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Portigal Consulting: Reading Ahead Research Findings


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Presentation of research findings from our project on the evolution of reading and books.

Published in: Design, Education, Business

Portigal Consulting: Reading Ahead Research Findings

  1. 1. 1 Reading Ahead Research Findings
  2. 2.©2009 Portigal Consulting 2Reading Ahead Research Findings Outline • Our Team • About Reading Ahead • Introduction • Executive Summary • Project Overview • Who We Met • The Reading Experience • The Social Side of Reading • Books • The Kindle • Going Digital • Looking Forward • Wrapping Up
  3. 3.©2009 Portigal Consulting 3Reading Ahead Research Findings Our team Steve Portigal Dan Soltzberg
  4. 4.©2009 Portigal Consulting 4Reading Ahead Research Findings This Project: Reading Ahead • An opportunity to explore something of our choosing • Demonstrate how we work with our clients • Make our process transparent • Share best practices • Lots of blog posting along the way
  5. 5.©2009 Portigal Consulting 5Reading Ahead Research Findings Executive Summary 1. Books are more than just pages with words and pictures; they are imbued with personal history, future aspirations, and signifiers of identity 2. The unabridged reading experience includes crucial events that take place before and after the elemental moments of eyes-looking-at-words 3. Digital reading privileges access to content while neglecting other essential aspects of this complete reading experience 4. There are opportunities to enhance digital reading by replicating, referencing, and replacing social (and other) aspects of traditional book reading
  6. 6.©2009 Portigal Consulting 6Reading Ahead Research Findings Portigal Consulting We help companies discover and act on new insights about their customers and themselves
  7. 7.©2009 Portigal Consulting 7Reading Ahead Research Findings Typical Development Lifecycle Iterate and improve What to make or do? Refine ideas and prototype Launch
  8. 8.©2009 Portigal Consulting 8Reading Ahead Research Findings Where We Work Take a fresh look at people What to make or do? Launch Refine ideas and prototype Iterate and improve
  9. 9.©2009 Portigal Consulting 9Reading Ahead Research Findings Where We Work What to make or do? Launch Refine ideas and prototype Iterate and improve Use existing ideas as hypotheses
  10. 10.©2009 Portigal Consulting 10Reading Ahead Research Findings Where We Work What to make or do? Launch Refine ideas and prototype Iterate and improve History provides context to explore new opportunities
  11. 11.©2009 Portigal Consulting 11Reading Ahead Research Findings Project Overview • Objective: Explore the evolution of reading and books and develop product, service, and business opportunities • Recruited 6 active readers (3 books, 3 Kindle) in the San Francisco Bay Area • Photo-diaries: self-documentation of reading and environments • In-depth contextual interviews (with participatory design component) • Synthesis into findings, recommendations, and opportunities (this document!) • Ongoing: dialog with different audiences
  12. 12.©2009 Portigal Consulting 12Reading Ahead Research Findings Lead User Sampling • Our sample is not representative of the general population – Fewer than half of Americans regularly read literature (NEA, 2004) – How many read as avidly as our sample? – 400,000 Kindles sold (TechCrunch estimate) • This isn’t a statistically valid quantitative study; it’s a contextual exploration to uncover the issues, which lead users are especially articulate about • Market sizing question: what is the shape of the general population? 0 many 0 many Disinterested Enthusiast Disinterested Enthusiast
  13. 13. 13 Who We Met
  14. 14.©2009 Portigal Consulting 14Reading Ahead Research Findings Research Participants Tracy Erica Chris Peter Jeff Julie
  15. 15.©2009 Portigal Consulting 15Reading Ahead Research Findings Tracy • Tracy is a stay-at-home mom and part-time massage therapist, and is going back to school in the fall to get an MA in Occupational Therapy • Reading is a big part of her family’s life. She reads every night with her two sons (including a two-hour Harry Potter session the night before), and told us she does different voices for each character in the stories • In addition to a regular set of reading rituals with the kids, Tracy reads on her own, which she describes as “My way of getting completely unplugged”
  16. 16.©2009 Portigal Consulting 16Reading Ahead Research Findings Erica • Erica is 28 and lives by herself in an apartment in San Francisco • She described growing up without a lot of money but in a house where there were “walls of bookshelves” • She had been planning to open a cookbook store, until the recent economic slump. She’s working now as an office manager at a software startup and regrouping • Erica talked about buying certain books just because she likes them as objects: “I love books. I almost like books more than reading.”
