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# Ageing and youthful populations

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Ageing and youthful populations

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### Ageing and youthful populations

1. 1. Ageing and Youthful Populations GETTY IB Geography-Populations in Transition
2. 2. Syllabus Checkpoint By the end of this Power-point, you should be able to: - Explain dependency and Ageing Ratios. - Examine the impacts of youthful and Ageing Populations. rapt , -3::
3. 3. Dependency Ratios - A country's population can be divided into three groups, old dependents, young dependents and economically acﬁve. Old dependents: Anyone over the age of 65. These people are normally retired. Young dependents: Anyone under the age of 16. These people are normally being cared for at home or are at school Economically active: People between the ages of 16 and 65. These people are normally working and pay taxes.
4. 4. Dependency Ratios Dependency Ratio: the relation between dependents (old and young) and economically active. The dependency ratio is calculated using the following formula: N. B: The dependent Population isithe sum of old and young dependentsfl Examples: 1. The UK has a dependency ratio of 0.65 (2004) l 2. India has a dependency ratio of 0.54 (2012) 3. Greece has a dependency ratio of 0.37 (2004)
5. 5. Factors influencing High Dependency Ratios: Increasing life expectancy- people are living longer, which means that more children are being bom and are also living longen Falling death rates- Less deaths due to advances in medical care mean that less elderly are dying of degenerative diseases and infant mortality rates are decreasing. Rising Birth rates- more children + live to a large age. Immigration of dependents- if young and elderly migrate into a country, the dependency ratio will rise. Emigration of economically active- ‘If economically active leave the country, the dependency ratio will rise as the number of economically active decreases.
6. 6. Ageing dependency Ratios Ageing ratio: The proportion of people over the age of 65 compared the total population. Ageing dependency ratio: Econctnically population aged 65+ X100 ‘W’ population aged 15-64
7. 7. Graphing Dependents It would be possible to show a country's population structure on a triangular graph. For example, the graph below would show old dependents on the left hand axis (15%), young dependents on the right hand axis (35%) and economically active on the bottom axis (50%). 0102030 405050 70 3090100
8. 8. Introduction to Ageing Populations Definition: A rise in the median age of the population usually associated with an increase in the proportion of old dependents. Causes of Ageing Populations: High life expectancy caused by: , / , . ° Good medical care ° Good diet and improved water supply ~ Good sanitation and hygiene '-§ «; . L, .4 Low birth rates caused by: ‘ ' - Emancipation of women - Cost of children ~ Emigration of economically active
9. 9. Problems caused by Ageing Populations Negative Impacts of Ageing Populations might include: 0 Shortage of economically active and economic depression Reduced taxation income for the govemment Cost of providing healthcare and care homes (elderly tend to get ill more frequently) Reduced spending on education, policing, transport network, etc. Cost of paying for pensions Service decline (schools, sports centres, etc. not used by older residents)
10. 10. Solutions to an Ageing Population Solutions to an Ageing Population might include: - Pro-natalist policies (e. g. Singapore) - Increased immigration of economically active - increased retirement age (e. g. UK) - Private pensions (e. g. Aviva) ~ Private healthcare (e. g. Bupa) 0 Increased taxes of economically active The Simple solution: Have Babies! ii .11.? T “~é. i.; : «T T1 l, i
11. 11. Advantages of Ageing Populations Positive Impacts of Ageing Populations might include: - Elderly people have a lot of experience and can be valuable in the workplace. - Less money spent on schooling and natal medical care. - Lower crime rates and less money needed to be spent on policing. Pros and Cons of having Elderly workers: n cons Workers will have a lot of experience of the It might be necessary to retrain some staff in workplace (wide skill base) new skills e. g. ICT Elderly workers will not take maternity or Elderly workers are more likely to get sick- pay paternity leave more for health insurance. Elderly workers are often more loyal and seen Elderly workers are harder to invest in, because as been more reliable they could retire at any time. Elderly workers may be more willing to work Elderly people might be unable to work in many part-time or flexi-time so companies can alter manual (physical) jobs. staff to meet demand.
12. 12. Case Study: The UK’s Ageing Population ‘_r" .1“~: ~Z~¢; T.T; ﬁ'~-my-, ‘ I, ,, (V T’? - - ~ ‘V’ '-‘. l rt. ) )1’ TI ’ -A‘. I ~» I? " ‘ an . » rt-LE FENILE : .5 2.» x. ': ; .o air. 9.» 0.) c. ': 1.4 ‘. :5 vopii: at: m- in nu: mini Scurccx l. ‘.E Ccrcuc Eureau. lrtzrr-atxcral [Lita 5.22:.
