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Exploratory Research Using
Qualitative and Observation
Methods
Edina Matta (122120040)
Hara Febriyanthi (122120060)
Made S...
Value of Exploratory Research
When important questions cannot be adequately addressed or resolved
with secondary informati...
How to Collect Primary Data?

OBSERVATION –record
human behavior or market
phenomena.

QUESTIONING &
RECORDING – to
obtain...
Major Differences between Qualitative and
Quantitative Research
QUALITATIVE METHODS

QUANTITATIVE METHODS

Goals/Objective...
Differrent Use of Qualitative & Quantitative
Research
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

Identifying a bussines ...
Advantages and Disadvantages of Using
Qualitative Research Methods
Advantages

Disadvantages

Data quickly collected (exce...
Some Techniques of Collecting Data
(Interview) in Qualitative Research
Primary Qualitative Method

Frequency of Use

Tradi...
Skills Required for Conducting In-Depth
Interviews
Interpersonal
Communication

Listening

Probing
Questioning

Interpreta...
Steps in Conduting an in Depth Interview
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Understand initial decision question(s)/ problems
Create...
Focus Group Interviews
• Formalized process that brings together a small group
•
•
•
•

of people for an interactive and s...
Video : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=POF3m6ZNoiY
Primary Focus Group Objectives
1. To provide data for defining marketing problems
2. To identify specific hidden informati...
Three-Phase Process for Developing
a Focus Group Interview
Phase 1: Planning the Focus Group Study
Three
Phase
Process

Ph...
Phase 1: Planning the Focus Group Study
Planning the focus group study:
- Researchers must have an understanding of the pu...
Guidelines for the Selection of Focus Group
participans
•
•
•
•
•
•

Specify exact selection criteria
Maintain control of ...
Phase 2: Conducting the Focus Group Discussions
1. The Focus Group Moderator
The moderator is responsible for creating pos...
Phase 3: Analyzing and Reporting the Results
1. Debriefing
Debriefing = Evaluation
2. Content Analysis
Content Analysis = ...
Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus
Group Interviews
ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

Stimulate new ideas, thoughts, and
feeli...
Other Qualitative Research Methods
Case Studies
Experience Interviews
Protocol Interviews
Articulative Interviews
Etnograp...
Overview of Observation Methods
The tools researchers use to collect primary data
about human behavior and marketing
pheno...
Video : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xSsszDVuGcs
Appropriate Conditions for Using
Observation Techniques
Information Condition
Type – of – Data Condition
Time – Frame Cond...
Unique Characteristic of Observation
Techniques
Characteristic

Description

Directness

The degree to which the researche...
Type of Observing Mechanism
Benefits and Limitations of Observation
Methods
Benefits of Observation

Limitations of Observation

Accuracy of actual be...
Url Video : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdlaQTS76VU
Thank You
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Marketing research exploratory research using qualitative and observation methods

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Marketing research exploratory research using qualitative and observation methods