  17. 17.©2009 Portigal Consulting 17Reading Ahead Research Findings Peter • Peter works in web production and lives in Vallejo. When describing himself, he says, "I like gadgets” • Peter’s had his Kindle for a couple of years. He says when he first got it (as a gift from his partner), it “got him” buying books right away, and he used it almost exclusively for around a year. Now he’s back to reading print books again • The biggest frustration for Peter is that he can’t share Kindle books
  18. 18.©2009 Portigal Consulting 18Reading Ahead Research Findings Chris • Chris is a software engineer in his early thirties. He lives in an apartment in Mountain View with his wife and their small dog. They moved here a couple of months ago, after returning from an extended stay in Europe • When they left the US for Europe, the couple got rid of many of their possessions, including their books • Now that they’ve settled in again, Chris says he’s still trying to keep from accumulating too much stuff, and has been buying fewer books and using the library more
  19. 19.©2009 Portigal Consulting 19Reading Ahead Research Findings Jeff • Jeff is a former architect who works in interaction design for a large Silicon Valley company • Jeff is extremely busy, and he likes the ease and efficiency of the book-buying experience the Kindle supports • Jeff uses his Kindle for not only for personal reading but for work as well, and sometimes publishes documents he needs to review to the Kindle. He and his team have also experimented with using the Kindle as a platform for delivering presentations • He calls the Kindle “One of my favorite devices”
  20. 20.©2009 Portigal Consulting 20Reading Ahead Research Findings Julie • Julie and her housemate have an amazing library in their San Leandro home, with three walls of alphabetized floor-to-ceiling bookshelves • With the bookshelves and quiet ambiance of the space, being in this part of their home feels just like being a library • While some of the people we met described the Kindle as less-than- satisfying compared to a printed book, Julie has a long history of reading on electronic devices, and finds the Kindle a big step forward • For Julie, reading a book and reading on the Kindle are both equally positive experiences
  21. 21. 21 The Reading Experience
  22. 22.©2009 Portigal Consulting 22Reading Ahead Research Findings Artifacts and behavior • Although we can conceive of reading and books as separate (verb and noun), they are tightly coupled • There is almost no way to talk about them separately: asking a participant a question about reading quickly leads to a discussion of books, and vice versa BooksReading
  23. 23.©2009 Portigal Consulting 23Reading Ahead Research Findings • Reading is much broader than eyes-looking-at-words • The complete reading experience includes pre- and post-reading behaviors What is “Reading?” Post-readingPre-reading Reading
  24. 24.©2009 Portigal Consulting 24Reading Ahead Research Findings People grow up with reading and books • They are an important part of many people’s memories and formative experiences • Reading is often a life-long, multigenerational activity Tracy keeps books from her childhood on her shelves and shares them with her children
  25. 25.©2009 Portigal Consulting 25Reading Ahead Research Findings Why read? • People have many motivations for reading – Sometimes it is a medium of escape – Sometimes it’s a way to better understand yourself – It can be entertaining – It can be educational – It can be a way to pass the time – Erica: “I’ll read anything.” Tracy: “Reading is my ‘crack.’ It’s my way of unplugging.”
