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Well, We've Done All This Research, Now What? Copyright is held by the author/owner(s).CHI 2011, May 7–12, 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada.ACM 11/05.
Agenda 2:00 – 3:20 	Turning field data into insights Introduction					10 minutes  Observation Process				15 minutes Synthesis Process 		15 minutes  Fieldwork Exercise				40 minutes  Break! 4:00 – 5:20 	Turning insights into solutions Synthesis Exercise 				25 minutes  Ideation Process 				10 minutes  Ideation Exercise 				35 minutes  Wrap Up 					10 minutes
Introduction
Typical development lifecycle What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch Iterate & improve
Where we work Take a fresh look at people What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch Iterate & improve
Where we work Use existing ideas as hypotheses What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch Iterate & improve
Where we work Is it working like we hoped? What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch Iterate & improve
Where we work What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch History provides context to explore new ideas Iterate & improve
Synthesis & ideation process Fieldwork Synthesis Ideation Development
Analysis Synthesis Ideation Solutions Strategies Opportunities Detailed solutions Insights Synthesis & ideation process
Cultural data from fieldwork Case study: iPod accessories
Observation
Homework Check-in Your mission: Dedicate at least half an hour to walking around and  observing people in your neighborhood Props to Dominic, Tyson,  Martin, Karine, James, Darlene
Homework Check-in Who was able to do the assignment? Was this anyone’s first experience doing observational fieldwork? Is there anyone who has not done user or observational research in the field?
Methods & inputs (not today…) Generally we integrate methods, aka triangulation We choose, mash-up, or create methods based on the problem. Today we’re doing an abbreviated version of observational fieldwork Portigal URF2010 15
Observing Notice what… people, places Notice how… processes, sequences, interactions Suspend your point of view Avoid conclusions Allow confusion Do it “out loud” Steve, practicing his “noticing.” You can tell because he looks like he may be a little confused.
You’re observing people within their culture. Notice how cultural artifacts reflect and define the environment; and reveal what is “normal” Normal isn’t “right or wrong” – it’s the set of background rules that define much of what people choose or ignore Media Products Advertisements Street Culture Trends/Fads Cultural context What are they selling?
Cultural context Portigal URF2010 18
Cultural context Portigal URF2010 19
Synthesis naturally begins inthe field Resist meaning (for now) Focus on observations Get the detail Create time to talk after each fieldwork experience Over multiple sessions and participants, over time Write up real-timesummaries for the team, ASAP In-field debriefing (not today…) Fieldwork highlights captured in the wild.
Synthesis
DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis Combining multiple pieces into something new  e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis The process gradually moves from one to the other Combining multiple pieces into something new  e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
Sense-making through an iterative process of refining gathered data Early, Informaldata in your head First, process the experience you had collecting data Refer to debriefs and conversations Articulate and identify themes Outcome: Topline Report Process-based, Formalheavy lifting Then, process the data itself Individual and group analysis Pattern-identification, clustering, models, frameworks Outcome: Opportunities More narratively, what is synthesis? Review, Refine, Rinse, Repeat
After fieldwork, collate reflections and quickly externalize a starter set of 5 to 10 thematic areas based on Pre-identified areas of inquiry Refer to debriefs and conversations from the field New patterns that we observed Identify interesting areas; acknowledge that you don’t understand details yet, identify questions Outcome: Topline Report All right researchers… what did you see? Early, informal synthesis (data in your head)
This sheds light on what excites the team and the stakeholders and brings focus to the next stage of synthesis. The topline report
Go back through your raw data very closely to move beyond the Topline Report  Individually (heads-down) and collaboratively (heads-up) develop clusters, identify patterns, collate and refine findings Process maps, eco-systems Frameworks, models Design implications i.e.: What did other public announcements in the study look like? What are the layers of information and cultural context? What form factors are favored? Why? Process-based, formal synthesis (heavy lifting)
Heads down! ,[object Object]
Photos, field artifacts
TranscriptsTranscript analysis ,[object Object]
Ask yourself questions; give labels; propose solutions
Don’t worry about implications, be descriptive and reactiveIndividual analysis (not today…)
If you can’t get transcripts, watch video/listen to audio (even sped-up) and in near real-time jot down the rough narrative of the session ,[object Object],Individual analysis
Heads up!  Tell stories, narrate highlights, give each its due. Use notes, transcripts, and other artifacts  Voice and document reactions, a-has, support and questions Clustering White-board notes Develop a new shared point-of-view, beyond “findings” Outcome: Opportunities No discussion of the synthesis process would be complete without a reference to Post-It ® Notes Collaborative analysis
Opportunities are not  A reporting of “interesting findings”  A list of solutions Opportunities are Change we can envision based on what we heard and observe About people In the context of but reframing the business questions Generative, inviting many solutions Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Developing opportunities What should we do?
