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Valuing our food and water resources steven m. finn - june 2014

  1. Valuing Our Food and Water Resources Food Security, Water Security, and Food Recovery Minimizing Waste, Maximizing Opportunity Steven M. Finn ResponsEcology, Inc. University of Pennsylvania
  2. Some Key Issues Via Headlines China’s Bad Earth Food Recycling Faces Snags Hey Farmers Market Snobs: Ugly Produce Needs Love Too The Great Balancing Act Global Food: Waste Not, Want Not Europe Unleashing Full Scale Attack on Food Waste Recycling the Leftovers A Troubling Pattern of Excessive Food Loss Food Prices Surge as Drought Exacts a High Toll on Crops Food Waste Worsens Greenhouse Gas Emissions: FAO Battle Over Drought Remedy Is clean water the new oil? How 40% of Our Food Goes to Waste The Real Focus For Food Recovery The drying of the West Food Security Requires Water Security
  3. The Key Constant: Food + Water = Life + =
  4. Food Security: It’s a Local Problem • Over 50 million Americans (about 1 in 6) lived in food insecure households in 2011 - About 17 million children - About 5 million seniors Source:, 2013 • Question: Is this a meal?
  5. …And It’s a Global Problem • 842 million people (12% of the global population) were undernourished from 2011 to 2013 Source: FAO, WFP, and IFAD 2013 • About 98% of these individuals live in developing countries Source: FAO, WFP, and IFAD 2013 • Roughly 2 billion individuals face one or more micronutrient deficiencies Source: FAO 2013
  6. …And It’s Linked to Resources • Resources – such as water – that are increasingly scarce, and increasingly linked As McKinsey notes: • Up to 3 billion more middle-class consumers will come on line in the next 20 years • Demand for resources is increasing; finding & extracting them is increasingly expensive • Environmental factors limit production • Rising concern about inequality might require action Source: Dobbs, et al. 2011
  7. …And It’s Linked to Environment • Feeding 9 billion by 2050 requires sufficient quality land and water • Agriculture already uses 70% of freshwater for irrigation, and 38% of ice-free land Source: Foley, 2011 • Pollution is a critical global constraint
  8. The Challenge Ahead: • So we need to: • Feed another 2 billion by 2050 • Ensure adequate water for 9 billion people • Get more from existing resources • Do so in a way that ensures survival of people and planet • Make outputs of one process inputs to others One key starting point: Reduce Food Waste
  9. Low Hanging Fruit?
  10. The Opportunity Now: • Reframe: View 9Bx2050 as an Opportunity • Key: The problem of food waste is tied to the twin problems of poverty and the environment • Food Waste = the low-hanging fruit; it provides a huge opportunity for global collaboration on eliminating hunger & optimization of resources • Start by reducing, and redirecting, our enormous amount of food waste – and put it to good use
  11. Reduce Waste through Partnerships Going from loss/waste to productive use….
  12. Food Waste in the US: Scope • 1977: a study estimated that 20% of the food produced in the US for human consumption was lost annually – at that time 137 million tons with a value of $31 billion Source: USDA Report to Congress, 1977 • Two decades later, another study estimated US food losses at 96 billion pounds annually (or 27% of food available for human consumption) Source: Kantor et al., 1997
  13. • A recent NRDC report noted that 40% of the food in the US is not eaten • This translates to 20 lbs. of food per person per month and a value of $165 billion Source: Gunders, 2012 Food Waste in the US
  14. Food Waste in the US Recent USDA Study: • 31% of the available food supply at the retail and consumer levels in 2010 was not eaten • A total of 133 billion pounds of food (meat, poultry, fish, vegetables, dairy, etc.) • Value of $162 billion Source: Buzby, Wells, & Hyman, 2014
  15. Food Waste in the UK • High rates of food waste in the UK as well WRAP noted that: • UK households waste 6.7 million tons of food per year (about 33% of purchases) • With proper management, more than 60% of that food could have been eaten • Nearly 25% of all avoidable food waste was discarded in a whole/unopened state Source: WRAP, 2008
  16. Global Losses • A study by SIWI noted that food losses and wastage could be as high as 50% from field to fork Source: Lundqvist,2008
  17. Global Losses • About 1/3 of all edible parts of food produced globally for human consumption go to waste annually • That’s 1.3 billion tons annually Source: Gustavvson et al., 2011
  18. Global Food Waste by Product Source: FAO: Food Wastage Footprints, 2012
  19. One Trillion Reasons • In US dollars, FAO estimates food losses and food waste total about $680 billion in industrialized countries, and $310 billion in developing countries Source: FAO Save Food, 2013 • That’s nearly one trillion US dollars… $ 1,000,000,000,000