  26. 26.©2009 Portigal Consulting 26Reading Ahead Research Findings Reading is not just one activity • People read in a variety of modes Work Fun Interstitial BedtimeFocused Private Family
  27. 27.©2009 Portigal Consulting 27Reading Ahead Research Findings Each reading mode has multiple components Interaction with othersContentSettingMotivation • These components get combined in different ways to support each mode
  28. 28.©2009 Portigal Consulting 28Reading Ahead Research Findings Work • About gaining knowledge, skill- building, and problem-solving • Primarily non-fiction
  29. 29.©2009 Portigal Consulting 29Reading Ahead Research Findings Fun • Can be about learning, but is often about fantasy, relaxation, unplugging • Fiction or non-fiction
  30. 30.©2009 Portigal Consulting 30Reading Ahead Research Findings Interstitial • Takes place on public transit, in waiting rooms, and during a homemaker’s day • Books requiring less focus are better for short bursts and frequent stopping and starting • Some books, such as romance novels, are written specifically for this type of use
  31. 31.©2009 Portigal Consulting 31Reading Ahead Research Findings Family • An entertainment and educational activity • A bonding ritual for parents and kids • There are variations – Reading aloud, together – Same room, private books
  32. 32.©2009 Portigal Consulting 32Reading Ahead Research Findings Bedtime • A way of disconnecting from the world of computers, jobs, family, etc. • A quiet environment is important • A good time to read books requiring more concentration
  33. 33.©2009 Portigal Consulting 33Reading Ahead Research Findings Focused • Reading is primary focus • No interaction with others, eliminate distractions
  34. 34.©2009 Portigal Consulting 34Reading Ahead Research Findings Private • About getting personal time, relaxing, self-improvement • At home, in public but not interacting
  35. 35. 35 The Social Side of Reading
  36. 36.©2009 Portigal Consulting 36Reading Ahead Research Findings Reading is not just a solitary activity • In addition to solitary time spent with a book, reading is connected to different social activities
  37. 37.©2009 Portigal Consulting 37Reading Ahead Research Findings Book sharing • People talk about what they’re reading, make recommendations, etc., as well as actually sharing books • The medium for acquiring a particular book (print or digital) might be determined by whether or not it is going to be shared • Printed books are easily shared while Kindle books are not Peter returned to printed books because he couldn’t share Kindle books with his coworkers
  38. 38.©2009 Portigal Consulting 38Reading Ahead Research Findings Family reading • Reading together is a bonding activity, and provides entertainment and education • Tracy and her sons read together every day. When she reads aloud to them, she performs different voices for each character • As the kids get older, family reading rituals evolve to include new ways of sharing the experience Tracy reading with her son
  39. 39.©2009 Portigal Consulting 39Reading Ahead Research Findings Public places • Libraries and bookstores are public places with social functions • Erica has strong memories from visiting libraries as a child with her mother • For Tracy, weekly library visits have led to new relationships with library staff • Julie: “I love bookstores. That’s always our, ‘Oh, we have to kill an hour before the movie’” Family browsing in a bookstore
  40. 40.©2009 Portigal Consulting 40Reading Ahead Research Findings • People use a variety of artifacts, including books, to actively construct and display their identity Displaying identity Julie in her home libraryFrom Leah Missbach’s Teenagers
  41. 41.©2009 Portigal Consulting 41Reading Ahead Research Findings Outer and inner selves • A person’s choice of reading and relationship to books are ways of communicating identity to others • People also use what they read to explore and evolve who they are Erica’s way of organizing her bookshelf says a lot about how she sees herself (and wants others to see her)
  42. 42.©2009 Portigal Consulting 42Reading Ahead Research Findings Books are a medium for expressing values • Books carry messages about group membership and values • Jeff: “There’s a lot of who you are sort of floating in the choices that you make” Tracy’s older son is reading about weaponry. She’s not happy about this topic, but values his freed choose his own interests.
  43. 43. 43 Books
  44. 44.©2009 Portigal Consulting 44Reading Ahead Research Findings The book reading experience Post-readingPre-reading Reading Memories Sensory Kinesthetic Sharing
  45. 45.©2009 Portigal Consulting 45Reading Ahead Research Findings Books are sensory • Distinct sensory qualities—texture, weight, etc.—vary between books, making each interaction a unique experience • Jeff: “I used to love the smell of books— it’s a really weird thing to say, but…there’s probably some aspect from my childhood”
  46. 46.©2009 Portigal Consulting 46Reading Ahead Research Findings Reading (books) is kinesthetic • Reading is typically a relatively quiet activity, but with an important kinesthetic element • Several people described the significance of turning pages – A relaxing gesture – An innate part of taking in information and moving forward – Erica: “Even just the act of physically turning the page and interacting with it…helps me decompress”
