This course covers fundamental occupational health and safety knowledge required to undertake work tasks within any sector in the construction industry.The course covers:• Duty of care and other legislative requirements• The identification of hazardous materials, including asbestos• Risk Assessment• Selection and application of safe work practices• Emergency Response After completing this course participants will have a basic knowledge of OHS legislative requirements, particularly as they apply to the roles and responsibilities of a professional involved in the construction industry.
OHS Legislation are laws and guidelines to help keep your workplace safe.These can be broken down into four main types:ActsLaws to protect the health, safety and welfare of people at workRegulationsWork with the Act to give more details or information on particular parts of the Act.Codes of PracticeAre practical instructions on how to meet the terms of the Law.Australian StandardsGive you the minimum levels of performance or quality for a hazard,work process or product.It is Important that you are familiar with the OHS laws that exist in yourstate or territory. Each state in Australia has its own OHS legislation andregulations that must be followed.
The following OHS Legislative Requirements will affect the way that you workin the construction industry: • Australian Standards • Construction Industry OHS Standards and Guidelines • Duty of Care • Health and Safety Representatives, Committees and Supervisors • Licences, Tickets or Certificates of Competency • National safety standards • OHS and Welfare Acts and regulations • Safety Codes of Practice.Talk to your OHS officer or representative if you have anyquestions about legislative requirements
Both you and your employer have a legal responsibility under duty of care to do everythingreasonably practicable to protect others from harm in the workplace.Duty of care applies to:•Employers and self-employed persons,•Persons in control of the work site,•Supervisors,•Manufacturers and suppliers,•Workers,•Subcontractors and inspectors.Your own responsibilities are to comply with safe work practices, including activities that requirelicences, tickets or certificates of competency. You should take reasonable care to protect the healthand safety of yourself and others through your actions at work.Your employer’s responsibility is to provide a safe working environment, systems, equipment,facilities, information, instruction and training. This safe environment should also extend toprotecting members of the public or visitors to the construction site.
Safe work practices are methods that must be implemented to make sure a job is carried out as safely as possible.Safe work practices include:• Day to day observation of OHS policies and procedures• Emergency procedures• Risk assessment• Use of basic fire-fighting equipment
Safe work practices are governed by legislative requirements and workplace proceduresSafe work practices relate to:• Access to site amenities, such as drinking water and toilets• Drugs and alcohol at work• General requirements for safe use of plant and equipment• General requirements for use of personal protective equipment and clothing• Housekeeping to ensure a clean, tidy and safer work area• Preventing bullying and harassment• Smoking in designated areas• Storage and removal of debris. Safe work practices should be referred to, and documented, when completing Safe Work Method Statements as a guideline for how to carry out a task safely.
All procedure and OHS documentation including hazard reports, risk assessments, safe work method statements and incident reports must be developed, completed and reference relevant site and construction industry information including:
An MSDS is a document containing important information about a hazardous chemical (which may be hazardous substance and/or dangerous goods) and must state:•A hazardous substances product name•The chemical and generic name of certain ingredients•The chemical and physical properties of the hazardous substance•Health hazard information•Precautions for safe use and handling•The manufacturer’s or importers name, Australian address and telephone number. The MSDS provides employers, self-employed persons, workers and other health and safety representatives with the necessary information to safely manage the risk from hazardous substance exposure. It is important that everyone in the workplace knows how to read and interpret a MSDS.
In respect of MSDS and labels, employers and self-employedpersons must: • Obtain an MSDS of a hazardous substance from the supplier. • Keep a register containing a list of all hazardous substances used at the workplace and put a copy of any MSDS obtained in the register. • Take reasonable steps to ensure the MSDS is not changed other than by the manufacturer or importer. • Keep the MSDS close to where the substance is being used. • Ensure a label is fixed to a hazardous substance container. • Ensure warnings are given about enclosed systems containing hazardous substances.