  20. Global Losses: The Message • Global food losses of this magnitude are unconscionable – especially when viewed in parallel with hunger • “The potential to provide 60-100% more food by simply eliminating losses, while simultaneously freeing up land, energy, and water resources for other uses, is an opportunity that should not be ignored.” Source: Fox, Institute of Mechanical Engineers, 2013
  21. Some Causes of Food Waste • Extreme Weather • Pests • Regulations • Overly selective quality standards • Damage from machinery • Loss in Transport and storage • Food prep and conversion • Supply and demand variability • Damaged packaging • Over-purchasing • Confusion over sell-by dates • Plate waste Source: Kantor et al. 1997
  22. Where Food Waste & Losses Occur • Developing countries (post harvest and processing) vs. Industrialized countries (retail and consumer) Source: Gustavvson et al., 2011
  23. Developing countries • Lack of infrastructure is critical • Transportation, refrigeration problems • Much material is lost in transit to market, or rots in inadequate storage facilities • Little waste at market; food is simply too valuable!
  24. Industrialized countries • Highly efficient transportation systems allow for rapid movement of food over great distances • Consumers expert convenience, fully stocked shelves at all times and “perfect” produce • System based on oversupply and uniformity • Vast amounts of waste at market • “Imperfect” produce culled out at farm
  25. Excess Fruit In, Excess Fruit Out • Excess supply and quest for perfection = waste
  26. Overstocking leads to waste • Variety 24x7 is costly
  27. Chicken In, Chicken Out • The waste goes beyond fruit and vegetables
  28. Poor Infrastructure, and Apathy • Food waste in developing nations results from a lack of infrastructure for storage and transportation • Food waste in industrialized nations stems largely from a culture of abundance, and apathy
  29. Abundance = Myth, Illusion “Industrialized nations need to learn what it means to live in scarcity – because the appearance of infinite abundance is an illusion.” Tristram Stuart, Waste, 2009
  30. Valuing Food and Resources • How much do we value our food? • And the resources to produce it? • How often do we consider the weaknesses of the food system, and the waste that results?
  31. A Move to Mainstream • Food Waste is not yet a mainstream issue in industrialized nations • The US spends $1 billion annually to dispose of food waste Source: 2013 • It must become part of national, and global, agendas
  32. Global Food Waste: Significance • Food Waste has direct and significant bearing on the two most pressing issues of our time – poverty/hunger and the environment
  33. Significance: Lost Calories • Wasted food prevents needed calories from reaching the mouths of the needy • If we could save ¼ of the food currently lost or wasted globally, it would be enough to feed the 870 million hungry across the globe today Source: FAO Save Food 2013
  34. Significance: Wasted Nutrients • All too often, high quality calories (fruits, vegetables, and meat proteins) go to the waste stream rather than to individuals
  35. Significance: Obesity • More than 1/3 of Americans are obese, including 17% of children ages 2-19 • Source: 2013 • In the US, obesity rates have doubled in children and tripled in adolescents in the last 30 years Source: 2013 • High quality calories currently being wasted could offset the challenges of food deserts
  36. Environmental Impact • Wasted Food = Wasted Water • “Globally, the loss of water through food wastage would easily meet the household water needs of the 9 billion people expected in 2050” Source: FAO: Food Wastage Footprints, 2012
  37. Environmental Impact: Air • Wasted Food = Air Pollution • Food waste is a major component of landfills; decomposing food pollutes the air and contributes to global warming through methane emissions • Methane gas has more than 20 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide Source:, 2013
  38. Environmental Impact: Energy • Wasted Food = Wasted Energy • US food wastage represents 300 million barrels of oil per year • That’s 4% of our nation’s oil use Source: FAO: Food Wastage Footprints, 2012 • And we use even more energy when we haul it away to landfills
  39. Environmental Impact: Resources • Wasted Food = Wasted Resources • Waste of all of the Agricultural inputs that went into producing the wasted food – including fertilizer and pesticides – which also contribute to water pollution via runoff
  40. Environmental Impact: Soils • Wasted Food = Depleted soils • The production of meat and dairy products wasted annually in the US and UK require 8.3 million hectares (about 2/3 the size of NY) Source: FAO: Food Wastage Footprints, 2012. • The press for land disrupts climate and hydrological cycles, and threatens to reduce the productivity of land by 25% this century Source: Stuart, 2009.