  47. 47.©2009 Portigal Consulting 47Reading Ahead Research Findings Books are easily shared • They can be passed along to others – Borrowing and lending (friends or library) – Give away to friends – Donated – Sold
  48. 48.©2009 Portigal Consulting 48Reading Ahead Research Findings There are many ways to use a book Focused reading Non- reading Book interactions Focused on content, experience of reading, or both • Purposefully seeking specific information • “Auditioning” a book • Comparing information on non-sequential pages • Using a book for reference Books can be • Decorative objects • Objects of inspiration • Markers of identity • Signaling intention They can serve these functions without being read
  49. 49.©2009 Portigal Consulting 49Reading Ahead Research Findings Books are significant objects • The physicality of books gives them unique attributes – Erica: “In a way, I almost love books more than reading” • There are elements of craftsmanship – Binding – Typography – Pictures and illustrations – Quality of paper, printing, etc. • They can be objects of art – Signed copies – Galley proofs – Antiquarian books Erica displays books on her wall
  50. 50.©2009 Portigal Consulting 50Reading Ahead Research Findings Books carry memories • Marks of age and use (i.e., annotations) record personal experience – A favorite “dog-eared” paperback – An inscribed book given as a gift – A book from a previous time in one’s life This book on Thanksgiving has been in Tracy’s family for several generations
  51. 51.©2009 Portigal Consulting 51Reading Ahead Research Findings Books are objects of ritual • Books become props in personal and public rituals Weekly library visits and living room reading sessions are family rituals for Tracy and her sons On Bloomsday in Dublin, fans of James Joyce relive the events of his novel, Ulysses
  52. 52.©2009 Portigal Consulting 52Reading Ahead Research Findings Books express aspirations • We buy books we’d like to read but will probably never get to. These books represent vicarious experiences, expressing what we’d like to do and who we’d like to be
  53. 53.©2009 Portigal Consulting 53Reading Ahead Research Findings Books are casual and simple • They are durable and relatively inexpensive • Each book is a separate object • They can be left around the house, tried out with minimal investment, and given away or traded Books intermingle with food in Erica’s kitchen cabinetsTracy’s current bathroom books
  54. 54.©2009 Portigal Consulting 54Reading Ahead Research Findings Books enable unplugging • For some people books are a refuge: a way to unplug and get away from the ubiquity of computers, screens, and digital information • In contrast to the scanning and multi-tasking typical of computer use, books afford a slower, more focused experience • Erica: “I have a very hard time reading…sustaining it without doing something else. It’s a problem I recognize and have been trying to break. I could be sitting on the couch and feel this need to check my email” Erica’s bedside table
  55. 55. 55 The Kindle
  56. 56.©2009 Portigal Consulting 56Reading Ahead Research Findings How Kindle affects reading New behaviors • Kindle introduces the idea of carrying around a “library” – Never run out of content – “Real books” vs. “Kindles” – “Publish” to the Kindle Old behaviors • Kindle supports solitary reading (with different sensory and kinesthetic aspects from print reading) Old behaviors not enabled? • Kindle does not easily support sharing • Not the medium of choice for those who are not “digital natives”
  57. 57.©2009 Portigal Consulting 57Reading Ahead Research Findings Kindle vs. printed books • For those who have been using PDAs or an iPhone for reading, the Kindle is an improvement • Julie sees reading a printed book and reading on the Kindle as “the same experience” • Jeff: “If I have a book that I really like, it has exactly the exact same experience—I just get lost in the content—but I’ve always been like that” Julie relaxes on the couch with her Kindle
  58. 58.©2009 Portigal Consulting 58Reading Ahead Research Findings Digital devices don’t afford unplugging • For readers like Tracy and Erica, who use reading to unplug/disconnect, digital reading devices like the Kindle may signify computer, not book • Computers, with their speed and hyper-connectedness, are in opposition to the desired reading experience • Erica: “Computer lifestyle has seeped into my world so deep that my attention span is the attention span of a gnat” Tracy unplugs with some bedtime reading
  59. 59.©2009 Portigal Consulting 59Reading Ahead Research Findings Kindle challenges existing navigation behaviors • It is difficult to go between non- sequential pages on the Kindle, or to go directly to a desired spot (unless one has thought ahead and bookmarked it) • Books easily enable flipping back and forth, comparing non-sequential pages, using several books at once, etc. • Chris: “It’s a lot easier for me to, actually, to read (a book), and I think that’s maybe because I do jump around a little bit ” Chris prefers the flexible navigation with books