  1. 1. Exploratory Research Using Qualitative and Observation Methods Edina Matta (122120040) Hara Febriyanthi (122120060) Made Satya Dharmika (122120081) Nurita Rouly (122120099) Stevanus Handoko (122120124)
  2. 2. Value of Exploratory Research When important questions cannot be adequately addressed or resolved with secondary information/data, company starts to collect primary data through several research designs.
  3. 3. How to Collect Primary Data? OBSERVATION –record human behavior or market phenomena. QUESTIONING & RECORDING – to obtain a person’s attitudes, feelings, and/or behaviors.
  4. 4. Major Differences between Qualitative and Quantitative Research QUALITATIVE METHODS QUANTITATIVE METHODS Goals/Objectives Discovery/identification of new ideas, thoughts, feelings : preliminary understanding of relationship, ideas, and objects Validation of facts, estimates, relationship, and predictions.  tests hypotheses Type of Research Exploratory Descriptive, Causal Type of Questions Open-ended, unstructured, probing Mostly structured, formal Time of Execution Relatively short time frame Typically significantly longer time frame Representativeness Small samples, only the sampled individuals Large samples, with proper sampling, can represent population Type of Analysis Debriefing, subjective, content analysis, interpretive. Difficult to summarize or quantify data. Statistical, descriptive, and causal predictions. Researcher Skills Highly Trained. Skills : Interpersonal communications, observations, interpretations of text or visual data Skills : Statistical analysis and interpretation of numbers Generalizability Limited generalization, no final course. Generally very good, can infer facts and relationships
  5. 5. Differrent Use of Qualitative & Quantitative Research QUALITATIVE RESEARCH QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Identifying a bussines problem or opportunity situation Validating/answering a problem and existing relationship Obtaining preliminary insight into the motivation, emotional, attitudinal, and personality factors that influence market place behaviors Obtaining detailed descriptions or insights into motivation, emotional, attitudinal, and personality factors that influence market place behaviors Building theories & models to explain marketplace behaviors or relationship between two or more marketing constructs. Testing theories and modes to explain marketplace behaviors or relationship between two or more marketing variables Developing valid scales for investigating specific market factors, consumer qualities and beahvioral outcomes Assessing the reliability and validity of scales for investigating market factors, consumer qualities and behavioral outcomes Determining the preliminary effectiveness of marketing strategies on actual marketplace behaviors Assessing the effectiveness of marketing strategies on marketplace behaviors Developing new products & services or repositioning current - Examining new product/service, repositioning current - Segmenting and or comparing large or small differences, and repositioning current.
  6. 6. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Qualitative Research Methods Advantages Disadvantages Data quickly collected (except ethnography) Lack of generalizability The data is rich Difficulty in estimating small-magnitude differences of the phenomena being investigated Accurate & valid in recording maketplace behaviors Low reliability Preliminary insights into building models investigators, and scale measurements Difficult to find well-trained interviewers & observers Insight for highly trained researchers Reliance on subjective interpretive of researchers
  7. 7. Some Techniques of Collecting Data (Interview) in Qualitative Research Primary Qualitative Method Frequency of Use Traditional Focus Groups (FGD) 51,8 % Hybrids (2 or more methods) 14,3 % In-Depth Interviews 7,8 % Netnography 4,2 % Ethnography 2,0 % Chat-based online focus groups 1,2 % Video-based online focus groups 1,0 % Other 5,0 % None 12,7 % Source: Research Industry Trends, 2006 Report, Pioneer Marketing Research, GreenBook, Rockhopper Research, and Dialtech – Marketing Research (McGraw – Hill International Edition), page 158
  8. 8. Skills Required for Conducting In-Depth Interviews Interpersonal Communication Listening Probing Questioning Interpretative Approaches
  9. 9. Steps in Conduting an in Depth Interview 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Understand initial decision question(s)/ problems Create set of research questions Decide on the best environment for conducting the interview Select, screen and secure the prospective subjects Great respondent, give interviewing guidelines, create a confort zone Conduct the in depth interview Analyze respondents narrative responses Write summary report of the result • Untuk menyediakan data untuk mendefinisikan masalah pemasaran • Untuk mengidentifikasi kebutuhan informasi yang tersembunyi spesifik • Untuk menyediakan data untuk pemahaman yang lebih baik dari hasil studi kuantitatif • Untuk mengungkapkan kebutuhan konsumen yang tersembunyi, keinginan, sikap, perasaan, perilaku, persepsi dan motif mengenai layanan, produk atau pratices
  10. 10. Focus Group Interviews • Formalized process that brings together a small group • • • • of people for an interactive and spontaneous discussion of a particular topic. Consists of 10 to 12 participants in a groupsetting. Trained moderator leads discussion Overall goal  Topic interest Sessions are recorded
  11. 11. Video : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=POF3m6ZNoiY
