Steve Clyburn rainwater presentation


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Presentation to HCMN class of 2012

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  • It's not nearly as much fun harvesting rainwater in a drought as it is when it's raining . . . but it can be done We are not engineers or professionals, and we’re not here to sell anything – we’ll basically just show you how our system is set up and describe some areas we might have done differently if we knew then what we know now – we hope you can benefit from our mistakes We bought our land in 1995 and started building in 1996 – so we’ve been collecting rainwater for over 14 years – no well We don’t make any particular recommendations for systems or suppliers – but we will mention some names for additional information and help Ask how many already have some kind of collection ? MNs – Peña, Stanley, RNC, Clyburn, Sawin, Collins, Y Carlyle, Jim & Janet Lindley, Reidun H,
  • Built in 1514, this former warehouse (possibly an armory) was converted into a cistern in the 16th century. The underground chamber, measuring 34 meters by 34 meters, was constructed with five rows of five stone pillars. The cistern is famous especially for the thin layer of water that covers the floor, and which creates fine and exciting reflections from the little light there is and the spartan shapes of the columns and the roof. Its visual qualities are such that several movies have been filmed within the cavernous space, of which Orson Welles' Othello (1952 film) is the best known internationally.
  • The Basilica Cistern, located in the crowded Eminönü district of Istanbul next to the Hagia Sophia, was built to provide water for the city of Istanbul during the reign of Emperor Justinian I in the 6th century CE. This cistern is an underground chamber of 138 x 64.6 metres. The large space is broken up by a forest of 336 marble columns, which are aesthetically supported by strong  columns and arches. The ceiling vaults, known as Manastır Tonozu (cloister vault), are built without using a mould. The cistern is surrounded by a firebrick wall with a thickness of 3.5 meters and is coated with a special mortar to make it waterproof. The name of this subterranean structure derives from a large public square on the First Hill of Constantinople , the Stoa Basilica, beneath which it was originally constructed. Before being converted to a cistern, a great Basilica stood in its place, built between the 3rd and 4th centuries during the Early Roman Age as a commercial, legal and artistic centre. [2] The basilica was reconstructed by Ilius after a fire in 476.
  • Texas’ population is projected to more than double to about 45 million people by 2060, with much of that growth projected in the Hill Country area More than 57,000 more people are coming to live in the Hill Country every year. The 17-county region’s current population of 3.1 million is projected to climb to at least 4.3 million by 2030.
  • The Huasco region in northern Chile is an agricultural region on the fringe of the desert that depends upon water for irrigation from the Huasco River. Water is becoming increasingly scarce and new solutions have to be found. The concept that won a “Next Generation” prize in the Holcim Awards harvests fog originating in the Pacific Ocean and drifting behind the coastline to provide reliable water supply. The idea consists of towers with a height of 200m catching the water particles and conducting them to the base using gravity where the liquid will be filtered through a reverse osmosis process to eliminate salt. Currently further research and refinement on the concept is continuing based on a 15m high prototype – with promising results.
  • tank type of first wash ‘ Booley eliminator’ from Tank Town in Dripping Springs – top of the line ~$1200 + installation
  • Also – filter boxes or barrels – example of this on Riverside’s system – ~$50
  • The vortex rainwater fine filter is typically installed in the underground piping system to remove debris from the storm water system.Used in installations where multiple downspouts are connected together to a single pipe into the vortex filter. The vortex rainwater filtered water can be used for site irrigation, toilet and urinal flushing, janitorial use, laundries, fire protection, evaporative cooling tower make-up, process water or other non-potable uses.
