulate
blood volume and composition by conserving
sodium ions and el...
Adrenal Cortex
1. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone): Regulate blood
volume and composition by conserving sodium
ions and el...
Drawing (pg 9)
• Draw Adrenal gland
Adrenal medulla
• Develops from neural tissue and is stimulated
by neurons
Adrenal medulla
• Develops from neural tissue and is stimulated
by neurons
• Produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and
norepin...
Pancreas
• Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets
of Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells
Pancreas
• Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets
of Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells
• The islets a...
Pancreas
• Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets
of Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells
• The islets a...
Pancreas
• Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets
of Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells
• The islets a...
Pancreas
• Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets of
Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells
• The islets a...
Pineal Gland
• Tiny gland in the brain
• Produces melatonin, which causes sleepiness.
Melatonin production increases in re...
Thymus
• Located behind the sternum
• Large in children, shrinks throughout
adulthood
• Produces thymosin, which is essent...
Gonads
• Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone,
which control the menstrual cycle and cause
development of secondary f...
Placenta
• Site of exchange between mother and baby
during pregnancy
Placenta
• Site of exchange between mother and baby
during pregnancy
• Also produces hormones that maintain
pregnancy
1. H...
Placenta
• Site of exchange between mother and baby
during pregnancy
• Also produces hormones that maintain
pregnancy
1. H...
Placenta
• Site of exchange between mother and baby
during pregnancy
• Also produces hormones that maintain
pregnancy
1. H...
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Adrenal, pancreas, pineal, etc

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Adrenal, pancreas, pineal, etc

  1. 1. Adrenal, Pancreas, Pineal, Thymus, Gonads, Placenta (pg 8)
  2. 2. Adrenal Glands • Sit on top of the kidneys • Separated into the cortex (outer region) and the medulla (inner region)
  3. 3. Adrenal Cortex 1. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone): Regulate blood volume and composition by conserving sodium ions and eliminating potassium ions.
  4. 4. Adrenal Cortex 1. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone): Regulate blood volume and composition by conserving sodium ions and eliminating potassium ions. 2. Glucocorticoids (Cortisol and Hydrocortisone): Increase glucose levels in the blood by increasing protein and fat metabolism and stimulating release of glucose from liver. Antiinflammatory.
  5. 5. Adrenal Cortex 1. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone): Regulate blood volume and composition by conserving sodium ions and eliminating potassium ions. 2. Glucocorticoids (Cortisol and Hydrocortisone): Increase glucose levels in the blood by increasing protein and fat metabolism and stimulating release of glucose from liver. Anti-inflammatory. 3. Gonadocorticoids (Androgens and Estrogens): Cause development of secondary sex characteristics. Makes very small amounts compared to that produced by gonads.
  6. 6. Drawing (pg 9) • Draw Adrenal gland
  7. 7. Adrenal medulla • Develops from neural tissue and is stimulated by neurons
  8. 8. Adrenal medulla • Develops from neural tissue and is stimulated by neurons • Produces epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline): Cause fight or flight response-increased heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate, diverts blood away from digestive organs and to skeletal muscle
  9. 9. Pancreas • Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells
  10. 10. Pancreas • Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells • The islets are surrounded by exocrine cells, which produce digestive enzymes
  11. 11. Pancreas • Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells • The islets are surrounded by exocrine cells, which produce digestive enzymes • Islets contain alpha and beta cells
  12. 12. Pancreas • Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells • The islets are surrounded by exocrine cells, which produce digestive enzymes • Islets contain alpha and beta cells • Alpha cells produce glucagon, which raises blood sugar by stimulating the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the bloodstream
  13. 13. Pancreas • Contains over 1 million pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) that consist of endocrine cells • The islets are surrounded by exocrine cells, which produce digestive enzymes • Islets contain alpha and beta cells • Alpha cells produce glucagon, which raises blood sugar by stimulating the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the bloodstream • Beta cells produce insulin, which lowers blood sugar by stimulating body cells to transport glucose out of the blood and into the cells
  14. 14. Pineal Gland • Tiny gland in the brain • Produces melatonin, which causes sleepiness. Melatonin production increases in response to darkness.
  15. 15. Thymus • Located behind the sternum • Large in children, shrinks throughout adulthood • Produces thymosin, which is essential to development of T-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell in the immune system
  16. 16. Gonads • Ovaries produce estrogen and progesterone, which control the menstrual cycle and cause development of secondary female sex characteristics • Testes produce testosterone, which causes development of male secondary sex characteristics
  17. 17. Placenta • Site of exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy
  18. 18. Placenta • Site of exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy • Also produces hormones that maintain pregnancy 1. Human chorionic gonadotropin: causes uterine lining to not be shed. Used in pregnancy tests
  19. 19. Placenta • Site of exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy • Also produces hormones that maintain pregnancy 1. Human chorionic gonadotropin: causes uterine lining to not be shed. Used in pregnancy tests 2. Human placental lactogen: prepares breasts for lactation
  20. 20. Placenta • Site of exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy • Also produces hormones that maintain pregnancy 1. Human chorionic gonadotropin: causes uterine lining to not be shed. Used in pregnancy tests 2. Human placental lactogen: prepares breasts for lactation 3. Relaxin: causes pelvic ligaments to relax and become more flexible

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