Your mission: Imagine you are working on a project for Gentrific8, looking for ideas to redevelop parts of Vancouver Harbor around the Convention Centre, Gastown, etc. Form groups of 2 – 3. Mix it up Wander and observe people, interactions and environments Do it out loud! Capture (photos, notes) What, who, where, when? Why, how? Exercise: Explore!  This is not a design audit of signage or merchandise displays
Exercise: Explore!
Finish by 3:20 for your break! Exercise: Explore!
Synthesis
Topline    	    Collaborative Analysis    	Opportunities Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Summary of synthesis exercises Share the heavy lifting Determine generative directions Externalize the data in your head
After fieldwork, join forces with another group Quickly review what happened (today and from your homework) and what you saw. Collate reflections. Resist the urge to move too far towards conclusions Don’t refer to notes or photos yet Keep your own experiences, existing hypotheses, cultural clichés, etc. in the background Develop 3 - 5 themes as a “Topline Report” sketching out the big takeaways, leading into further synthesis Don’t fuss over exact wording Exercise: Develop a topline (8 minutes) All right researchers… what did you see?
Evolve your “Topline Report;” flesh out and enrich themes Write your themes and put them up Leave space for new ones too Now tell stories from the field (from your neighborhood and today), using photos, notes and memory Rethink the relationships between the themes, pick your strongest themes and write a sentence with a point of view Go from “Graffiti everywhere” and “Teen gangs hanging out” to “Public spaces in the neighborhood are used to communicate identity and belongingness” Exercise: Develop findings (8 minutes)
Build on your findings Start each opportunity with a verb Opportunities are not  A reporting of “interesting findings”  A list of solutions Opportunities are Change we can envision based on what we heard and observe About people In the context of but reframing the business questions Generative, inviting many solutions Exercise: Identify opportunities (8 minutes) Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems What should we do? What should we do?
Ideation
A simple step moves you from Opportunities to Ideation Questions, reframing them into actionable language  How can we keep the human touch in communication allow people to move seamlessly between places allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems How can we How can we Ideate! Ideation questions
Scope of solutions Solutions exist across many different business areas  Functionality Visual design Marketing Architecture Public Services Partnerships Events Software Form factor Packaging Policy Retail design Even if you are unlikely to impact certain business areas, it’s crucial that you set that constraint aside for ideation How many business and civic areas to impact can you spot in this picture?
Developing strategies Responses to any ideation question can lead in different strategic directions Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet  Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke? Support underlying needs and behavior by embracing the finding Question needs and behavior, seek change by challenging the finding Create a protected environment for smoking Eliminate smoking
Strategies can inspire solutions Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet  Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke? Strategies Create a protected environment for smoking Eliminate smoking Solutions FacilitiesBuild a pavilion AdminAllocate interior room PartnersAlign with nearby cafe OnlineSmoking cessation games AdminBan smoking PartnersStop smoking coaches
Solutions can suggest strategies Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet  Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke? Strategies Create a protected environment for smoking Eliminate smoking Solutions AdminAllocate interior room AdminBan smoking
Collaborative generation This is a collective, out-loud activity! Talk, listen, build on each other’s ideas Don’t worry about a “bad” idea… it may lead to a “good” idea Don’t correct; generate alternatives “Yes, and…” This is a visual activity! Sketch, draw… Quantity over quality; go quickly Individual ideas matter less than what the collective produces overall How can a sour lemon help keep things working smoothly?