  41. A Dysfunctional Circle Current Food System: Roughly half of food lost along the way
  42. The Impact of Dysfunction • We’re producing more than we need in developed countries • At every stage we are devoting finite resources to produce food that we eventually discard • In the final stages we inflict even more harm on the environment by disposing of food that we did not use (methane emissions, groundwater) • We fail to divert over a billion tons of excess food to eliminate hunger annually
  43. The Result: Wasted Nutrition & Resources
  44. Typical Findings in Retail Sector • Bad enough • Far Worse
  45. A Problem of Global Security • How secure is a world where billions are hungry, and live in communities with others who have more than they need? • Where hunger and obesity coexist? (Dr. Mehmood Khan, PepsiCo) • And it’s not just a problem for the developing world
  46. And a Moral Problem • There is a moral issue here as well • All individuals have a basic right to food and adequate nutrition • Yet we discard immense quantities of food, enough to totally eliminate hunger Source:, 2013) • On moral grounds alone, reducing food waste should be a global priority
  47. Sum: The Disconnect with Food Waste We waste roughly 30-50% of food produced, yet: • Roughly 1 in 8 across the globe are hungry • We need to feed another 2 billion by 2050 • Resources are limited/environment is challenged • We need to find sustainable ways to close the calorie gap anticipated by 2050
  48. And What About Water? • How do we think about water in our affluent society? • A Strong Parallel to Food • Low (or no) cost • Culture of Abundance • High Amount of Waste • Lack of Investment in Infrastructure
  49. How Much Do We Value Water? • “If the human body is 60 percent water, why am I only two percent interested?” Stephen Colbert, from Unquenchable (Glennon, 2009)
  50. The Link to Water Security • Food security depends upon water security • Without adequate, safe water supplies, we will not be able to feed the world population
  51. Why We Should Care • Water = the “common thread that links all aspects of human development.” • Water security: necessary for all social and economic sectors, and for supporting the world’s natural resource base Source: Rio+20 Policy Brief; Water security for a planet under pressure
  52. Why We Should Care • Population grew fourfold in the 20th century, while demand for water grew by a factor of nine…. • Global freshwater demand expected to exceed current supply by over 40% by 2030…. Source: Note – that’s just over 15 years away….!
  53. Why We Should Care • Increasing pressure on global water supplies due to population growth, growing economies, and poor water management • “We simply cannot continue to use water as wastefully as we have in the past; we have to change the way we manage our water resources.” Source: Rio+20 Policy Brief; Water security for a planet under pressure
  54. Water Scarcity – Troubling Signs • It’s Real…And it’s Spectacularly Troubling… Domestically: • Serious drought in the US West • Declining aquifers in the Midwest • Decaying Infrastructure • Threats to drinking water supplies, tourism and business, power generation, food production
  55. Key Water Issues To Consider Source: Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Jan. 20, 2014. Pollution: • Dangerous chemical leaks shut off local water supplies • Strong short-term impact • Long-term change?
  56. Water - A Common(s) Problem • Tragedy of the Commons theme (Hardin) • Overuse and abuse of water resources by individuals and organizations depletes the resource for all • Externalities • No incentives to conserve
  57. A Parallel to the Oceans • “If nothing is done, Kiribati will go down into the ocean. By about 2030, we start disappearing.” Source: Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Nov. 21, 2013 • Impact of climate change is a factor for freshwater, too!
  58. Potential for Crisis Globally: • World Economic Forum ranked Water Crises as third risk of highest concern in 2014 • Themes – floods, drought, potential for conflict over supply, increased demand as income levels rise, pollution, links to food and energy production • Need for investments in information, institutions, and infrastructure • And need for behavior change… Source: Global Risks 2014 report, WEF
  59. Potential for Crisis US Intelligence Community Assessment: • In next 10 years, water problems will contribute to instability in states important to US national security • Beyond 10 years, water in shared basins will be increasingly used as leverage, and the use of water as a weapon or terrorist target becomes more likely • Water problems combined with other social and economic problems can lead to state failure Source: Intelligence Community Assessment, 2013.
