Teaching as leadership_workshop_final


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  • 00:00 – 00:03 BEGIN: Welcome the prospects and thank them for coming. Hi everyone, thanks for joining me today. PRESENTER BIO
  • 00:03.30- 00:04 Welcome! if you’ve come to this session, you must be interested in developing yourself or others as a leader. As an organization, we’ve been developing leaders to tackle the huge problem of educational inequity for over 20 years. Along the way we’ve learned what distinguishes the most effective leaders in the context of the challenges we see and what we’ve found is that the same applied approach makes leaders great in any context. We’re excited to share these findings with you as you take your leadership to the next level. We’ll start with some background on Teach For America and the challenges our corps members and alumni face. After that, we will dive into our leadership development framework using examples from campus leadership to the classroom. Finally we’ll spend time in a Q&A session.
  • Before we talk through our leadership development framework, we want to give you a sense of where it came from. Over the past 20 years, Teach For America has trained and supported nearly 40,000 teachers to work in low income communities and address the issue of educational inequity.
  • Read the slide
  • 00:05-00:05.30 We know this problem is solvable. We see every single day, in classrooms across the country, proof that when children in low-income communities are given the educational opportunities they deserve, they excel – on an absolute scale. It is Teach For America’s mission to enlist our nation’s most promising future leaders in this movement to eliminate educational inequality. This effort requires exceptional leadership and we have observed Teach For America corps members in the classroom and Teach For America alumni in a number of different fields as we’ve developed the leadership framework we’re about to discuss. Our corps members and alumni are playing a fundamental role in closing the educational opportunity gap.
  • Read slide points
  • 00:06-06:30 So what are we learning at Teach For America? We have placed 38,000 teachers over the last twenty years, have been studying what the most successful teachers are doing, and are seeing patterns of leadership. Over the years, we've found that many of our teachers are successful, but some of them just blow the roof off. We took a look at what distinguishes these superstars- teachers whose students are not moving forward just 1 or 2 years academically, but 2.5, 3, 3.5 grade levels in a single academic year- and asked how can we better foster those qualities and actions in our teachers and leaders and, consequently, how can you turn this around and foster it into yourself?
  • 00:07-00:09 Over the next few slides, we’ll see that leadership in our context is not different from what you all are doing on campuses as NSCS members and as leaders, or what we see great leaders in sports, business, and history do. In fact, we aren’t saying you need to be different from who you are as a leader, but these are ways to translate your leadership to challenging contexts in the classroom and elsewhere.
  • 00:09- 00:10 Through our research, we’ve found six definitive pillars that distinguish our best leaders. They are (read the slide). We’re going to dive into each of these pillars individually with stories from the classroom and we’ll show how these play out in examples from a variety of contexts to help you see how effective leaders use these pillars to operate. This framework applies in any situation- whether you are a leader on campus, at work, in the classroom, leading a corporation, or performing brain surgery.
  • To presenter: for each of the pillar slides- feel free to pick and choose which stories you share. 00:10-00:15 Big goals are clear, measurable, and ambitious. We have found that teachers who commit to audacious academic goals for their students are far more likely to demonstrate dramatic gains in their students’ academic progress. In any leadership setting; the Big Goal serves as the rallying point for investing others, whether it is other students, co-workers, or friends. The Big Goal serves as the all-important destination for careful planning, effective execution, and relentless dedication. We can see this pillar in action in several contexts- In a college setting; On applications we’ve seen roles like a President of Dance Marathon on campus, where the applicant set the goal to raise $500,000, double the goal of the previous year. One of our other applicants was the President of his Mock Trial team and he set the goal of making it to nationals that year. They had never placed better than third before in regionals but they did, in fact, make it to nationals with a lot of hard work and strong planning. As CM: Crystal Jones- Her first graders were reading on a kindergarten and pre-k level and she set a huge goal with her class. She said “By the end of the year, we’re going to read and write like third graders.” She knew she had to get these kids ahead because they had so many challenges in front of them. So her kids- her first graders-in March “graduated” the second grade in a mock ceremony to celebrate hitting that big goal. After the corps: Everyone knows the story of President Kennedy saying we will land on the moon by the end of this decade. Well guess what- we did land on the moon because he said that. Because people got excited about that vision, that idea, and worked hard to make it happen. Jessica Rauch and Eli Savit, The Generation Project—an online community that allows donors to design enrichment gifts for high-need students, inspired by their personal interests. They realized there were all these donors interested in finding ways to help classrooms but there wasn’t a great system of connecting these donors to these classrooms. The Generation Project has three goals: (1) Generate ideas to benefit low-income K-12 students, (2) Generate new philanthropists by actively involving donors in the giving process, and (3) Empower the next Generation by harnessing the ingenuity of individuals to improve educational opportunities Chris Barbic