Stuck? Come up with bad ideas Immoral Dangerous Bad for business
Summary of ideation exercises Questions    	    Business Areas        Ideation and Sharing How can we keep the human touch in communication allow people to move seamlessly between places allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems How can we How can we Ideate! Shift to “How can we…?” Figure out where we can play Remember, “Yes, and…”
Exercise: Ideation questions Apply How can we…? to each of your Opportunities How can we keep the human touch in communication allow people to move seamlessly between places allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems How can we How can we Ideate!
Exercise: Business areas Let’s collectively list possible business areas to design for Think about whatever Gentrific8 could do or affect Use this list as a starting point Functionality Visual design Marketing Architecture Public Services Partnerships Events Software Form factor Packaging Policy Retail design Incentives How many business and civic areas to impact can you spot in this picture?
Exercise: Ideation (25 minutes) Use your ideation questions to generate strategies and solutions Out loud Visual Collaborative Consider the range of possible business areas Bounce back and forth between generating strategies and solutions Most ideas will not turn out to be winners; the goal is to practice connecting research data to solutions Apply lemon as needed.
Exercise: Prepare to share (2 minutes) Rapidly align on your team’s best ideas and message Choose a messenger The wise team will choose a bold, expressive spokesperson
Exercise: Pitch it back! (8 minutes)
Wrap it up
Next steps: Prioritization
Big group voting
Small group ranking…and reconciliation Ranking factors may even include how clear the idea is Color indicates voting winner

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CHI2011 - We've Done All This Research, Now What?

  • 1. Well, We've Done All This Research, Now What? Copyright is held by the author/owner(s).CHI 2011, May 7–12, 2011, Vancouver, BC, Canada.ACM 11/05.
  • 2. Agenda 2:00 – 3:20 Turning field data into insights Introduction 10 minutes Observation Process 15 minutes Synthesis Process 15 minutes Fieldwork Exercise 40 minutes Break! 4:00 – 5:20 Turning insights into solutions Synthesis Exercise 25 minutes Ideation Process 10 minutes Ideation Exercise 35 minutes Wrap Up 10 minutes
  • 4. Typical development lifecycle What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch Iterate & improve
  • 5. Where we work Take a fresh look at people What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch Iterate & improve
  • 6. Where we work Use existing ideas as hypotheses What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch Iterate & improve
  • 7. Where we work Is it working like we hoped? What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch Iterate & improve
  • 8. Where we work What to make or do Refine & prototype Launch History provides context to explore new ideas Iterate & improve
  • 9. Synthesis & ideation process Fieldwork Synthesis Ideation Development
  • 10. Analysis Synthesis Ideation Solutions Strategies Opportunities Detailed solutions Insights Synthesis & ideation process
  • 11. Cultural data from fieldwork Case study: iPod accessories
  • 13. Homework Check-in Your mission: Dedicate at least half an hour to walking around and observing people in your neighborhood Props to Dominic, Tyson, Martin, Karine, James, Darlene
  • 14. Homework Check-in Who was able to do the assignment? Was this anyone’s first experience doing observational fieldwork? Is there anyone who has not done user or observational research in the field?
  • 15. Methods & inputs (not today…) Generally we integrate methods, aka triangulation We choose, mash-up, or create methods based on the problem. Today we’re doing an abbreviated version of observational fieldwork Portigal URF2010 15
  • 16. Observing Notice what… people, places Notice how… processes, sequences, interactions Suspend your point of view Avoid conclusions Allow confusion Do it “out loud” Steve, practicing his “noticing.” You can tell because he looks like he may be a little confused.
  • 17. You’re observing people within their culture. Notice how cultural artifacts reflect and define the environment; and reveal what is “normal” Normal isn’t “right or wrong” – it’s the set of background rules that define much of what people choose or ignore Media Products Advertisements Street Culture Trends/Fads Cultural context What are they selling?
  • 20. Synthesis naturally begins inthe field Resist meaning (for now) Focus on observations Get the detail Create time to talk after each fieldwork experience Over multiple sessions and participants, over time Write up real-timesummaries for the team, ASAP In-field debriefing (not today…) Fieldwork highlights captured in the wild.