A Safe Work Method Statement (SWMS) details how specific hazards and risks, related to thetask they are completing, will be managed and is developed by the employer for their employees or by a sub-contractor.They fulfill a number of objectives:• They outline a safe method of work for a specific job.• They provide an induction document that workers must read and understand beforestarting the job.• They assist in meeting legal responsibilities for the risk management process, hazardidentification, risk assessment and risk control.• They assist in effectively coordinating the work, the materials required, the time requiredand the people involved to achieve a safe and efficient outcome.• They are a quality assurance tool.
Completing a SWMS:1. Break the job down into logical steps taking into consideration what is required to be achieved by the task.2. Against each step, identify the workplace hazards in this activity i.e. the ways that a person [or plant] could be injured or harmed [or damaged] during each step.3. Decide on measures required to mitigate hazards. i.e. what could be done to make the job safer and prevent the injuries or harm that may occur.4. Identify roles and responsibilities for actions and outcomes to make ensure risk controls are carried out and supervision of the process occurs.5. Ensure the SWMS is fully understood by all workers prior to commencing the task. “A SWMS must be prepared in consultation with those people who will be doing the job.”
The Safe Work Method Statement must be available for inspection atany given time.It must also be reviewed each year and amended if necessary.Safe Work Method Statements may also be referred to as Safe Work Procedures (SWP) or Job Safety Analysis (JSA).
A RISK is the chance of a hazard hurting you or somebody else or causing some damage.A HAZARD is the thing or situation that causes injury, harm or damage. For example: Using chemicals without the appropriate protective equipment is creating a hazard and increasing the risk of injury or harm. If you can remove or at least control a HAZARD you can reduce the RISK involved. This is known as RISK MANAGEMENT
Risk management is the process of reducing or managing the risks when working with or with a hazardor in a hazardous situation.Risk management is made up of the following stages:1. Hazard Identification2. Risk Assessment3. Consultation and Reporting4. Hazard Control5. Review
Risk Management must be conducted in accordance with:• Legislative, organisation and site requirements/procedures• Australian Standards (AS/NSZ 4360 – 2004)• Codes of Practice• Employment and workplace relations legislation• Equal employment opportunity and disability legislation
Each worksite has its own specific hazards. A site inductionneeds to inform you if any of these hazards exist on site. Someof these hazards can be removed through staff training, betterequipment and safe work methods. Talk to the OHS officer formore information.Each specific worksite will have risk management procedures,safety systems and information, and procedures forcommunication, reporting and record keeping. Beforeconducting a risk assessment at a work site, check to see whatsystems and procedures are in place as they may affect theoutcomes of the risk assessment.
Hazards that you are likely to have to deal with in the construction industry include:• Chemical spills • Manual handling• Electrical safety work in confined spaces • Moving machinery and equipment• Excavations, including trenches • Noise, dust and vapours• Falling objects • Overhanging beams• Fires • Protrusions• Gases • Sharp equipment• Hazardous materials • Traffic• High or very low temperatures • Ultraviolet (UV) radiation• HIV and other infectious diseases • Unplanned collapse• Liquids under pressure • Working at heights
Hazardous substances, dangerous goods, combustible liquids and lead are examples of hazardous materials classified according to their relevance to workplace health and safety.Hazardous materials can cause adverse health effects such as severe poisoning, asthma, skin rashes,allergic reactions, allergic sensitisation, cancer, and other long term diseases from exposure tosubstances as well as physical effects such as fire, explosion, release of hazardous gases andcorrosion.Hazardous materials include many commonly found industrial, commercial,pharmaceutical, agricultural and domestic chemicals.
It is important to understand the HAZCHEM code system when inspecting a work site.The number indicates the type of medium used:1 = the use of solid streams of water2 = the use of a water fog or fine water spray3 = the use of a water-based foam4 = the use of a dry agent such as a dry chemical powderYou may use a higher number classification than the one indicated but not a lower one (e.g. a 2would mean you could use water fog/fine water spray, water based foam or a dry agent. Youcould NOT use solid streams of water).