  • Provides extra protection in the event of a fire – ready supply of water May be eligible for discount on homeowners insurance Check with your own fire dept for correct size
  • combines a pump, motor, pressure tank, and controller into one integral unit 1HP pump is self-priming, with built-in check valve Built-in overheat and dry pump protection Maximum 17 gpm at a constant 55 psi Specifically designed for drinking water applications – expressly approved for use with rainwater - ~$600 Grundfos: Danish company founded in 1945
  • 5-micron sediment spun-fiber filter 3-micron activated charcoal filter – 9 gpm two ball valves permit two pressure gauges: one to measure incoming pressure, one for outgoing pressure – by monitoring difference in pressure, you can tell when filters need changing rule of thumb: change spin filter monthly, charcoal filter quarterly spin filter shows when it needs changing ~$325 for filter assembly
  • UV Light UV light has been used in Europe for disinfection of water since the early 1900s, and its use has now become common practice in U.S. utilities. Bacteria, virus, and cysts are killed by exposure to UV light.
  • Available as pre-plumbed setup with pressure gauge and ball valves, mounted on plywood over a galvanized steel panel ~$2000
  • Phyllis This is the first question everyone always asks . . . No voodoo, just arithmetic. Depending on rainwater means having enough storage to collect lots of rain when it does rain. You need to have enough storage capacity to get you through the longest (historic) period with no rain – ~100 days in this area. Then figure your usage – we estimate ~100 gal/day, so 100 days with no rain means we should be able to get by with 10,000 gallons storage.
  • For our area, figure on 100 days with no rain Drought of record: worst year had 12” total rainfall Last few years in Hill Country: ~15” in 12-month period On land: 1” rain -> 27,154 gal/acre (208.7’x208.7’, or 43,560 sq ft)
  • Dan
  • It's not nearly as much fun harvesting rainwater in a drought as it is when it's raining . . . but it can be done We are not engineers or professionals, and we’re not here to sell anything – we’ll basically just show you how our system is set up and describe some areas we might have done differently if we knew then what we know now – we hope you can benefit from our mistakes We bought our land in 1995 and started building in 1996 – so we’ve been collecting rainwater for over 14 years – no well We don’t make any particular recommendations for systems or suppliers – but we will mention some names for additional information and help Ask how many already have some kind of collection ? MNs – Peña, Stanley, RNC, Clyburn, Sawin, Collins, Y Carlyle, Jim & Janet Lindley, Reidun H,
  • Steve Clyburn rainwater presentation

    1. 1. Living off Rainwater, Even in a Drought Steve and Betty Clyburn Texas Master Naturalist – Hill Country Chapter October 24, 2012
    2. 2. “Water is the driving force innature.”― Leonardo da Vinci
    3. 3. The prime root causes of most wars:• Race• Religion• Resources (water, food, fuel)"Whiskey is for drinking; water is for fighting over” – Mark Twain
    5. 5. How Much Water is Available~70% of our Planet is Water
    6. 6. “When the well is dry, we learnthe worth of water.”Benjamin Franklin, Poor RichardsAlmanac (1746?)
    7. 7. Historical Rainwater harvesting has been around for thousands of years.One resource can date rainwaterharvesting tanks back to 2600 BC in India.
    8. 8. Portuguese Cistern of El Jadida in Morocco. Circa 1542
    9. 9. Cisterna Basilica Junto a Santa Sofia Istanbul6th Century CE
    10. 10. Rainwater Harvesting Tank – India Gravis
    11. 11. Carrington-Couvert House Austin TX ~1857
    12. 12. Why would Anyone In their Right Mind Want to Collect Rainwater?• Conserve water resources to help preserve water levels in the aquifer• Superior water quality – softer water means less detergent, no lime/calcium buildup on shower walls and appliances• Plants and landscape prefer rainwater• May be more dependable than a well• Save money if using city water – 30-50% of total water used by a typical home is for landscape watering• No chemicals or additives necessary
    13. 13. Why would Anyone In their Right Mind Want to Collect Rainwater?• 90+% of rain evaporates• To avoid drilling a well.• To be able to water plants during water restrictions.• Does not require a water softner• By using rainwater you can limit storm water pollution by catching water that would otherwise wash over land, streets, cow pastures and into waterways.
    14. 14. Circa 1800’s
    15. 15. Catchment Surface• Rainwater harvesting can be done with any roofing material if it is only for non-drinking use.• For potable use, the best roof materials are metal, clay, and cement although all roof material types have been used(except asbestos). Asphalt shingles can contribute grit to the system and need a pre-filter for the water before it enters the cistern. Lead materials in any form should not be used in the system (i.e. lead flashing and soldered joints).