  60. A Question of Value • How often do we think about water? • We expect permanent high-quality supply for little or no cost…(“turn on the tap” mindset) • “Water – by far the most valuable resource on this planet – is treated as if it did not have any value at all.” Source: Peter-Brabeck-Letmathe, McKinsey Quarterly, December 2009
  61. A Paradox • Diamonds/Water • Which is truly essential? Which do we value more?
  62. Key Water Issues To Consider • Supply is finite • Aquifers are declining • Growing population • More affluent population • Climate Change • Link to Agriculture • Link to Energy • Infrastructure
  63. Key Water Issues To Consider • The Critical Link: Water & Agriculture • Feeding 9 billion by 2050… • Not without adequate water! • “Unless we increase our capacity to use water wisely in agriculture, we will fail to end hunger and we will open the door to a range of other ills, including drought, famine, and political instability.” UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, FAO, 2012
  64. Key Water Issues To Consider • Significant need for Infrastructure upgrades and investment: • “We lose 7 billion gallons of water a day through pipe leaks” Jeff Sterba, CEO, American Water Source: Bloomberg BusinessWeek, March 2013.
  65. Food & Water: Acting More Sustainably Need for Sustainable Intensification: • Only one earth; and a finite set of natural resources • To meet future global needs, must produce more with existing resources and not degrade the long-term productivity of the environment Source: Faures and White, 2011
  66. Mindset Change We need global mindset change for sustainable behavior: • Social impact • Environmental impact • Resource Efficiency (i.e. people, planet, profit)
  67. Acting More Sustainably London has the right idea regarding excess food:
  68. From Awareness to Responsible Action • Business: Awareness of the value of water • Need to link that awareness to core business operations • Promote responsible water use • The same holds for food • Embrace sustainability as competitive advantage
  69. Integrated Water Resources Mgmt. IWRM: “A process that promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare without compromising the sustainability of ecosystems and the environment.” • Sustainable Approach • Challenge – Requires Change, Individual/Political Will Source: Rio+20 Policy Brief, Water security for a planet under pressure
  70. Integrated Water Resources Mgmt. A Clear Need for Responsible Water Management: Photos courtesy of Taylor Hawes, The Nature Conservancy (TNC)
  71. A More Sustainable Approach • Cycle for living systems: - Produce, recycle, regenerate • Cycle for industrial age systems: - “Take, make, waste” • Challenge: shift thinking to emulate natural systems • Circular versus linear • Reduced Waste • Less environmental impact Source: Senge & Carstedt, 2001
  72. A More Sustainable Approach United By Blue: • Linking clean-up of waterways to core business – removes one pound of trash from the world’s oceans and waterways for every product sold Photos courtesy of Brian Linton, United By Blue
  73. Partnerships with Sustainability Focus • Sainsbury’s partners with Google to develop an online tool that offers recipes based on the ingredients that a customer has on hand • Reduced food waste; cost savings Source:, 2014.
  74. Need: A Long Term Sustainable Focus • “At present we are stealing the future, selling it in the present, and calling it gross domestic product. We can just as easily have an economy that is based on healing the future instead of stealing it.” Source: Hawken, 2009.
  75. Overcoming Barriers to Change Food waste and water security – some key obstacles: • Insufficient Awareness • Culture of Abundance • Waste is Too Easy • Excessive Short-Term Focus • Excessive Concern Over Risk (Fear of Liability, Loss of Reputation) • Lack of Infrastructure (local and global) • Lack of Leadership – excessive focus on status quo • Lack of Recognition of the Opportunity (not thinking big enough)
  76. The Need for Awareness & Action • Increased awareness of the scale of the global food waste problem is needed among consumers, business, and government leaders • Tangible action is needed by them to reduce food waste as part of a broad, durable, collaborative global resource optimization strategy to prepare the world for 9 billion people by 2050
  77. Action: Recovering Food, Reducing Waste Focus: • Feeding People • Feeding Animals • Saving the Environment • Optimizing Resource Use And: • Meaning – helping others • Higher Purpose – Social Mission
  78. What Does Food Recovery Require? • Commitment • Communication • Organization • Reliability • Logistics • Partnerships • Flexibility • Resources (money, infrastructure, people) • Creativity – new ideas; outside the box thinking
  79. Who Can We Learn From? • A broad range of individuals, food banks, and food recovery agencies • Small to large; meaningful lessons from all • Most have a unique niche/mission • Niche often stems from background story, or surroundings • Common: Sense of Mission!