  • To presenter: for each of the pillar slides- feel free to pick and choose which stories you share. 00:15-:00:20 The Investing Others principle describes the ways in which effective leaders rally, motivate, and empower others toward reaching that big goal we just talked about. It is important that you spend time thinking about HOW to invest others. In a college setting; The Chair for Relay for Life brought his team to the children’s cancer ward at a local hospital to inspire them and brought in survivor guest speakers to their meetings. As a Resident Advisor, an applicant met with each of her hall members weekly and invested them by first, soliciting workshop suggestions hall and then inviting the hall members who suggested the ideas to help plan the workshop. As CM: Joseph Almeida – makes 20 calls to parents each week celebrating their childrens’ progress After the corp: Sondra Youdelman—community voices heard: grassroots community organizing in NYC Jarrett Reid Whitaker- principal in Houston. He has his teachers, students, and parents all rallied around the idea that this K-5 school- this whole school is going to college. All the classrooms are named after colleges. They visit colleges. They write letters with college students. Everyone says “I’m going to college.” They are invested.
  • 00:20-00:25 To presenter: for each of the pillar slides- feel free to pick and choose which stories you share. Highly successful leaders plan their actions. They begin every endeavor — whether short-term or long-term — by asking: “What is the desired end? What are the small steps that lead to the ultimate goal?” This backwards-planning approach paves a direct path to achieving the big goal. In the classroom, this includes planning each test, quiz and hw assignment before the year began. In a college setting; If you are a chair for a fundraising organization on campus, you could plan purposefully by creating mini fundraising or participation benchmarks so you can measure how strong your strategies are and change course if you’re not meeting your goals. As the Chair of the Student Activities Committee, an applicant set a goal to have 50 student events held over the year, with more then 30% of clubs and groups sharing the lead on the event planning. She created a year-long event schedule over the summer after conferring with all new organization Presidents. As CM: Kate Tarca is a CM and has said that ‘ Our teachers always ask themselves first- where do I want my students to be? As in, what should they have learned?’ She brings a purposefulness to all of their planning. After the corp: Dr. Michelle Smith- she talks about the skills she learned and developed as a classroom teacher and one thing she says is it’s still all about the planning. Before she goes into surgery, she has imagined in her mind the exact outcome she wants and planned backwards for that outcome.
  • To presenter: for each of the pillar slides- feel free to pick and choose which stories you share. Align all actions – micro and macro alike – around the big goal and make wise adjustments in response to changing realities. When we talk to our most effective teachers about what it means to implement well in classrooms, those teachers say great implementation is actually the adjustments I’m making to my plan because the reality of my teaching is different than I imagined it would be in some way when I put it on paper. Maybe I have more time than I thought or maybe my students understand something more quickly or less quickly and I need to make adjustments for this on the ground. In a college setting; As a shift manager at a restaurant, you might assign primary and secondary tasks to employees during set up and shut down to eliminate any uncertainty or wasted time. You also would reinforce rules and consequences to breaking them to ensure that the rules you all agreed upon earlier are being carried out effectively. The recruitment chair of a national service fraternity shifted marketing strategies to class presentations, ads in the school paper, and events in the school’s most visible social areas to appeal to a broader number of potential members. He then blanketed the campus with fliers to hit his goal of doubling membership. As CM: Mariel Elguero- “We have these symbols students can use to show me whether they ‘need help’ or ‘can give help’… I can circulate to the spots in the room where I am most needed.” Another option here (Kelly Harris Perin): “Having really clear rules and procedures was liberating – it freed me from being the policewoman and let me focus on using every minute to teach.” After the corp: David Muse, Assoc. Artistic Director for The Shakespeare Theater Company – he says ‘everything I learned about how to do this well, about how to coach people well in theater, I learned in the classroom. It’s all about thinking on your feet, processing information, and making adjustments so you can have the best performance possible”.