    16. 16. Barn Roof for Water Catchment 3,300 SQF
    17. 17. 200 Meter Rainwater Harvesting Tower Chile
    18. 18. Water harvesting structure utilizing condensation, Trans-en-Provence, France. Circa 1927
    19. 19. How Much Water Can I Catch?• 0.623 gallons per square foot of roof per inch of rain (Roof area calculated from parimeter of roof – slope of roof is not considered)• A one inch rain falling on 1000 sq ft of roof area will give you 623 gallons.• A 3,300 sq ft roof captures 2055 gallons for every inch of rain… an average rain year (28”s) that would be about 57,500 gallons!
    20. 20. Gallons Collected per Square Feet of Roof Area for 0ne Inch of Rainfall 3500Gallons per 1 inch of Rain 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 Square Feet of Catchment Area
    21. 21. Conveyance to Storage
    22. 22. Conveyance to 2 X 20,000 Tanks
    23. 23. Initial Filtration/First Wash
    24. 24. First Wash System – rain barrel
    25. 25. First Wash System – the Eliminator Tank Town Cost ~$1200
    26. 26. First Wash System – Filtration boxFiberglass box with removable filters – $600-$800
    27. 27. Wisy Vortex Filter
    28. 28. First Wash System – Wisy Vortex Filter
    29. 29. StorageTanks/Cisterns
    30. 30. Should have• Cover to prevent mosquito breeding and algae growth due to sunlight• Inlet - generally at the top• Outlet - ~ 6” above floor of tank• Overflow - larger than inlet and screened• Bottom drain valve for cleaning• Covered man way - 24”• System to prevent agitation of the tank while it is filling to minimize the stirring of any settled solids in the bottom of the tank.• Two or more tanks permit servicing one of the units without losing the operation of the system.
    31. 31. Polyethylene tanks
    32. 32. Fiberglass
    33. 33. Galvalum w/ vinyl liner Pioneer tanks from Australia
    34. 34. Conveyance to Purification or End Use
    35. 35. Quick-Connect Valve for Firetruck
    36. 36. Grundfos MQ Constant Pressure Pump ~$575
    37. 37. Shallow Well Jet Pump 1 HP w/ Pressure Tank
    38. 38. Jim Stanley
    39. 39. Purification
    40. 40. Filters
    41. 41. UV lightUV Light has been used for disinfection since the 1900,sand has now become common practice in public utilities
    42. 42. Pump, Filtration and UV Light ~$2000
    43. 43.
    44. 44. Digital Tank Volume
    45. 45. What happens if it doesn’t rain?
    46. 46. How Much Water Do I Need?• It is important that the system is sized to meet the water demand throughout the dry season. In general, the size of the storage tank should be big enough to meet the daily water requirement throughout the dry season. In addition, the size of the catchment area or roof should be large enough to fill the tank.