13. 13. Reasons for the UK’s Ageing Population - In 2005, 16% of the UK’s populations were over 65. This is expected to rise to 25% by 2041. Reasons for the UK’s Ageing Population: 1. Increasing life expectancy- between 1980 and 2006, life expectancy in the UK rose 2.8 years for women and 4 years for men. It is currently 81.3 for women and 76.9 for men. As people live longer, the number of older people increases. 2. Baby Booms- Lots of babies were born in the 1940’s and 60’s. These large generations are starting to retire, increasing the number of elderly in the UK. 3. Falling Birth Rate- there are fewer young people, so the proportion of older people is greater.
14. 14. What problems does this cause? The UK’s Ageing population has many negative impacts: 1. . Many elderly people living in poverty Pressure on the pension system- there aren’t enough people of working—age to pay for an adequate pension for the retired population. State pensions are paid for by the working population through taxes. - the state pension isn’t very large, and many people don’t have other savings. This is because the working population isn’t large enough to provide a better pension. Pressure on the health service- older people often need more medical care than younger people. For Example, the average stay in hospital in 2005 for people over 75 was 13 nights, whereas the UK population as a whole had an average of 8 nights.
15. 15. Introduction to Youthful Populations Deﬁnition: A fall in the median age of the population usually associated with an increase in the proportion of young dependents. Causes of Youthful Populations: High birth rates caused by: ° lack of family planning ° No education about contraception - High infant mortality ° Primary based economy - No care for old dependents from government - Immigration of young dependents ' Tradition and status of large families (prestige)
16. 16. Problems caused by Youthful Populations N 3“)/9 l_mP3Ct_3 Of _Y0UthfUl -we Mu! MIluluuuluuHHOHHIIIHNM“ opulatrons might include: -~ ummmmmmmmcuiiw , urcruvuzmr ( ‘Hi - Cost of_ childcare and CJKVOWKIMI. ::: ::: ::: ::. :::1:". “' education cw mum muw - Increased dependency ratio CL: - Increased cost of child :12 . - beneﬁts paid by the . ,_. . , ,,m, ,,, . ‘' , government arm cuuuire - Shortage of workers (in the "””ff, °j I, ‘ short-term) mm-~ - Cost of healthcare , “""fj ""“[f . . . . . *""°°“- lClGC~- / (midwives, health visitors, FINN . ... ... = A etc. ) 9-W nu" ‘ T A 7 - Spending diverted from IE £223 , l defense, transport, etc. ~»~~ 0"» T’ “'ll’-‘2". "5 ! l'JYlV ri».1V'Ir
17. 17. Solutions to an Youthful Populations Solutions to an Youthful Population might include: ~ Anti-natalist policy (e. g. China’s one Child Policy) ° Increased immigration of economically active ~ Privatised education (remove cost from government) ‘I , . ,6-7 - Privatised healthcare (remove cost from government) 23’ - Removal of child beneﬁts. [Is this realistic? ] . / - Reduced birth rates (family planning, contraception, etc. ) ~ Reduced infant mortality rates (people then normally have less babies) ~ Greater care of old dependents (less children needed to care for elderly) - Immigration restrictions (quotas)
18. 18. Advantages of Youthful Populations Positive Impacts of Youthful Populations might include: » Lower death rates so less money spent on care homes/ hospitals - Educated and IT literate population (many elderly people are unfamiliar with new technology) - Abundance of future workers Strong military in the future - Large future market (young people are often interested in consumer goods)
19. 19. Case Study: Uganda’s Youthful Population WVLE Tr‘ - i233 H17; 3.5 2.0 2.3 210 x. 's 1.'o 0.5 0.0 o. o ofs 1.'o : i.'s 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5‘ Pupuiauur. r. ... ..r1.u. .:> Saute: U. >. Census i5_Ul"§a| a_. I, nt_ernation, a1 Data Base.
20. 20. Reasons for the Uganda’s Youthful Population o In 2007, 50% of the population was under 15 and only 3% were over 65. The population is becoming even more youthful. Reasons for Uganda’s Youthful Population: 1. High birth and fertility rates- every year there are 48 babies born for every 1000 people, and women have an average of 7 children during their reproductive years. 2. Low Life Expectancy of around 52 years- there are very few older people, which means the proportion of the population made up of young people is very high.
21. 21. What problems does this cause? - Uganda’s Youthful population has many negative impacts: 1. Overpopulation- The population currently stands at around 30 million, but by 2025 it is thought that it will grow to about 56 million. This leads to consequent problems: 2. Pressure on the health service- around 6000 women already die each year in childbirth. When the youthful population reaches the reproductive age, the pressure on the health service will be even greater, potentially leading to more deaths. The health system is also stretched because of AIDS. It is passed on from mother to child and through un-protected sex, which means that AIDS may spread further when the youthful population start to have children, putting even more strain on the health system. 3. Unemployment could get much worse- In 2003, unemployment in Uganda was 3.2%. However, 50% of the population are under 15 and so weren’t accounted for in those ﬁgures. When the large youth population reaches working age there won't be enough jobs for them all, which means that unemployment will rise further, causing poverty to increase.