  • 00:30-00:35 To presenter: for each of the pillar slides- feel free to pick and choose which stories you share. Your success as a leader will not rest on your innate ability, but on your willingness to accept the hard work of self-improvement. Three steps to this are: Defining gaps in performance Identifying how you are causing the problem and what other factors are involved Accessing learning opportunities and self-correcting if necessary. In a college setting; An applicant who was the manager of a campus coffee shop had customers fill out customer service surveys to define the gaps in employee performance and worked to correct them by retraining her employees. She readjusted hours when she noticed a significant dip in customer service when her employees worked a ten hour shift versus eight. As the President of Sigma Chi, an applicant recognized a camaraderie issue with his members and suggested private ‘office hours’ to hear from all members on suggestions. He invited two national reps to sit in on chapter meetings and 1-1 meetings to help him brainstorm solutions. As CM: Another example of using data to inform reflection – Justin May in GNO – he recorded audiotapes of his class, five minutes here and there, a total of 20 minutes per day, since that was the length of his commute back home. He’d listen to them every day. “I sometimes heard myself sounding angry and scared in my interactions with my students. I just couldn’t believe I talked to my kids the way I did. ‘What kind of person am I?’ I thought. I thought a lot about what kind of a room I’d want my own child in. The tapes were so important in leading me to change.” After the corp: Cami Anderson- Superintendent, New York City, District 79 since 2006. To bring about the fundamental changes necessary for reform, Anderson knew that she needed political and organizational buy-in for substantial district reorganization. Working side-by-side with the United Federation of Teachers, she developed a strict hiring rubric and negotiated a precedent-setting labor agreement with the union that facilitated a dramatic improvement in the quality of teachers. She also overcame steep organizational obstacles. Due to years of neglect and poor record-keeping, critical information about District 79 was unavailable. No one in the district knew how many schools there were, how many students were enrolled, or how many employees were on payroll. Anderson made it her personal mission to document accurate administrative records by visiting every single district site herself and reviewing employee and student records. After spending a year on this work, Anderson was able to focus on the other pressing issues in her district to increase its effectiveness.
  • To presenter: for each of the pillar slides- feel free to pick and choose which stories you share. Work relentlessly: Go above and beyond conventional parameters to do what it takes to achieve the goal. In a college setting; As a TA, you might get feedback from your students that the review class setup is too similar to their classroom experience where they are silo’ed and unable to talk through problems. So you could adjust to group learning and group problem solving and re-write your curriculum to meet their needs. You might also find students aren’t attending your office hours because there are too many conflicts so you could add additional office hours or swap them to maximize student availability. An applicant was the leader of an Alternative Spring Break trip to Mexico. At the last minute, the trip was cancelled because of an outbreak of swine flu. Rather than concede, he spent the next 14 hours finding a new site with pre-existing opportunities for service (Appalachia), re-arranging the flights (for free- he explained the situation and the airline agreed to “donate” the tickets) and re-confirming with trip participants. Every person who signed up, went. As CM: Taylor Delhagen quote “ For Shannon Dingle, this means wading through three feet of water to get to students’ flooded neighborhood so that she could teach twelve children in the backyard.” After the corps: Brent Maddin- he was teaching science but he was really teaching writing through science. He was getting amazing results that impacted other classrooms and people were wondering how these results were happening. And he said “well come with me to McDonalds.” He had learned that 5 or 6 of his students worked at the McDonald’s across the street and they had 20 minute breaks during their shifts. So at first, just on Thursday nights, as students came on the break he would tutor them to help them catch up. Then other students who didn’t work there started showing up, too. Next thing you know, he had 75 students showing up every week to work on their lab reports with him. Every week. He defined himself as doing what it takes to be sure all of his kids succeed.
  • 00:40-00:58 I’d like each of you to take ten minutes to complete the self-assessment handout (page 1). Think about a leadership role you hold or your service as an NSCS member- on or off campus- and evaluate the work you did using the six pillars.
  • 00:40-00:58 Now we’re going to break up into groups to complete the skill strengthener.
  • 00:58-1:00 As you reflect on what makes a great leader and develop yourself in that direction, I encourage you to think about where you can have the greatest impact. For any graduating seniors or professionals, we certainly need additional great leaders to take on this issue of ed inequity- the need is great, the problem is vast and we encourage you to get involved. You can sign up on our website to learn more and then apply on by our next deadline, which is Friday, August 20 <DG, dates weren’t released when I edited this – please mention the right deadline!> . For those of you who are still undergraduates, I’m sharing here a link to our undergraduate leadership opportunities site where you can look through some opportunities with our partner organizations. Thank you again for taking the time to be with us!