  60. 60.©2009 Portigal Consulting 60Reading Ahead Research Findings Kindle provides a different sensory experience • The Kindle works very well on a functional level, but some of the more nuanced aspects of the reading experience are not carried over • Pressing a button (on the Kindle) is different from turning the pages of a printed book • Peter: “Even though the text on this Kindle is great…it’s easy on the eyes, there’s a difference…when you’re reading paper—the whiteness of the paper, the black text—there’s something about that you just can’t capture”
  61. 61.©2009 Portigal Consulting 61Reading Ahead Research Findings Easy content acquisition is key • One of the standout features of the Kindle is the ability to instantly get more content • Jeff: “It’s super-addic…super easy to order stuff, and so by reducing the barrier to purchase, I buy all kinds of stuff… …I was listening to NPR, and Michael Pollan was on and they mentioned his book…I was at a stoplight, I bought the book before the light turned green…”
  62. 62.©2009 Portigal Consulting 62Reading Ahead Research Findings Social aspects of reading are not well-supported • People purchase differently if they are planning on sharing • Julie: “If it’s an author we both like, then I’ll buy the regular book. So we both have access to the book” • Peter: “I came to this job where there were a bunch of people passing books around and I realized I had nothing to contribute… …and I realized, oh, this is so much fun, to read a book and then pass it back and talk about it with other people. I think that’s part of the experience”
  63. 63. 63 Going Digital
  64. 64.©2009 Portigal Consulting 64Reading Ahead Research Findings The Gold Standard • As new technologies emerge, people are willing to give up certain things in exchange for convenience, price, or to meet a social standard • The previous technology may still be seen as “the best” – the Gold Standard – but people’s everyday behaviors reflect the new option – LPs are better than CDs (or MP3s) for gazing at the cover art – CDs have more accurate reproduction than MP3s – Yet, industry experts predict sales of digital music files will equal CD sales by the end of 2010 • Will it be the same for books? – Bookstores are best for an exploratory, immersive browsing experience, yet online shopping has hurt both chain and independent brick-and-mortar book retail – Will the convenience of carrying 100 books on our digital reader ameliorate the loss of the sensory pleasures of paper? – As people grow up with digital books, will people adapt more naturally to the differences from printed books, and make choices accordingly?
  65. 65.©2009 Portigal Consulting 65Reading Ahead Research Findings Guiding the transition • Companies can help consumers make a transition to digital by seeking ways to mitigate what might be lost, offering increased benefits, and helping to make new behaviors attractive and pleasurable Apple emphasized tangible benefits (capacity) and emotional benefits (the inner listening experience)
  66. 66.©2009 Portigal Consulting 66Reading Ahead Research Findings The digital reading experience • Digital readers let people carry far more reading material than physically possible with printed books • Readers can effortlessly acquire new content anytime and almost anywhere • Currently not providing readers with as rich a total experience as books
  67. 67.©2009 Portigal Consulting 67Reading Ahead Research Findings Different platforms provide different experiences Post-readingPre-reading Reading • Awareness • Anticipation • Personal history • Pick book up and hold • Waiting to acquire • Tactile variety • Turning pages • Flipping around • Annotating • Bookmarking • Recommend • Share • Lend • Trade • Discuss • Awareness • Instant acquisition • Recommend • Discuss • Tactile uniformity • Button press • Electronic notes & bookmarks
  68. 68.©2009 Portigal Consulting 68Reading Ahead Research Findings Books and digital can coexist • Both the book reading and the digital reader experience have a place in our lives Jeff: I don’t think this thing (Kindle) replaces my paper books, and I’ll certainly still, if I’m at a bookstore and I see a really beautiful book… I’ll buy it”
  69. 69. 69 Looking Forward
  70. 70.©2009 Portigal Consulting 70Reading Ahead Research Findings Has the book been fully explored? Book designers have used dozens of techniques to support navigation or other aspects of the experience, yet most books do not make use of those techniques • Chris: “There’s a lot more that can be done with this format. I don’t think it has to go to computers for these authors to be more creative. They could take what’s good about books already…” Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern experiments with new approaches to typography, layout, binding in each issue
  71. 71.©2009 Portigal Consulting 71Reading Ahead Research Findings How can we create a rich digital reading experience? Post-readingPre-reading Reading
  72. 72.©2009 Portigal Consulting 72Reading Ahead Research Findings How can we create a rich digital reading experience? 1. Include the sensual 2. Support the social side of reading 3. Consider the varied modes and rituals of reading 4. Develop the ecosystem
  73. 73.©2009 Portigal Consulting 73Reading Ahead Research Findings 1. Include the sensual Provide sensory and kinesthetic elements that deliver the total experience readers seek