  • 22. DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
  • 23. DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis Combining multiple pieces into something new e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
  • 24. DTDT: Analysis vs. Synthesis The process gradually moves from one to the other Combining multiple pieces into something new e.g., developing themes, implications, opportunities Synthesis Analysis Break large piece(s) into smaller ones in order to make sense e.g., interviews, transcripts into anecdotes, stories
  • 25. Sense-making through an iterative process of refining gathered data Early, Informaldata in your head First, process the experience you had collecting data Refer to debriefs and conversations Articulate and identify themes Outcome: Topline Report Process-based, Formalheavy lifting Then, process the data itself Individual and group analysis Pattern-identification, clustering, models, frameworks Outcome: Opportunities More narratively, what is synthesis? Review, Refine, Rinse, Repeat
  • 26. After fieldwork, collate reflections and quickly externalize a starter set of 5 to 10 thematic areas based on Pre-identified areas of inquiry Refer to debriefs and conversations from the field New patterns that we observed Identify interesting areas; acknowledge that you don’t understand details yet, identify questions Outcome: Topline Report All right researchers… what did you see? Early, informal synthesis (data in your head)
  • 27. This sheds light on what excites the team and the stakeholders and brings focus to the next stage of synthesis. The topline report
  • 28. Go back through your raw data very closely to move beyond the Topline Report Individually (heads-down) and collaboratively (heads-up) develop clusters, identify patterns, collate and refine findings Process maps, eco-systems Frameworks, models Design implications i.e.: What did other public announcements in the study look like? What are the layers of information and cultural context? What form factors are favored? Why? Process-based, formal synthesis (heavy lifting)
  • 29.
  • 31.
  • 32. Ask yourself questions; give labels; propose solutions
  • 33. Don’t worry about implications, be descriptive and reactiveIndividual analysis (not today…)
  • 34.
  • 35. Heads up! Tell stories, narrate highlights, give each its due. Use notes, transcripts, and other artifacts Voice and document reactions, a-has, support and questions Clustering White-board notes Develop a new shared point-of-view, beyond “findings” Outcome: Opportunities No discussion of the synthesis process would be complete without a reference to Post-It ® Notes Collaborative analysis
  • 36. Opportunities are not A reporting of “interesting findings” A list of solutions Opportunities are Change we can envision based on what we heard and observe About people In the context of but reframing the business questions Generative, inviting many solutions Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Developing opportunities What should we do?
  • 37. Your mission: Imagine you are working on a project for Gentrific8, looking for ideas to redevelop parts of Vancouver Harbor around the Convention Centre, Gastown, etc. Form groups of 2 – 3. Mix it up Wander and observe people, interactions and environments Do it out loud! Capture (photos, notes) What, who, where, when? Why, how? Exercise: Explore! This is not a design audit of signage or merchandise displays
  • 39. Finish by 3:20 for your break! Exercise: Explore!
  • 41. Topline Collaborative Analysis Opportunities Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Summary of synthesis exercises Share the heavy lifting Determine generative directions Externalize the data in your head
  • 42. After fieldwork, join forces with another group Quickly review what happened (today and from your homework) and what you saw. Collate reflections. Resist the urge to move too far towards conclusions Don’t refer to notes or photos yet Keep your own experiences, existing hypotheses, cultural clichés, etc. in the background Develop 3 - 5 themes as a “Topline Report” sketching out the big takeaways, leading into further synthesis Don’t fuss over exact wording Exercise: Develop a topline (8 minutes) All right researchers… what did you see?
  • 43. Evolve your “Topline Report;” flesh out and enrich themes Write your themes and put them up Leave space for new ones too Now tell stories from the field (from your neighborhood and today), using photos, notes and memory Rethink the relationships between the themes, pick your strongest themes and write a sentence with a point of view Go from “Graffiti everywhere” and “Teen gangs hanging out” to “Public spaces in the neighborhood are used to communicate identity and belongingness” Exercise: Develop findings (8 minutes)
  • 44. Build on your findings Start each opportunity with a verb Opportunities are not A reporting of “interesting findings” A list of solutions Opportunities are Change we can envision based on what we heard and observe About people In the context of but reframing the business questions Generative, inviting many solutions Exercise: Identify opportunities (8 minutes) Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems Keep the human touch in communication Allow people to move seamlessly between places Allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems What should we do? What should we do?
