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  1. 1. Browsers<br />
  2. 2. Browsers<br />xxx<br />
  3. 3. Browsers<br />What is a Browser?<br />
  4. 4. Browsers<br />A web browser, is the program you use to view pages and navigate the World Wide Web.<br />
  5. 5. Browsers<br />A wide array of web browsers is available for just about every platform you can imagine.<br />
  6. 6. Browsers<br />Most browsers are freeware or shareware or have a lenient licensing policy.<br />
  7. 7. Browsers<br />What the Browser Does<br />
  8. 8. Browsers<br />The core purpose of a web browser is to connect to web servers, request documents, and then properly format and display those documents.<br />
  9. 9. Browsers<br />Web browsers can also display files on your local computer, download files that are not meant to be displayed, and in some cases even allow you to send and retrieve email.<br />
  10. 10. Browsers<br />What the browser is best at, however, is dealing with retrieving and displaying web documents.<br />
  11. 11. Browsers<br />What the browser is best at, however, is dealing with retrieving and displaying web documents.<br />
  12. 12. Browsers<br />Each web page is a file written in a language called the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) that includes the text of the page, a description of its structure, and links to other documents, images, or other media.<br />
  13. 13. Browsers<br />The browser takes the information it gets from the web server and formats and displays it for your system.<br />
  14. 14. Browsers<br />Different browsers might format and display the same file in diverse ways, depending on the capabilities of that system and how the browser is configured.<br />
  15. 15. Browsers<br />Retrieving documents from the Web and formatting them for your system are the two tasks that make up the core of a browser’s functionality.<br />
  16. 16. Browsers<br />Depending on the browser you use and the features it includes, however, you also might be able to play Flash animations, multimedia files, run Java applets, read your mail, or use other advanced features that a particular browser offers.<br />
  17. 17. Browsers<br />What are some popular browsers<br />
  18. 18. Browsers<br /><ul><li>Microsoft Internet Explorer
  19. 19. Mozilla FireFox
  20. 20. Google Chrome
  21. 21. Safari
  22. 22. Opera</li></li></ul><li>Browsers<br />What are plugins?<br />
  23. 23. Browsers<br />Plug-ins such as the Flash player, QuickTime player, and others, are small helper programs (components) that extend the browser to support new functionality. Plug-ins are primarily a Netscape technology and have been around since Netscape Navigator 2.<br />
  24. 24. Browsers<br />They are supported by some other browsers, notably Opera. The embed element used to reference plug-ins is also supported under Internet Explorer, although it does result in the launch of an ActiveX control (a similar Microsoft technology).<br />
  25. 25. Browsers<br />Although plug-ins can go a long toward extending the possible capabilities of a browser, the technology does have its drawbacks. Users must locate and download plug-ins, install them, and occasionally even restart their browsers. Many users find this rather complicated.<br />
  26. 26. Browsers<br />Beginning with Netscape 4.x, some installation relief was found with somewhat self-installing plug-ins and other features, but plug-ins can still be occasionally troublesome for users. <br />
  27. 27. Browsers<br />To further combat this problem, many of the most commonly requested plug-ins, such as Flash, is being included as a standard with some browsers. <br />
  28. 28. Browsers<br />However, even if installation were not such a problem, plug-ins are not available for every machine; an executable program, or binary, must be created for each particular operating system. <br />
  29. 29. Browsers<br />Because of this machine-specific approach, many plug-ins work only on Windows-based systems.<br />
  30. 30. Browsers<br />A decreasing number of plug-ins work on Macintosh and even less on Linux or UNIX.<br />
  31. 31. Browsers<br />Finally, each plug-in installed on a system is a persistent extension to the browser, and takes up memory and disk space.<br />
  32. 32. Browsers<br />What are the benefits of using plugins?<br />
  33. 33. Browsers<br />The benefit of plug-ins is that they can be well integrated into Web pages. <br />
  34. 34. Browsers<br />You include them by using the &lt;embed&gt; or &lt;object&gt; tag. Typically, the &lt;embed&gt; syntax is used, but the &lt;object&gt; syntax is the preferred method because it is part of the XHTML specification and will, therefore, validate.<br />
  35. 35. Browsers<br />Browser Comparison<br />
  36. 36. Browsers<br />Not all web browsers are created equal.<br />
  37. 37. Browsers<br />Even though you may have standard compliant valid websites, your website may look different in different browsers.<br />
  38. 38. Browsers<br />This is because not all web browsers are not compliant with W3 standards.<br />
  39. 39. Browsers<br />How do we know if our browser is standards compliant?<br />
  40. 40. Browsers<br />The Web Standards Group have developed a testing procedure called an Acid 2 Test.<br />
  41. 41. Browsers<br />What is an Acid 2 Test??<br />
  42. 42. Browsers<br />Acid2 is a test page published and promoted by the Web Standards Project to expose web page rendering flaws in web browsers and other applications that render HTLM<br />
  43. 43. Browsers<br />Acid2 tests aspects of HTML markup, CSS 2.1 styling, PNG images, and data URIs.<br />
  44. 44. Browsers<br />The Acid2 test page will be displayed correctly in any application that follows the World Wide We Consortium and Internet Engineering Task Force specifications for these technologies. <br />
  45. 45. Browsers<br />These specifications are known as web standards because they describe how technologies used on the web are expected to function.<br />
  46. 46. Browsers<br />Let’s look at some browsers that have gone through the Acid2 Test<br />
  47. 47. Browsers<br />Let’s look at some browsers that have gone through the Acid2 Test<br />
  48. 48. Internet Explorer 6<br />
  49. 49. Internet Explorer 7<br />
  50. 50. Mozilla Firefox 2<br />
  51. 51. Mozilla Firefox 3<br />
  52. 52. Safari 3<br />
  53. 53. Opera 9<br />
  54. 54. Produced by Steven Cahill<br /><br />