    47. 47. Kerrville Average Monthly Rainfall ~Average 28” per Year
    48. 48. Kerrville Rainfall – 8 years Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Total 2005 2.86 2.80 1.66 1.46 4.63 1.24 2.75 2.03 3.27 1.91 1.91 0.00 26.52 2006 1.02 0.55 1.87 1.49 4.41 1.08 1.30 0.11 5.25 3.00 0.07 1.41 21.56 2007 3.27 0.11 9.65 2.42 9.81 7.68 6.91 6.05 2.76 1.02 1.06 0.36 51.10 2008 0.44 0.19 2.40 1.88 1.69 0.50 1.82 2.84 0.47 2.17 0.09 0.23 14.72 2009 0.62 0.05 3.70 2.96 2.32 0.97 2.80 0.24 9.21 5.27 3.29 1.29 32.72 0.8 0.0 0.9 2010 3.21 2.88 2.50 3.94 1.88 3.86 4.78 0.04 5.16 4 6 8 30.13 1.3 0.5 0.0 0.9 1.1 0.7 0.1 0.2 2.0 2011 0 6 7 4 7 8 6 1 6 0.79 2.06 3.00 13.10 2012 2.30 2.10 3.75 0.00 4.35 0.17 2.00 0.75 3.80 1.60 20.822005-2011 Avg 1.88 1.16 3.20 1.89 3.78 2.04 2.82 1.53 4.00 2.08 1.22 1.04 26.33
    49. 49. How Much Do I Need to Collect?• Figure approximately 50-75 gallons per day per person• For 2 people: 3000-4500 gallons/month requires an average of 1”-1½” rain/month• 25,000 gallons = 7-8 month supply• 1996 – summer 2011: never below 14,000 gallons• To calculate capacity needed, figure on historic maximum number of days with no rain
    50. 50. Clyburn Rainfall vs. Storage Rain in Inches Gallons in Tanks Linear (Gallons in T 3 40000 350002.5 30000 2 250001.5 20000 15000 1 100000.5 5000 0 0 Nov-11 Jun-11 Jun-12 Aug-11 Aug-12 Jan-12 May-12 Sep-11 Dec-11 Mar-12 Jul-12 Sep-12 Jul-11 Feb-12 Oct-12 Oct-11 Apr-12
    51. 51. Emergency Backup Plan• What to do if you lose all of your water? Drought Line Break or Leak Contamination• Where do you get water? Well River, Stream or Lake Neighbor How do you transport Purchase Truck Load
    52. 52. Water Quality?Is Rainwater Really OK to Drink? • 25-micron fiber sediment filter • 1-5 micron fiber sediment filter • UV light • pH 6.0 – 7.0 • Testing for Heavy Metals, E coli and coli- form testing available through UGRA
    53. 53. Stephen F Austin Univ.Data from 5337 Fiedler Rd Storage Tank
    54. 54. Commercial Applications (All for Irrigation Only)• Riverside Nature Center 10,000 gallon system collecting off ~4,500 sq ft – takes only a 4” rain to fill• Hunt School District – 20,000 gallons• Willow City Volunteer Fire Department –24,000 gallon system: gravity flow dispensing system can fill a 400-gal tank on a brush truck in 2 minutes• Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center in Austin – 70,000 gallons• Peterson Memorial Hospital – 130,000 gallons• Kroc Center in Kerrville – 135,000 gallons• Boerne Champion High School – 224,250
    55. 55. Cost of Rain Water Harvesting Components• Technology:• Fairly well-developed; new products are being developed. Rainwater harvesting is an old tradition practiced in all parts of the world including Texas.• COST:• Rainwater harvesting systems are costly compared to a city hookup. Compared to a well, they are approximately equal
    56. 56. Clyburn Rainwater Collection System Brand Where 2005 Cost Whitaker 2 20,000 gal tanks Pioneer Tanks $16,130.00 Pump and pressure Home 1 tank Flotec Depot $419.00 UV purification 1 system Wedeco Internet $800.00 Pre Filtration Equipment WISY Austin RW $814.00 Cartridge Filter system And 1u and 25u Big Blue filters Type Internet $150.00 Plumbing parts Fergusons $1,000.00 Total Rainwater Costs $19,313.00
    57. 57. Maintenance• Monitor tank levels - weekly• Inspect tanks for light leaks - monthly• Clean first wash system after each major rain• Measure pH or buffer tank water with baking soda – after major rain• Change filters quarterly/annually as needed ~$25/yr• Clean gutters as needed with mild bleach – annually• Replace UV bulb every 12-14 months ~$100• Sample water to certified test lab ~annually ~ $20
    58. 58. PUBLIC ACCEPTANCE:.• In the Hill Country area, there are is an increasing number of rainwater harvesting systems. • A small segment of the population desires rainwater catchment systems for indoor water use. • A larger portion of the population feels there is an advantage of using captured rainwater for irrigation.
    59. 59. REGULATORY:• At present, there is no Texas regulation for rainwater for indoor or outdoor household use unless the system is backed up by publicly supplied waterlines. If a backup system is used, to avoid any cross-connection, an airgap must exist between the public water and rainwater. (An example is a city water line feeding into a rainwater cistern.) This airgap must exceed two diameters of the city line in width.• The Health Department will require that the rainwater system does not contribute to mosquito breeding by having an uncovered cistern.