  80. Local Partnerships with Farmers • Solly Farms – apples, & more • Rook Farms – sweet corn • Durable and expanding • 85,000 lbs.+ in two years
  81. Partnership with Agricultural College • 3-Way Partnership – Delaware Valley College, Philabundance, and BCOC • Match needs and strengths of partners • Fresh produce supply • Build social mission & sustainability focus into curriculum • Student input • Positive press • Expanding
  82. Power of Individuals Sarah Marie Hopf – Dartmouth student: • Idea: use remaining meal card $ to help needy • Created awareness; collected plate waste • Partnered with students; proved concept • Overcame obstacles • Swipe for Hunger • Creates $ for agencies to buy food year-round • Also inspires food drives
  83. Power of Individuals Anna Chan • The Lemon Lady – Northern California • Faced food insecurity in youth • Little access to fresh fruit • Now harvests from residential trees in CA • Leaves letters on doorsteps with her daughter • Utilizes her own SUV – Urban Gleaning • Has collected over 300 tons of fresh fruit for CA pantries in 4 years; all volunteer effort
  84. Power of Small Willing Hands: Upper Valley (NH and VT) • One truck – continuous pickup and delivery • Operates 7 days/wk, serves 57 groups/wk • Focus: lots of quality surplus food available • Collects/distributes high nutrition food • Highly efficient, shows value of staying local • Established relationships with stores/farmers • Benefit of small size: control, local impact
  85. Power of Mission Society of Saint Andrew (SOSA): • Faith-based; gleaning = core • Capture excess quality produce in fields and packing facilities • Premise: we have all of the the food resources we need • Capture imperfect produce (free) • Connect, Redirect truckloads • Uses knowledge infrastructure • 2012: captured 33 million lbs. of produce, 100 million servings
  86. Power of Founding Vision Ag Against Hunger – CA: • Founded by grower • History drives mission • Only real function: to prevent food waste • Capture 14 million lbs/yr • Abundant opportunities • 1,000 volunteers • 168 million lbs. to date! • Timing and logistics critical • Impact: CA and beyond
  87. Power of Creative Thinking Doug Rauch – Daily Table • Battling food deserts, and the “paradox” of increased food insecurity and obesity rates • Creative model: capture excess food from existing stores; resell at very low prices in new store in food desert • Challenges: transportation, product concerns, perfection idea • Culture challenge: resentment toward “rich man’s food” Source: Rauch, 2011 Source: Russell and Abelson, 2013
  88. Power of Simplicity Food Recovery Network: • Founded by students, University of Maryland • Concept: collect leftover food from dining halls nightly; deliver to local shelters • Dozens of chapters • Growing, scalable • 407K lbs. since 2011 • Original Estimate: 75% of colleges do no recovery Source:
  89. Power of Education Organizational Dynamics at UPenn: • Global Pennovation Class – focus on massive global problems; such as food waste • Awareness campaign • Local and global reach
  90. Education - Global Pennovation class • Local impact; on-campus Awareness campaign • Recovery of excess food, redistribution and messaging (local) • Effective social media (global reach):  Video  Twitter  Facebook  Website/blog
  91. Linking Food Waste and Recovery • It’s not just about production • Key: We waste enough to feed the world • Food waste harms the environment further First ask the question: Why? Then: • Collaborate and Partner to recover food • Be reliable; innovate to overcome obstacles • Redirect high quality calories to the needy Impact: solve social and environmental problems
  92. Food Recovery: Some Key Lessons • Farmers don’t like food waste either • Individuals want to contribute positively • Match needs and strengths of organizations • Individuals are powerful change agents • Small and local are efficient and powerful • Relationship management drives success • Vested teams get results and are durable • Alternative recovery concepts are growing • There are vast opportunities to recover high quality food – we are scratching the surface
  93. Conclusions • Our values are far out of balance • We have lost touch with the value of our food – and our water – to the detriment of people and planet