  74. 74.©2009 Portigal Consulting 74Reading Ahead Research Findings Put the book back into the device • Design the digital reading device with more of the tactile and interactive aspects of books While only a conceptual piece and not an a realistic solution, this Kindle case offers the touch and gesture of a hardcover book
  75. 75.©2009 Portigal Consulting 75Reading Ahead Research Findings Give the device its own distinct gesture • A new gesture (and language that lets people teach each other about it) helps create acceptance Texting is immediately recognizable without seeing the person’s face or the screen Gellin’ became a catchphrase to describe a new behavior layered on top of the old behavior of wearing shoes
  76. 76.©2009 Portigal Consulting 76Reading Ahead Research Findings 2. Support the social side of reading Support and expand the social aspects of the reading experience
  77. 77.©2009 Portigal Consulting 77Reading Ahead Research Findings • Netflix has many different elements that tell you see what others have watched in the past, plan to watch in the future, or how they rate have rated films Incorporate social networking
  78. 78.©2009 Portigal Consulting 78Reading Ahead Research Findings • Peer-to-peer sharing brings social interaction to device usage and encourages product sales • Communities build acceptance for new products and behaviors Bring people together Zune Social is “an online music community powered by what you and your friends are listening to” Apple’s rumored peer-to-peer app sharing leverages the offline behavior of people comparing iPhones
  79. 79.©2009 Portigal Consulting 79Reading Ahead Research Findings Bring people together • Shelfari is a social networking site that seeks to replicated the offline social connectedness of reading
  80. 80.©2009 Portigal Consulting 80Reading Ahead Research Findings Bring people together • Sony has just launched Words Move Me, a site that invites people to share their favorite “literary moments” and then browse the Reader store
  81. 81.©2009 Portigal Consulting 81Reading Ahead Research Findings Prioritize functionality for sharing • Zune places functionality for sharing at the top level of its menu structure
  82. 82.©2009 Portigal Consulting 82Reading Ahead Research Findings Encourage interactions across multiple platforms • A more open product or service can be more fully integrated into people’s lives
  83. 83.©2009 Portigal Consulting 83Reading Ahead Research Findings • Support the varied modes and rituals of reading Work Fun Interstitial BedtimeFocused Private Family 3. Support the varied modes/rituals of reading
  84. 84.©2009 Portigal Consulting 84Reading Ahead Research Findings Reading aloud • Optimize voices, pacing, emphasis, revealing pictures, etc. for reading aloud to children
  85. 85.©2009 Portigal Consulting 85Reading Ahead Research Findings Be friendliest for transit • Compensate for vehicle motion • Allow for frequent interruption of eye-gaze (i.e., highlight last read word)
  86. 86.©2009 Portigal Consulting 86Reading Ahead Research Findings Support bedtime ergonomics • Adjust to ambient lighting • Offer a timer • Support a range of body/hand/face positions
  87. 87.©2009 Portigal Consulting 87Reading Ahead Research Findings 4. Develop an ecosystem Harness the “power of many” to support new behaviors and grow the category
  88. 88.©2009 Portigal Consulting 88Reading Ahead Research Findings • iPod and iPhone are at the center of a vast system of products, companies, and experiences The iPod ecosystem
  89. 89.©2009 Portigal Consulting 89Reading Ahead Research Findings • eBay has created/spawned a network of products and services that have made it a powerful player and grown the auction category • There are many different ways to engage with the eBay ecosystem and they serve as a hub for that extended community The eBay ecosystem PayPal solves a specific eBay problem (how to safely send and receive money to pay for online auctions) and becomes a separate solution to many other problems around moving money eBay doesn’t certify third parties that sell on your behalf, but they make that information available on their site. Consignment stores further expand the ecosystem
  90. 90.©2009 Portigal Consulting 90Reading Ahead Research Findings • Growth of the ecosystem normalizes new behaviors and creates even broader opportunities for products, services, and communities And it just gets bigger and bigger…
  91. 91. 91 Wrapping Up
  92. 92.©2009 Portigal Consulting 92Reading Ahead Research Findings For Future Work • Study other “users” in the system – Authors, publishers, retailers – Educators • Explore other issues – Ownership of digital content • Consider more platforms and formats – iPhone, netbook, Google Books, digital library books • Storyboard/prototype current ideas and conduct further contextual research
  93. 93.©2009 Portigal Consulting 93Reading Ahead Research Findings We want your feedback!
  94. 94.©2009 Portigal Consulting 94Reading Ahead Research Findings More Portigal Consulting? We can work with your team to explore the specific implications this work has for your business We can work with your organization to help you discover and act on new insights across other categories or customer segments