The first letter indicates the risk of violent reaction or explosion type of Personal ProtectiveEquipment (PPE) to be worn and whether the substances should be contained or diluted.Violent reactionP, S, W, Y = A violent reaction or explosion may occurPersonal Protective Equipment (PPE)P, R, W X = a full chemical protection suit and breathing apparatus should be worn.S, T, Y, Z = breathing apparatus only needs to be wornDilute or ContainP, R, S, T = Substance should be dilutedW, X, Y, Z = Substance should be contained
White letters on a black background indicate thatbreathing apparatus should be worn only if thesubstance is involved in a fireThere may be a letter E after the first letter. Thisindicates that evacuation of other personnel in thearea should be considered.
Class 1 ExplosivesClass 2 Gases (flammable, non-flammable, toxic)Class 3 Flammable liquidsClass 4 Flammable solids (substances liable to spontaneous combustion, and substances that emit flammablegases when wet)Class 5 Oxidising substances (oxidising agents and organic peroxides)Class 6 Toxic and infectious substancesClass 7 Radioactive materialClass 8 Corrosive substancesClass 9 Miscellaneous dangerous substances
Some common dangerous goods codes you may see on containers are:
Product specifications are written information describing important data about a product such as:• Hazards and hazard control measures• Safety requirements• Material requirements, targets and tolerances• Environmental requirements• Specific uses and limitations• Storage• Disposal• Technical information and drawings• Quality control and performance testing
Materials are classified as dangerous goods if they meet the criteria established by theUnited Nations and documented in Australia by the Australian Dangerous Goods Code.Hazardous substances and dangerous goods are chemicals forwhich a manufacturer or importer must prepare, amend, provideand review a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS).
You need to be able to detect asbestos-containing materials commonly used inbuildings and construction materials as part of working in the construction industry.Listed here are some examples of Asbestos-Containing Materials: • Asbestos rope/fabrics • Asbestos cement sheeting • Asbestos cement piping and lagging on pipes • Bituminous waterproof membrane • Fire doors • Electrical switchboards • Millboard • Sheeting under ceramic or vinyl floor tiles in wet areas.
Any identified ACM must be reported to designated personnel including:• Designated safety officers who have undertaken specific safety response training• Managers or other senior personnel• Personnel competent and or licensed in the safe handling of asbestos• Supervisors• Or in accordance with the Asbestos Management Code.Do not use the following equipment near identified asbestos-containing materials:• High-speed abrasive power and pneumatic tools• High-pressure water cleaners• Compressed air or abrasive blasting• Any vacuum cleaning equipment that is not specifically designed for safe work with asbestos.
All of these types of equipment can cause the asbestos fibres to becomeairborne and risk the chance of asbestos poisoning of nearby personnel.
Once a hazard has been identified check forany existing procedural documentation, orworkplace procedure or policy, whichdescribes how to eliminate or control thehazard.Talk to other workers, your manager,supervisor, team leader or health & safety repto find out if the hazard has already beenaddressed, and what techniques areaavailable to you to resolve it.If you find that there is no documentation orguideline in place to resolve an identifiedhazard, you need to assess the risk associatedwith the hazard and identify a feasible courseof action to deal with it.
Risk assessment is made up of 3 factors:• Probability• Consequence CONSEQUENCE• Risk Level PROBABILITY Insignificant Minor Moderate Major Severe Almost certain M H H VH VHUsing a table similar tothe one shown here you Likely M M H H VHcan assess how high therisk is, and how soon Possible L M H H VHyou should act toremove or control thehazard. Unlikely L L M M H Rare L L M M M
Risk level Required action Act immediately: The proposed task or process activity must not proceed. Steps must be taken toVery high lower the risk level to as low as reasonably practicable using the hierarchy of risk controls. Act today: The proposed activity can only proceed, provided that: (i)the risk level has been reduced to as low as reasonably (ii)practicable using the hierarchy of risk controls;High (ii) the risk controls must include those identified in legislation, Australian Standards, Codes of Practice etc. (iii) the risk assessment has been reviewed and approved by the Supervisor and (iv) a Safe Working Procedure or Safe Work Method has been prepared. (v) The supervisor must review and document the effectiveness of the implemented risk controls. Act this week: The proposed task or process can proceed, provided that: (i) the risk level has been reduced to as low as reasonably practicable using theMedium hierarchy of risk controls; (ii) the risk assessment has been reviewed and approved by the Supervisor and (iii) a Safe Working Procedure or Safe Work Method has been prepared. Act this month:Low Managed by local documented routine procedures which must include application of the hierarchy of controls.