  12. 12. Primary Focus Group Objectives 1. To provide data for defining marketing problems 2. To identify specific hidden information requirements 3. To provide data for better understanding results from quantitative studies 4. To reveal consumers hidden needs, wants, attitudes, feelings, behaviors, perceptions and motives regarding services, products or pratices 5. To generate new ideas about products, services or delivery methods 6. To discover new constructs and measurement methods 7. To help explain changing consumer preferences
  13. 13. Three-Phase Process for Developing a Focus Group Interview Phase 1: Planning the Focus Group Study Three Phase Process Phase 2: Conducting the Focus Group Discussions Phase 3: Analyzing and Reporting the Result
  14. 14. Phase 1: Planning the Focus Group Study Planning the focus group study: - Researchers must have an understanding of the purpose of the study, a precise definition of the problem and specific data requirements - Key decisions focus on who the appropriate participants would be - How to select and recruit respondents - What size the focus group - Where to have the sessions
  15. 15. Guidelines for the Selection of Focus Group participans • • • • • • Specify exact selection criteria Maintain control of the selection Beware of pontential selection bias Incorporate randamization Check respondents knowledge No selection process is perfect
  16. 16. Phase 2: Conducting the Focus Group Discussions 1. The Focus Group Moderator The moderator is responsible for creating positive group dynamics and a comfort zone 2. Preparing a Moderator`s Guide A moderator`s Guide is a detailed outline of the topics and questions used to generate the spontaneous interactive dialogue among the participants. Include : - Opening Questions - Introductory Questions - Transition Questions - Substantive Questions - Ending Questions 3. Beginning the Focus Group Session - The purpose of these pre-session is to create a friendly, warm, and comfortable environment. - Introductions & Opening Questions 4. Main Session - This session should move toward the study`s critical questions - Transition Questions & Substantive Questions 5. Closing the Session - Closing Questions
  17. 17. Phase 3: Analyzing and Reporting the Results 1. Debriefing Debriefing = Evaluation 2. Content Analysis Content Analysis = A systematic procedure of taking individual responses and grouping them into larger theme categories or patterns 3. Reporting Focus Group Results Reporting must offer a logical sequence of findings, insights, and recommendations. INTERPRETIVE FACTORS Interpretive Factors in Analysing Focus Group Data NOTE Consider the word Words & Phrases Consider the context Tone, Intensity (voice inflection) and nonverbal communication (Body Language) Consider the frequency of comments Extensiveness and frequency of comments Consider the intensity of comments Passion and deep feeling Consider the specificity of responses Experience Consider the big picture Construct an aggregate theme
  18. 18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus Group Interviews ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES Stimulate new ideas, thoughts, and feelings about a topic Inability to generalize results Foster understanding of why people act or how they behave in certain market situations Data reliability Allow client participation Subjectivity of interpretations Elicit wide ranging participant responses High Cost Can bring together hard-to-reach subject groups (special market segments)
  19. 19. Other Qualitative Research Methods Case Studies Experience Interviews Protocol Interviews Articulative Interviews Etnography Netnography Projective Interviewing Methods Word Association Tests Sentence Completion Tests Picture Tests Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Cartoon or Balloon Test Role – Playing Interview Zaltman Metaphir, Elicitation Technique (ZMET)
  20. 20. Overview of Observation Methods The tools researchers use to collect primary data about human behavior and marketing phenomena. Researchers must rely on their observation skills rather than using respondents’ reports of their behavior. Watch and record what people (or object) do rather than relying on them to report their behaviors.
  21. 21. Video : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xSsszDVuGcs
  22. 22. Appropriate Conditions for Using Observation Techniques Information Condition Type – of – Data Condition Time – Frame Condition Setting
  23. 23. Unique Characteristic of Observation Techniques Characteristic Description Directness The degree to which the researcher or trained observer actually observes the behavior/ event as it occurs. Observation can be either direct or indirect. Awareness The degree to which individuals consciously know their behavior is being observed and recorded. Observation can be either disguised or undisguised. Structure The degree to which the bahiour, activities, or events to be observed are known to the researcher before doing the observations. Observation can be eithr structured or unstructured. Observing mechanism How the behavior, activities, or events are observed and recorded. Alternatives include trained human observers and mechanical or electronic devices.
  24. 24. Type of Observing Mechanism
  25. 25. Benefits and Limitations of Observation Methods Benefits of Observation Limitations of Observation Accuracy of actual behavior Difficult to generalize findings Reduces biases found in other data Cannot explain behaviors, events, collection methods, or activities unless combined with other methods Provides detailed behavioral data Problems in setting up and recording behavior(s), events, and/ or activities
  26. 26. Url Video : http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdlaQTS76VU
  27. 27. Thank You

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