  94. Conclusions • The current state of waste, pollution, hunger, and water scarcity is unsustainable • In 2050, the world’s scarce resources will be impacted by another two billion people, many of whom will have increased purchasing power putting a further strain on resources • We cannot afford to waste 30-50% of our food, nor can we afford the environmental impact of that waste
  95. The Need to Reframe • The effort to reduce global food waste is a key component of the larger sustainability effort to provide food to millions, improve the environment, and create a more secure world • It is an essential journey in which we all need to participate • Need to view as an opportunity that cannot be missed
  96. Reframe and Act On Opportunity • Resource Optimization focus; systems view • Increased attention on utilizing existing food rather than simply producing more – there is much to capture! • Raise awareness/educate • Collaborate and create partnerships • Promote legislation to ban food waste from landfills • Replicate successful models (multiple levels) • Push food recovery through the supply chain • Promote creativity (donations, transportation, stores) • Success will breed success and hybrid models
  97. Questions? Contact Steven M. Finn at ResponsEcology 215-208-5416
  98. References • Ag Against Hunger, 2013 • Barrett, “It’s Leaking Lawsuits, Too.” Bloomberg BusinessWeek. January 20, 2014. • Bloom. American Wasteland. 2010. • Dobbs, et al. Resource Revolution: Meeting the world’s energy, materials, food, and water needs. 2011. • EPA Food Recovery Hierarchy, 2013. • FAO. Save Food. Global Initiative on Food Losses and Waste Reduction. 2013. • FAO, “Success in hunger fight hinges on better use of water.” March 22, 2012. • FAO. Sustainability Pathways. Food Wastage Footprints. 2012. • FAO. The State of Food and Agriculture. 2013. • FAO, WFP, and IFAD. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013. • Faures and White, “The state of the world’s land and water resources: A summary.” 2011.
  99. References • Finn, Sustainable Food Recovery Programs, 2011 • “Fix This – 5 Experts debate the future of mankind’s most important commodity.” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, March 25, 2013. • Feeding America, • Foley. Can We Feed The World & Sustain The Planet? 2011. • Food Recovery Challenge, 2013 • Food Recovery Network, 2013 • Fox. Global Food: Waste Not, Want Not. 2013. • Glennon, Unquenchable. 2009. • Global Pennovation class links: o Video: o Twitter: o Facebook: o Website:
  100. References • Goldberg, “The Drowning of Kiribati.” Bloomberg Businessweek. November 25, 2013. • Gunders, How America Is Losing Up to 40 Percent of Its Food from Farm to Fork. 2012. • Gustavvson et al. Global Food Losses and Food Waste – Extent, Causes, and Prevention. 2011. • Hawken, University of Portland Commencement Address. 2009. • Intelligence Community Assessment. “Global Water Security.” February, 2012. • Kantor, et al. Estimating and Addressing America’s Food Losses. 1997. • Khan. What is Food Security? shows/curiosity/videos/curiosity-expert-mehmood-khan-videos.htm • Lundqvist et al. Saving Water: From Field to Fork – Curbing Losses and Wastage in the Food Chain. 2008. • Rauch, Solving the American Food Paradox, 2011.
  101. References • Rio+20 Policy Brief, “Water security for a planet under pressure.” UN Conference on Sustainable Development. 2012 • Rischard, “New Global Agenda.” Progressive Politics. 2003. • Russell & Abelson, Putting expired foods to healthy use, 2013. • Sainsbury’s enlists Google to help tackle food waste challenge.” • Senge, Carstedt, and Porter, “Innovating Our Way to the Next Industrial Revolution.” MIT Sloan Management Review. Winter 2001. • Society of Saint Andrew, 2013 • Stuart. Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal. 2009. • USDA. Food Waste: An Opportunity To Improve Resource Use. 1977. • Water as a scarce resource: An interview with Nestle’s chairman.” McKinsey Quarterly. Winter 2009. • “World Economic Forum, Global Agenda Council on Water Security 2012-2104 (
  102. References • World Economic Forum, Global Risks 2014, 9th Edition. • WRAP. The Food We Waste. 2008. • 2013. • 2013. • 2013. • 2013. • • 2013. • Yunus. The End of Poverty. 2010.