The Hierarchy of Hazard Control is the name given to a range of control methods used to eliminate or controlhazards in the workplace. The Hierarchy has 6 levels: This is the best kind of hazard control. Eliminating or removing the hazard completely reduces any risk 1. Elimination connected to it. An example of eliminating a hazard would be removing dangerous materials from the site, or repairing defective equipment. This is where you swap a dangerous work method or situation for one that is less dangerous. An 2. Substitution example of this would be to use a groups of people to move an item instead of trying to move it on your own (where the item cannot be broken down into smaller loads). This is where you isolate the hazard. This might mean fencing off an area or restricting access to the hazard in some other way. 3. Isolation This is where you use an engineering or mechanical method of doing the job. An example would be 4. Engineering using a piece of equipment to move a load instead of moving it by hand, installing ventilation. This is where site rules and policies attempt to control a hazard. It can include working in 5. Administrative / teams, setting specific break times and frequent rotations for repetitive work or using signage Safe Work Practices to warn of hazards. This is your last line of defense and should be used in conjunction with other hazard control 6. Personal methods. PPE includes any safety equipment worn on your body. Workplaces often have Protective mandatory PPE requirements to go on site. Equipment Hazards should be re-assessed after the implementation of control measures to review if the risk has been reduced enough
Coming up with a way of controlling hazards includes talking to the people with knowledge of the situation, orwho are directly effected by any action you take. You should always talk to any workers involved in the hazard control measures as well as the OHS officer or supervisor.Controlling a hazard can be a team effort and its important that everybody knows what they need to do andhow/if they need to change their work process to suit.
These resources could include:• New or different equipment• Staff training• More personnel• Creation of procedures and instructions• Fencing or traffic controlOnce you have reviewed the possible control strategies for dealing with a hazard and decidedon an approach that is appropriate and feasible you need to see that the control measure isimplemented properly.Plan out, in detail, the steps required to implement the control strategies. Consult with otherworkers and management to ensure the implementation is done correctly and does not have anegative bearing on other trades, procedures or workers.
Once a Hazard Control Strategy is in place you shouldreview the situation to see if the risk has been reduced toa safer level, and if there is more you can do to reducethe risk. Often a number of strategies need to be usedtogether to reduce risk. Make sure you record any action you have taken and talk to your supervisor and OHS officer about the control strategies in place.
LOCATE RELEVANT PROCEDURAL DOCUMENTATION BEFORE YOU STARTObtain any existing documentation and/orcomplete a Safe Work Method Statementoutlining the job, hazards, hazard controls,equipment and tools required to completethe task.You may need to refer to Material SafetyData Sheets and existing Safe WorkMethod Statements / Job Safety Analysis.
Depending on the job being carried out the PPE requirements may differ. PPE in the construction industry could include: • Aprons • Arm guards • Caps • Dust mask/respirators • Ear muffs/plugs HEARING PROTECTION EYE PROTECTION FOOT PROTECTION MUST BE WORN • Gloves IN THIS AREA MUST BE WORN IN THIS AREA MUST BE WORN IN THIS AREA • Hard hats WWW.SAFEWORKSIGNS.COM WWW.SAFEWORKSIGNS.COM WWW.SAFEWORKSIGNS.COM • High visibility retro reflective vests • Jackets • Overalls HI-VIS • Safety glasses/goggles HARD HAT HAND PROTECTION MUST BE WORN CLOTHING AREA IN THIS AREA REQUIRED • Steel capped boots WWW.SAFEWORKSIGNS.COM WWW.SAFEWORKSIGNS.COM WWW.SAFEWORKSIGNS.COM • UV protective clothing and Sunscreen.Follow the requirements of any mandatory signage before entering the work site. All PPE must be fitted, worn and used correctly to achieve the maximum benefit. Make sure all PPE selected is used according to site and workplace procedures.