  • Teaching as leadership_workshop_final

    1. 1. Age nda • Cont ext f or Our St udy of Leader shi p • Si x Pi l l ar s of Gr eat Leader shi p • Pi l l ar s i n Pr act i ce • Sel f - Assessment • Ski l l St r engt heni ng • Next St eps
    2. 2. Meet the presenter Baylor University Business Management Higher Ed Recruitment Teach For America Recruitment Associate Manager of Strategy Director of National Alliances Managing Director of National Alliances Board Member of Many Hopes 3
    3. 3. nt ext f or Our St udy of Leadersh
    4. 4. Educ a t i ona l I ne qui t y I s Our Na t i on’ s Gr e a t e s t I nj us t i c e * [ Sour ce: Nat i onal Assessment of Educat i onal Pr ogr ess, 2005] * * [ Sour ce: Mor t enson, Tom. “ Fami l y I ncome and Hi gher Educat i on Oppor t uni t y, ” Post secondar y Educat i on Oppor t uni t y, 2005] * * * [ Sour ce: Nat i onal Cent er f or Chi l dr en i n Pover t y, 2006] • 9 year ol ds l i vi ng i n l ow- i ncome communi t i es ar e 3 gr ade l evel s behi nd t hei r hi gh- i ncome peer s* • About hal f won’ t gr aduat e f r om hi gh school . Those who do wi l l per f or m on aver age at an ei ght h- gr ade l evel * • Onl y 1 i n 10 st udent s f r om l ow- i ncome communi t i es wi l l gr aduat e f r om col l ege* * WHERE CHI LDREN GROW UP DETERMI NES THEI R EDUCATI ONAL PROSPECTS For 16 mi l l i on c hi l dr e n gr owi ng up i n pove r t y t oda y, t he s e di s pa r i t i e s s e ve r e l y l i mi t oppor t uni t i e s i n l i f e . Be c a us e Af r i c a n Ame r i c a n, La t i no or Hi s pa ni c , a nd Na t i ve Ame r i c a n c hi l dr e n a r e t hr e e t i me s a s l i ke l y t o l i ve i n a l ow- i nc ome a r e a ***, c hi l dr e n of c ol or a r e di s pr opor t i ona t e l y i mpa c t e d by t hi s i ne qui t y. 5
    5. 5. Our Mi s s i on Teach For Amer i ca’ s mi ssi on i s t o enl i st our nat i on’ s most pr omi si ng f ut ur e l eader s i n t he movement t o el i mi nat e educat i onal i nequal i t y. Long Term Alumni have the insight, commitment, and talent to provide sustained leadership in education and across all sectors. Corps members gain added commitment to address the problem and insight about real solutions. Short Term Corps members work exceptionally hard to help ensure their students excel academically, thereby improving their educational and life prospects.
    6. 6. Our Cur r e nt Foot pr i nt In 2012: • Teachers: Mor e t han 10, 000 cor ps member s, spr ead al most evenl y acr oss el ement ar y, mi ddl e, and hi gh school s, wi t h under 10% i n pr e- K/ K • St udent s: Mor e t han 90% ar e Af r i can Amer i can or Lat i no; Mor e t han 80% qual i f y f or f r ee or r educed pr i ce l unch • Geography: Teacher pl acement s i n 46 ur ban and r ur al r egi ons, f r om Los Angel es t o t he Ri o Gr ande Val l ey t o Newar k, NJ • Al umni : Mor e t han 28, 000 al umni wor ki ng t o i nf l uence educat i on r ef or m, wi t h mor e t han 60% wor ki ng f ul l - t i me i n educat i on
    7. 7. 38, 000 Cor ps Me mbe r s a nd Twe nt y Ye a r s La t e r … Wha t Ha ve We Le a r ne d? The Quest i on: What di st i ngui shes t eacher s whose st udent s ar e maki ng dr amat i c pr ogr ess despi t e t he chal l enges of pover t y? The Answer: Leader shi p. Teacher s who ar e most dr amat i cal l y changi ng t hei r st udent s l i ves ar e usi ng t he same st r at egi es t hat di st i ngui sh hi ghl y ef f ect i ve l eader s i n any sect or or cont ext .