    60. 60. Conservation
    61. 61. Ways to Conserve Water• Check all faucets, pipes and toilets for leaks.• Take shorter showers.• Install water saving showerheads and ultra-low-flush toilets.• Turn off the water while brushing teeth or shaving.• Rinse vegetables in a full sink or pan of water.• Fully load dishwasher.• Rinse dishes in a full sink or pan of water.• Wash full loads of clothes.• Waiting for hot water (hot water recirculation loop or water heater at point of use)• Plant drought tolerant plants
    62. 62. HOW MUCH WATER DO WE USE Non-Conserving Pre 1992 Current Conserving w/Efficient 80 – 100 gallons per day per Appliances person 30-50 gallons per day per personShower Old shower head 2.2 GPM @ 60PSI Limit (5 minutes) 30 gallons 9-11 gal per showerToilet Flushing Conventional toilet Ultra-low flush toilet 0.9 -1.5 4-7 gallons per flush gallons per flushBrushing Teeth Tap running - 10 gallons Wet brush, rinse briefly 1 cup or lessTub Bath Full - 20 gallons Minimal water level Less than 10 - 15 gallons Tap running - 2 gallons or Fill basinShaving more ½ -1 gallon (Running Water Till Hot)Washing Hands Tap running - 2 gallons or Soap and rinse more 1 gallon or lessDishwashing Tap running - 30 gallons Wash and rinse in sink 5 gallonsAutomatic 1.6 – 2.9 GPL Dishwasher Full cycle - 15 gallons Do not rinse dishes before putting in dishwasherWashing Full cycle, top water level 13 – 15 GPL Machine - 40 gallons
    63. 63. Fountain/Birdbath
    64. 64. Evaporates ~ 5 gallons/day in summer
    65. 65. The Fix
    66. 66. Grey Water Collection Irrigation System
    67. 67. ReferencesThe Texas Manual on Rainwater Harvesting - Texas Water Harvesting for Drylands and Beyond by Brad Town - Rainwater Collection Since 1994! Rainwater Harvesting Community : HARVESTING MANUAL - Virginia Department of RainwaterSustainable Sources: 18 years of online Green Building information
    68. 68. • Present Day Currently in China and Brazil, rooftop rainwater harvesting is being practiced for providing drinking water, domestic water, water for livestock, water for small irrigation and a way to replenish ground water levels. Gansu province in China and semi-arid north east Brazil have the largest rooftop rainwater harvesting projects ongoing.• In Bermuda and U.S. Virgin Islands the law requires all new construction to include rainwater harvesting adequate for the residents.• In the United Kingdom water butts are often found in domestic gardens to collect rainwater, which is then used to water the garden. However, the British governments Code For Sustainable Homes encourages fitting large underground tanks to new-build homes to collect rainwater for flushing toilets, washing clothes, watering the garden, and washing cars. This reduces by 50% the amount of mains water used by the home.• Until 2009 in Colorado, water rights laws almost completely restricted rainwater harvesting; a property owner who captured rainwater was deemed to be stealing it from those who have rights to take water from the watershed. Now, residential well owners that meet certain criteria may obtain a permit to install a rooftop precipitation collection system  (SB 09-080).[6] Up to 10 large scale pilot studies may also be permitted (HB 09-1129).[7] The main factor in persuading the Colorado Legislature to change the law was a 2007 study that found that in an average year, 97% of the precipitation that fell in Douglas County, in the southern suburbs of Denver, never reached a stream—it was used by plants or evaporated on the ground. In Colorado you cannot even drill a water well unless you have at least 35 acres.• In New Mexico, rainwater catchment for irrigation is mandatory for new dwellings in Santa Fe.[8]• In Australia rainwater harvesting is typically used to supplement the household mains supply. In south east Queensland, households that harvested rainwater doubled each year from 2005 to 2008, reaching 40% penetration at that time (White, 2009 (PhD)).