Make sure the work area is adequately isolated from other workers andpedestrians before starting. Install / erect any barricades and signage to warnothers that you are going to be working in the area, and where applicableand requirements of entry (e.g. personal protective equipment) and hazardsthat exist in the work area.
While carrying out the construction work you need tomake sure all work is carried out according to siteapproved safe work practices and the approved SafeWork Method Statement.If you are using plant and equipment you need to makesure that all guards and safety devices are properlyinstalled and operational before using the equipment.Check the manufacturer’s specifications for instructionsand information of safety devices and equipment guards.Remember, all work carried out must be done in amanner that is safe for operators, other personnel andthe general community in accordance with legislativerequirements and workplace policies and procedures.
Danger Signs Warning Signs Prohibition Signs Mandatory SignsAS 1319 specifies that these AS 1319 specifies that these AS 1319 specifies these signs AS 1319 specifies these signssigns are to be used where signs warn of conditions that are to have a red annulus and shall be a blue disc with the Site safety, directional, traffic and warning signsconditions are likely to be life are NOT likely to be life slash symbol on a white symbol in white. The wordthreatening. The sign is to threatening if the message is background. They indicate MUST is usually contained in and symbolsincorporate the word Danger in ignored. The symbol used is a actions or activities that are not the message.white letters on a red oval yellow equilateral triangle with permitted.shape inside a black rectangle. a black enclosure.Emergency Signs Fire Signs Hazchem Signs Safety tags & lockout systemsAS 1319 specifies these signs AS 1319 - 1994 refers to fire signs AS 1216 - 1995 specifies the relevant which are covered in AS 2444 - 1995. "designs, layout and size". Theseshall comprise of a white These signs indicate the location of signs are prescribed in thesymbol or text on a green fire alarms and fire fighting "Australian Dangerous Goods Code"rectangle with white enclosure. equipment. Signs shall comprise a and various State GovernmentThese signs indicate the red rectangle sign with a white "Dangerous Goods, Storage andlocation or direction to legend and enclosure. Handling Regulations".emergency related facilities andfirst aid or safety equipment.
Clean up any rubbish you make as you go to help prevent tripping accidents, or accidents caused by flying debris.
Dispose of any debrisproperly withoutimpacting negativelyon the environment.Make sure allmaterials are collectedand removedproperly.
WHAT IS AN INCIDENT?An accident resulting in personal injury or damage to property or, A near miss or dangerous occurrence which does not cause injury butmay pose an immediate and significant risk to persons or property, and needs to be reported so that action can be taken to preventrecurrence. Breathing apparatus malfunctioning to the extent that the users health is in danger Collapse of the floor, wall or ceiling of a building being used as a workplace Collapse or failure of an excavation more than 1.5 metres deep (including any shoring) Collapse or partial collapse of a building or structure Collapse, overturning or failure of the load bearing of any scaffolding, lift, crane, hoist or mine-winding equipment Damage to or malfunction of any other major plant Electric shock Electrical short circuit, malfunction or explosion Uncontrolled explosion, fire or escape of gas, hazardous substance or steam Any other unintended or uncontrolled incident or event arising from operations carried on at a workplace. ALL INCIDENTS MUST BE REPORTED!
Construction Site Emergencies may include:• Fire DIAL ‘000’ IF• Gas leak THERE IS AN• Toxic and/or flammable vapours emission EMERGENCY• Vehicle/machine accident• Chemical spill• Injury to personnel• Structural collapse
In the case of an emergency:1. Remain calm2. Raise the alarm with your supervisor and/or first aid officer3. Get help from emergency services (Dial 000)4. Evacuate if necessary (refer to site emergency plans)When calling emergency services (Dial 000) let the operator know the followingdetails:1. Where the emergency is2. What has happened3. What is being done to solve the emergency4. Your nameDo not hang up the phone until you have been given instructions on how toproceed.