  • 46. A simple step moves you from Opportunities to Ideation Questions, reframing them into actionable language How can we keep the human touch in communication allow people to move seamlessly between places allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems How can we How can we Ideate! Ideation questions
  • 47. Scope of solutions Solutions exist across many different business areas Functionality Visual design Marketing Architecture Public Services Partnerships Events Software Form factor Packaging Policy Retail design Even if you are unlikely to impact certain business areas, it’s crucial that you set that constraint aside for ideation How many business and civic areas to impact can you spot in this picture?
  • 48. Developing strategies Responses to any ideation question can lead in different strategic directions Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke? Support underlying needs and behavior by embracing the finding Question needs and behavior, seek change by challenging the finding Create a protected environment for smoking Eliminate smoking
  • 49. Strategies can inspire solutions Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke? Strategies Create a protected environment for smoking Eliminate smoking Solutions FacilitiesBuild a pavilion AdminAllocate interior room PartnersAlign with nearby cafe OnlineSmoking cessation games AdminBan smoking PartnersStop smoking coaches
  • 50. Solutions can suggest strategies Finding:Students have to smoke outside, but they get cold and wet Opportunity: Improve the experience of students who smoke Ideation Question:How can we improve the experience of students who smoke? Strategies Create a protected environment for smoking Eliminate smoking Solutions AdminAllocate interior room AdminBan smoking
  • 51. Collaborative generation This is a collective, out-loud activity! Talk, listen, build on each other’s ideas Don’t worry about a “bad” idea… it may lead to a “good” idea Don’t correct; generate alternatives “Yes, and…” This is a visual activity! Sketch, draw… Quantity over quality; go quickly Individual ideas matter less than what the collective produces overall How can a sour lemon help keep things working smoothly?
  • 52. Stuck? Come up with bad ideas Immoral Dangerous Bad for business
  • 53. Summary of ideation exercises Questions Business Areas Ideation and Sharing How can we keep the human touch in communication allow people to move seamlessly between places allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems How can we How can we Ideate! Shift to “How can we…?” Figure out where we can play Remember, “Yes, and…”
  • 54. Exercise: Ideation questions Apply How can we…? to each of your Opportunities How can we keep the human touch in communication allow people to move seamlessly between places allow people to integrate seamlessly across different devices and systems How can we How can we Ideate!
  • 55. Exercise: Business areas Let’s collectively list possible business areas to design for Think about whatever Gentrific8 could do or affect Use this list as a starting point Functionality Visual design Marketing Architecture Public Services Partnerships Events Software Form factor Packaging Policy Retail design Incentives How many business and civic areas to impact can you spot in this picture?
  • 56. Exercise: Ideation (25 minutes) Use your ideation questions to generate strategies and solutions Out loud Visual Collaborative Consider the range of possible business areas Bounce back and forth between generating strategies and solutions Most ideas will not turn out to be winners; the goal is to practice connecting research data to solutions Apply lemon as needed.
  • 57. Exercise: Prepare to share (2 minutes) Rapidly align on your team’s best ideas and message Choose a messenger The wise team will choose a bold, expressive spokesperson
  • 58. Exercise: Pitch it back! (8 minutes)
  • 62. Small group ranking…and reconciliation Ranking factors may even include how clear the idea is Color indicates voting winner
  • 63. How experts use frameworks Fieldwork Synthesis Ideation Development
  • 64. Coming in 2012! A book by Steve Portigal The Art and Craft of User Research Interviewing http://rosenfeldmedia.com/books/user-interviews/
  • 65. I’ve got a tip (that you didn’t cover) that works well for me… Yeah, I’ve got a question for ya… One new thing I learned today is…
  • 66. Thank you! Portigal Consulting www.portigal.com @steveportigal steve@portigal.com +1-415-894-2001

Editor's Notes

  1. Try multiple viewpoints (i.e., customer vs. worker)Give it timeAllow yourself to be confused for a whileIdentify what you want to know more aboutWhy?