    8. 8. Si x Pi l l a r s of Gr e a t Le a de r s hi p
    9. 9. Si x Pi l l a r s of Gr e a t Le a de r s hi p LEADERS. . . Set bi g goal s t hat al i gn and f ocus a t eam’ s ener gy on an audaci ous vi si on of success, cr eat i ng a sense of ur gency and exci t ement . Invest t hose around t hem i n bel i evi ng t hey can and want t o achi eve t he goal and i n wor ki ng ext r aor di nar i l y har d t o achi eve i t . Pl an purposef ul l y by f i r st aski ng wher e do we want t o be and how wi l l we know we ar e t her e, bef or e mappi ng “ backwar ds” a pat h t o t hat ai m. Execut e ef f ect i vel y as t hey make wi se adj ust ment s t o t hose pl ans based on t he changi ng r eal i t i es encount er ed dur i ng i mpl ement at i on, al ways keepi ng t he ul t i mat e obj ect i ve i n mi nd. Cont i nuousl y i ncrease ef f ect i veness t hr ough cr i t i cal l y gaugi ng t hei r own pr ogr ess, r ef l ect i ng on t hei r per f or mance, and seeki ng ways t o gr ow and change. Work rel ent l essl y as t hey def i ne t hei r r ol e as doi ng what ever i t t akes—i ncl udi ng expandi ng t i me and r esour ces—t o l ead t he t eam t o success.
    10. 10. Se t Bi g Goa l s Set powerf ul , bi g goal s t hat are measurabl e, ambi t i ous, and meani ngf ul . I n a col l ege set t i ng… As a cor ps member … Af t er t he cor ps … • “ ALL of us wi l l go t o col l ege. The l ucky ones wi l l at t end Bayl or ! ! ” • “ By t he end of t he year , my f i r st gr ader s wi l l r ead, wr i t e, and do mat h and behave l i ke t hi r d gr ader s. ” • “ Dance Mar at hon wi l l doubl e l ast year ’ s pr oceeds by br i ngi ng i n $500, 000 t hi s year . ” • “ The Mock Tr i al t eam wi l l make i t t o nat i onal s t hi s year . ” • Jessi ca Rauch and El i Savi t ( NYC ’ 05) , The Gener at i on Pr oj ect • Chr i s Bar bi c ( Houst on ’ 92) , f ounder of YES Col l ege Pr ep
    11. 11. I nve s t Your Cons t i t ue nt s Get everyone i nt ent l y f ocused on and commi t t ed t o achi evi ng t he goal . I n a col l ege set t i ng… As a cor ps member … Af t er t he cor ps … • Joseph Al mei da makes 20 cal l s t o par ent s each week t o cel ebr at e t hei r chi l dr en’ s pr ogr ess. • KI PP t eacher s hang banner s al l over t hei r cl assr ooms wi t h sl ogans l i ke “ ALL of us WI LL l ear n” and “ Ther e ar e no shor t cut s. ” • Sondr a Youdel man ( L. A. , ’ 94) , execut i ve di r ect or of Communi t y Voi ces Hear d • Jul i e Mi kut a, D. C. School Boar d • Jar r et t Rei d Whi t aker , Pr i nci pal , Por t Houst on El ement ar y School • Chai r f or Rel ay f or Li f e br i ngs t eam t o t he chi l dr en’ s cancer war d at a l ocal hospi t al t o i nspi r e t hem. • RA meet s wi t h each hal l member weekl y f or wor kshop suggest i ons t o i ncr ease at t endance and sat i sf act i on.