An example of an evacuation procedure may be:• Prepare to evacuate when the alarm is raised or when directed by a warden• Leave your worksite in a safe condition• Close the doors if there is a fire – DO NOT lock them• Help anyone in immediate danger• Leave the work area via the nearest safe route• Follow all directions from wardens and emergency services personnel• Move calmly to the nearest assembly point• Wait for the all clear before returning to the work area
In the event of a leak, spill or uncontrolled release of a hazardous material, emergency proceduresshould be established to enable the source of a release to be safely identified and repairs to be made.Everyone not directly affected by the emergency should be excluded from the area of contamination.Emergency procedures may include special treatment in the workplace of affected workers wherethis is indicated in the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS). Where medical treatment is subsequentlysought, the MSDS should also be made available to the medical practitioner.
First Aid kits must be supplied by your employer. The locationof these kits should be clearly marked with signage.In the case of an emergency where somebody requires firstaid notify your supervisor or first aid officer and they will takeaction.
The Recovery PositionThis is the best position for a casualty who is unconscious and breathing. It keeps their airway open andallows any vomit to drain onto the floor, so they dont choke on it.1. Place arm nearest you at a right angle.2. Move the other arm, as shown, with the backof their hand against their cheek. Then get holdof the knee furthest from you and pull up untilfoot is flat on the floor.3. Pull the knee towards you, keeping thepersons hand pressed against their cheek, andposition the leg at a right angle.4. Make sure that the airway remains open bytilting the head back and lifting the chin. Checkbreathing. 5. Monitor the casualtys condition until help arrives.
DR. ABCD is the acronym givento the stages of a first aid actionplan. The following slides willreview each of these stages.
1. DangerCheck the surrounding area and make sure it’s safe for you, the injured personand others in the area.Do this by looking, listening and smelling.2. ResponseCheck the patient’s responses by talking and touching them (squeezing theirshoulders). If the patient responds, make them comfortable and check them forany injuries. If you don’t get a response call 000 immediately.3. AirwayIf you don’t get a response from the patient, open their mouth and check thatthe airway is clear.a) If blocked with an object –place them in the recovery position and clear outthe obstruction with your finger.b) If clear, (Adults and Children) open their mouth and gently tilt their headbackwards.c) If clear, (Infants) open by keeping head in line with their body.
4. BreathingWhile keeping the airways open, look, listen and feel for normal breathing signs.a) If they are breathing normally, roll into the recovery position and call for emergency service (dial000).b) If they are NOT breathing normally, dial 000. Pinch their nose and seal their mouth with yoursand blow until their chest gently rises. Give 2 rescue breaths (1 second each) and check for signs oflife.If they do not respond to the rescue breaths immediately begin CPR.5. CPR - 2 Breaths & 30 CompressionsPinch their nose and seal their mouth with yours and blow until their chest gently rises. Give 2rescue breaths (1 second each)Combine rescue breaths with chest compressions. Push down on the middle of their chest(between the nipples) 30 times to 1/3 chest depth. Compress at a rate of 100/min (faster than 1per second)DO NOT STOP until emergency help arrives. Only stop to recheck the patient if they startbreathing normally.6. DefibrillationApply a Defibrillator (if available) following the instructions or on-screen prompts of the unit.
Breathing Apparatus Fire Blanket Fire Extinguisher Fire Hose ReelA self contained breathing Fire Blankets are ideal for Portable Fire Extinguishers can Fire Hose Reels provide aapparatus (SCBA) is a device settings where small Class F save lives and property by reasonably accessible andworn by rescue workers, fires are a risk such as in putting out or containing fires controlled supply of water tofirefighters, and others to kitchens or wherever oils or within the capability of the combat a potential Class A fireprovide breathable air in fats are exposed to potential extinguisher. However, they risk. All Fire Hose Reels mustsituations with an immediate ignition. They can also be used must be of the correct type for comply to Australian StandardDanger to Life and Health if a person’s clothing has the particular fire, and they AS/NZS1221. caught fire. must be used correctly.
Depending on the nature and severity of the situation you may need to report to:• Your supervisor• Emergency services (e.g. police, ambulance, fire brigade and emergency rescue)• OHS regulatory authority (e.g. WorkSafe, WorkCover)Ask your OHS representative, supervisor at the site office for therelevant forms and procedures for reporting hazards, incidentsand injuries.
Incident report forms are available for recording the details of incidents in the workplace: