USH Ch. One

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USH Ch. One

  1. 1. Creating A Nation. Converging Cultures. Chapter One.
  2. 2. The Earliest Americans. <ul><li>Early American civilizations: </li></ul><ul><li>Olmec, Maya, Aztec, and Anasazi. </li></ul><ul><li>Native American groups in New World were/are VERY culturally diverse! </li></ul><ul><li>These groups were present from 1500 B.C. </li></ul>
  3. 3. European Explorations. <ul><li>Leif Ericsson. 1000 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus. 1492. </li></ul><ul><li>Cortes. 1521. Aztecs. </li></ul><ul><li>Pizarro. 1532. Inca’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Pounce de Leon, Coronado, and Desoto. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cultural Changes. <ul><li>Both Native Americans and Europeans Began to share parts of each others culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Tools, food, hunting/farming methods, and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases, introduced by the Europeans, hurt the Native Americans badly. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Early French/English Settlements. <ul><li>New France-New Orleans up to 1/3 of the present U.S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Jamestown-1607. This was a Joint-stock company. </li></ul><ul><li>House of Burgesses-1619. </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrams-1620. Puritans pushed out of England. </li></ul>
  6. 6. New England Colonies. <ul><li>Puritan religious intolerance lead to other settlements. </li></ul><ul><li>Roger Williams, Ann Hutchinson, and Thomas Hooker were forced to leave. </li></ul><ul><li>New England economy based and shipping and commerce. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Middle Colonies. <ul><li>Settled by Dutch first-1609. </li></ul><ul><li>William Penn created Pennsylvania in 1681. </li></ul><ul><li>Economy based on farming. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Southern Colonies. <ul><li>George Calvert started the Maryland colony for Catholics-1630. </li></ul><ul><li>James Oglethorpe created the Georgia colony in 1733 for debtors in English prisons. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Triangular Trade-Growth of the colonies. <ul><li>Colonies--England--Caribbean, and Africa. </li></ul><ul><li>Slave codes: No property, education, moving freely, or meeting in large groups. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Women and Jews. <ul><li>Both these groups also do not have have equal rights with white males. </li></ul><ul><li>This discrimination would last for another 350 years. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Dissent And Independence. <ul><li>Mercantilism: Export/Sell more good than you import. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercantilism lead to colonies. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation Act 1663. Stop over in England to pay taxes? </li></ul><ul><li>This lead to lots of smuggling by colonists! </li></ul>
  12. 12. Glorious Revolution-1688. <ul><li>Mary and William Orange installed by Parliament as King. </li></ul><ul><li>They had to swear to abide by the English Bill of Rights. </li></ul><ul><li>What happened to “Divine Rights Of Kings?” </li></ul>
  13. 13. John Locke-1690. <ul><li>People are BORN with certain natural rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Life, liberty, and property. </li></ul><ul><li>King’s right to rule came from the PEOPLE! </li></ul><ul><li>Social Contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Locke had to leave England. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Enlightenment. <ul><li>Locke was a part of The Enlightenment. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment period: It supported reason, logic, and science as the way to learn the truth. </li></ul><ul><li>It supported democratic ideas and human rights. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Rousseau-Montesquieu.1700’s. <ul><li>Rousseau also had a Social Contract, BUT he stated that the people should pick the ruler. </li></ul><ul><li>Montesquieu added to this with the idea of having THREE branches of government. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Great Awakening. <ul><li>New protestant religions were created during the 1700’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Baptists welcomed slaves and and considered slavery evil. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Salutary Or Benign Neglect. For four hundred years England paid littler or no attention to the colonies. Why?
  18. 18. Growing Rebelliousness. <ul><li>French-Indian War-1763. </li></ul><ul><li>War between England and France that was fought all over the world, including North America. </li></ul>
  19. 19. French-Indian War Fall Out. <ul><li>England in heavy debt because of war. </li></ul><ul><li>England wants the colonists to pay taxes to help pay the debt. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this fair? </li></ul><ul><li>Have the colonist EVER paid taxes? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Unpopular Regulations/Actions By England. <ul><li>Proclamation Act of 1763. See page 113. </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act-1765. </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>“No taxation without representation.” </li></ul><ul><li>S.A. repealed in 1766. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Townshend Acts. <ul><li>New taxes on imported goods such as tea. </li></ul><ul><li>“Boston Massacre.” Five colonist were shot and killed by British soldiers during a riot. </li></ul><ul><li>The Committees Of Correspondence stirred up the killings as a “Massacre.” </li></ul>
  22. 22. Boston Tea Party-1775. <ul><li>Parliament gives English tea traders a MONOPOLY to sell tea to the colonists. </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to the colonial tea traders? </li></ul><ul><li>Bostonians dress up like Native Americans and dump the tea into bay. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Coercive Acts-1774. <ul><li>Boston tea party caused the Brits to do these actions: </li></ul><ul><li>Closed Boston Harbor. </li></ul><ul><li>Put British soldiers in private homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Revoked Mass. Charter and the right of self government. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Revolution Begins. <ul><li>Lexington and Concord is where the first blood was spilled. Over two hundred British soldiers are shot by Minutemen. 1776. </li></ul><ul><li>George Washington made top general of colonial troops. </li></ul><ul><li>Victory at Yorktown-1781. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Constitution. <ul><li>Framers chose a republic. </li></ul><ul><li>First government was called the Articles of Confederation. WEAK! </li></ul><ul><li>It was made weak by design. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Northwest Ordinance and Land Ordinance Acts of 1787-Successful. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Shay’s Rebellion. <ul><li>Economic depression forced farmers to take-up arms. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers didn’t want to lose their farms. </li></ul><ul><li>Shay’s Rebellion ALMOST topples the A.O.C. government. </li></ul><ul><li>A bunch of farmers? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Debate And Compromise. <ul><li>Great Compromise/Big State-Small State Compromise. </li></ul><ul><li>Three-Fifths Compromise. </li></ul><ul><li>Commerce Compromise. </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral College Compromise. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Common Agreement. <ul><li>Popular Sovereignty. </li></ul><ul><li>Federalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Checks and balances. </li></ul><ul><li>Amendments-Formal changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Electoral College. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Debating The Constitution. <ul><li>Federalists-Pro Constitution-Hamilton, Adams, John Jay, and Washington. </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Federalists-Jefferson, Thomas Paine. </li></ul><ul><li>Bill Of Rights broke the log jam. </li></ul>

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