Urban Environments - IB

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Urban Environments - IB

  1. 1. Urban Environments key terms revision
  2. 2. Table of Contents ∗ urbanization ∗ centripetal vs. centrifugal movements ∗ rural-urban migration ∗ gentrification ∗ re-urbanization/urban renewal ∗ suburbanization ∗ urban sprawl Urban Environments Key Terms List Follow the link or go to the next slide ∗ global mega-city ∗ urban land use/location theory ∗ CBD ∗ inner city ∗ brownfield sites ∗ greenfield sites ∗ urban stress ∗ urban microclimate
  3. 3. Table of Contents ∗ The proportion of the world’s population who live in rural areas has been decreasing as compared to the proportion of the world’s population who live in urban areas. ∗ The process by which this proportion continues to rise and more and more people move to cities is called urbanization. ∗ Natural increase (more births than deaths) also contributes to urbanization as more babies are born in cities and rural to urban migration continues. Urbanization
  4. 4. Table of Contents ∗ Push and pull factors ∗ Droughts, natural hazards and desertification and high birthrates have all led to increasing the push factors which cause people to move to urban areas ∗ Access to jobs and steady food and water supply lead to pull factors which draw people into urban environments. ∗ As demand for land in inner cities goes up, prices also goes up which pushes some people out and causes suburbanization. Centripetal and centrifugal movements / rural – urban migration
  5. 5. Table of Contents ∗ When higher classes want to move from suburban areas to urban areas, parts of a city can be gentrified. This is the process whereby increasing rents do to increasing demand prices some people out of the area and nicer shops, restaurants and services move in to make the area nicer. When this happens, crime rates tend to fall, physical disorder decreases and new constructions often follows. Gentrification/re-urbanization urban renewal
  6. 6. Table of Contents ∗ As rents in the centre of a city increases, commuters seeking to have small plots of land, gardens/backyards move to the rural-urban fringe. Often this includes other towns and villages that were once separate from the urban area. Eventually they become part of the urban area as most of the people work in the city rather than the suburban area (village/town) they live in. ∗ As cities develop ring roads and access routs from the far reaches of the suburbs, it become easier to commute and if the economy of the city can support it, urban sprawl can grow and grow. Suburbanization/urban sprawl
  7. 7. Table of Contents ∗ Megacities are defined as urban areas of 10 million people or more. ∗ It tends to include the greater metropolitan area of a city, which includes the suburban towns and even other cities… ∗ For instance, Jersey City and Newark are separate cities from New York City but could be (but may not be) considered part of the greater New York Metropolitan area, which is a megacity of approximately 22 million people. ∗ Many of the world’s megacities are growing rapidly in Asia Megacity
  8. 8. Table of Contents ∗ The sector models of Burgess and Hoyt represent aspects of location theory. ∗ There may also be multiple nuclei in a city if there is one commercial centre and a different cultural or historic centre. ∗ In the location theory, which has evolved over time, the value of land is predicted based on distance from the city centre, industrial areas, transportation routs, prevailing winds and the relief of the land. Urban Land Use / Location Theory
  9. 9. Table of Contents ∗ The CBD is the commercial and business centre/heart of a city. ∗ Building are usually built higher in the CBD than other districts due to high cost of land. ∗ Due to higher volume of footfall, CBD buildings often have shops on the first floor, often high visibility boutique shops. ∗ Office buildings for Banks, insurance firms and the like are likely to want CBD addresses. ∗ Low profit margin businesses like grocery stores may be located underground or be small with excellent space efficiency. Department stores make have multiple floors. ∗ It is often the historic and tourist centre as well, but doesn’t have to be under the theory of multiple nuclei. Central Business District
  10. 10. Table of Contents ∗ This is a term used to describe a specific area of the Burgess model of urban land use. It refers to an area of generally low-income housing, perhaps even public housing projects that were designed for workers of the factory district on the outskirts of the CBD. ∗ In a Hoyt sector model, it would be the residential area closest to the industrial area and would again be low- income housing. Inner City
  11. 11. Table of Contents ∗ Brownfield Sites: Building on a site which was previously industrial ∗ This is common in cities which are post-industrial, especially in MEDCs where land towards the city centre is highly valued but, perhaps, expensive to clean up to prepare for new construction. Brownfield sites are a possible solution to land shortages in cities which have high demand for land and can help gentrify an area. Brownfield Sites
  12. 12. Table of Contents ∗ Greenfield Sites: Building on a site which was not previously build on, perhaps a forest, agricultural or grassland area. ∗ Greenfield sites are cheaper to build on in the short term because there is no industrial waste to clean up. ∗ Building on greenfield sites may decrease land value in the surrounding land which would no longer be near a greenfield site. Greenfield Sites
  13. 13. Table of Contents ∗ The environmental quality and health issues that affect LEDCs, but it also speaks about how social factors affect the well being of citizens. ∗ Air pollution: Increases in industry and car ownership account for the high levels of carbon dioxide into the air, reducing air quality. ∗ Water pollution: The increased surface run-off due to the flat surfaces and lack of soil in cities, as well as the creation of sewage systems take toxic chemicals directly to the river. ∗ Social Stress: Individuals in cities are exposed to many different factors such as crime, traffic congestion, housing shortages and ethnical divisions. These factors affect the well being and performance of individuals in society. Urban Stress
  14. 14. Table of Contents ∗ A microclimate is any area that has a different climate than the surrounding area. ∗ Usually it is due to a geographical feature or relief. Bodies of water, valleys and mountains may all experience microclimates. ∗ An urban microclimate is one who’s temperature and possibly rainfall are different specifically because it is an urban area which a lower albedo. ∗ This typically causes higher temperatures, especially at night when the suns energy is radiated back into the air. ∗ The effects of urban microclimates can be reduced by increasing green space and tree cover as well as simple things like painting rooftops white or using materials that reflect rather than absorb radiation. Urban Microclimate (urban heat island effect)

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