    12. 12. Pl a n Pur pos e f ul l y Work backwards f rom t he bi g goal wi t h met i cul ous pl ans. I n a col l ege set t i ng… As a cor ps member … Af t er t he cor ps … • For an annual campai gn, cr eat e mi ni f i nanci al or per f or mance benchmar ks over t he dur at i on of t he campai gn • Chai r of t he St udent Act i vi t i es Commi t t ee cr eat es an event schedul e f or t he ent i r e year over t he summer . • St ar t t hei r l esson pl ans at t he bot t om of t he page • Cr eat e l ong- t er m pl ans f r om t hi nki ng about t he end of t he year f i r st • Dr . Mi chel l e Smi t h, vascul ar neur osur geon • Br et t Ki mmel , Pr i nci pal of WHEELS i n NYC • Jer r y Hauser , CEO of t he Management Cent er
    13. 13. Exe c ut e Ef f e c t i ve l y Al i gn al l act i ons – mi cro and macro al i ke – around t he bi g goal and make wi se adj ust ment s i n response t o changi ng real i t i es. I n a col l ege set t i ng… As a cor ps member … Af t er t he cor ps … • Rest aur ant shi f t manager assi gns pr i mar y and secondar y t asks t o empl oyees dur i ng set up/ shut down t o el i mi nat e uncer t ai nt y or wast ed t i me. • Ser vi ce r ecr ui t ment chai r cr eat es compr ehensi ve mar ket i ng pl an. • Mar i el El guer o: “ We have t hese symbol s st udent s can use t o show me whet her t hey ‘ need hel p’ or ‘ can gi ve hel p’ … I can ci r cul at e t o t he spot s i n t he r oom wher e I am most needed. ” • Ti m Mor ehouse, Ol ympi c Si l ver Medal i st , Sabr e • Sar ah Hughes ( Bay Ar ea ’ 95) , br oadcast j our nal i st • Davi d Muse, Associ at e Ar t i st i c Di r ect or f or The Shakespear e Theat er Company
    14. 14. Cont i nuous l y I nc r e a s e Ef f e c t i ve ne s s Seek f eedback and engage i n f requent sel f - cri t i ques. I n a col l ege set t i ng… As a cor ps member … Af t er t he cor ps … • Meet i ng st udent s i n cl ass bef or e and af t er school , and at l unch • Appl yi ng f or gr ant s • Sat ur day pancakes • Ser vi ng as nur se, soci al wor ker , et c. • Al ec Ross ( Bal t i mor e, ’ 94) , Seni or Advi sor f or I nnovat i on, St at e Depar t ment • Cami Ander sen, Super i nt endent , New Yor k Ci t y, Di st r i ct 79 • Campus cof f ee shop manager cr eat es cust omer sur veys t o def i ne per f or mance gaps and r eadj ust s empl oyee wor k hour s. • Pr es. of Si gma Chi hol ds ‘ of f i ce hour s’ wi t h nat i onal r eps t o si t i n on meet i ngs f or f eedback.
    15. 15. Wor k Re l e nt l e s s l y Go above and beyond convent i onal paramet ers t o do what i t t akes t o achi eve t he goal . I n a col l ege set t i ng… As a cor ps member … Af t er t he cor ps … • Dr . I r a Leeds ( Memphi s ’ 06) , wor ki ng i n r ur al Hai t i • Davi d Levi n and Mi ke Fei nber g ( Hou ’ 92) , Founder s of KI PP • Tayl or Del hagen: “ I am an educat or , soci al wor ker , ment or , col l eague, admi ni st r at or , act i vi st , st udent and f r i end, al l of whi ch equat e i nt o a t eacher … f ai l i ng t o mend t he achi evement gap f or my st udent s i s si mpl y not an opt i on. ” • Bi ol ogy TA r evi ses cur r i cul um, adds addi t i onal of f i ce hour s, and adj ust s cl ass f or mat t o get st udent s’ gr ades up a f ul l gr ade l evel . • Al t er nat i ve Spr i ng Br eak l eader r ear r anges t r i p despi t e l ocat i on change.
    16. 16. Se l f - As s e s s me nt
    17. 17. Ski l l St r e ngt he ni ng
    18. 18. Ne xt St e ps • Lear n mor e about how t hese l eader shi p pr i nci pl es appl y i n t he cl assr oom at www. t eachi ngasl eader shi p. or g • Appl y t o t he Cor ps at www. t eachf or amer i ca. or g - Our 1st DL i s Fri day, August 16th • Expl or e under gr aduat e l eader shi p oppor t uni t i es at www. t eachf or amer i ca. or g/ suppor t - us/ act i on- cent er / oppor t uni t i es- under cl assmen • Tweet your bi ggest l esson f r om t oday’ s #CwSI wor kshop @t eachf or amer i ca and use #NSCSSummi t
    19. 19. Q&A
    20. 20. One da y, a l l c hi l dr e n i n t hi s na t i on wi l l ha ve t he oppor t uni t y t o a t t a i n a n Ne xt St e ps