Ch01

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Ch01

  1. 1. BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY I Giorgia Silani giorgia.silani@sissa.it
  2. 2. STRUCTURE OF THE COURSE: WHEN• Thursday 21/10/2010: 12 -17• Friday 22/10/2010: 10-15• Thursday 11/11/2010: 12 -17• Friday 12/11/2010: 10-15• Thursday 02/12/2010: 12 -17• Friday 03/12/2010: 10-15
  3. 3. STRUCTURE OF THE COURSE: HOW• 50 minutes: Frontal Lecture…but open to discussion. •Feel free to ask questions!• 10 minutes BREAK: you and me to recover a bit!• After each topic, some practical exercise…good training for the finalexam
  4. 4. STRUCTURE OF THE COURSE: WHAT• Chapter 01: Historical review .• Chapter 02: Cell biology of neurons• Chapter 03 - 04: Physiology of neural membrane• Chapter 05 - 06: Communication between neurons• Chapter 07: Anatomy of the nervous system• Chapter 08: Smell and Taste• Chapter 09 - 10: Visual system• Chapter 11: Auditory system• Chapter 12: Somatic sensory system• Chapter 13 - 14: Motor systemsTextbook: Bear, Connors, Paradiso “Neuroscience,exploring the brain – 3rd edition”Additional material on the webpage of the course Take home message…a lot of stuff to do.
  5. 5. STRUCTURE OF THE COURSE: WHOTorino, Italy Milano, Italy London, UK Trieste, Italy Zurich, Switzerland
  6. 6. LET’S START
  7. 7. NEUROSCIENCE:PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE
  8. 8. THE ORIGINS OF NEUROSCIENCENeuroscience is the scientific study of the nervoussystem.Relatively young term (Society for Neuroscience 1969)..but curiosity about the brain and how it works is old asmuch as the mankind itself
  9. 9. 7000 B.C. ... long time ago• Prehistoric ancestors – Brain vital to life• Skull surgeries – Evidence: Trepanation – Skulls show signs of healing
  10. 10. 5000 B.C. ... Ancient EgyptHeart: Seat of soul and memory (not the head)Mummification processCanopic Jars were used to hold the organs of the dead after they wereembalmed.The four organs housed by the jars were the lungs, the stomach, the liverand the intestines.Egyptians held no regard for the brain, which was discarded.The heart (scarab) was left inside the body, to be judged in the afterlife
  11. 11. 500 B.C. ... Ancient GreeceHippocrates (460 -379 B.C.) • Brain: Involved in sensation; • Seat of intelligenceAristotle (384 -322 B.C.) • Heart: centre of intellect; • Brain: Radiator for the cooling of the blood
  12. 12. A.D. ... Roman EmpireGalen (130 -200 A.D.)Correlation between structure and function • Cerebrum: soft = sensations • Cerebellum: hard= movements • Ventricles: contains fluids which movements to or from regulate perception and actions
  13. 13. From Reinassance to the XIX CenturyThe Renaissance Fluid-mechanical theory of brain function Philosophical mind-brain distinction Descartes (1596-1650)The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Gray matter and white matter observation Basic anatomical subdivisions of PNS and CNS Identifications of gyri, sulci, and fissuresBeginning of the Nineteenth Century Nerve as wires, understanding of electrical phenomena, brain can generate electricity Studies of Charles Bell and Francois Magendie on ventral and dorsal roots of the nerves
  14. 14. the XIX CenturyLocalization of Function in the Brain . If spinal roots carry differential functional information then different parts of the brain are specialized to process this information 1809 - Phrenology Franz Joseph Gall 1823 - Experimental ablation method Marie-Jean-Pierre Flourens 1861 – Lesioned patients Paul Broca
  15. 15. the XIX CenturyCerebral localization in animals Neuron as the basic Nervous systems of different function of the brain species may share common mechanisms
  16. 16. Neuroscience todayLevels of AnalysisMolecular (i.e. neurotransmitter, enzymes etc.)Cellular (i.e. types of neurons and their properties)Systems (i.e. visual, auditory etc.)Behavioral (from networks to behaviors)Cognitive ( from brain to mind, i.e. consciousness)
  17. 17. Neuroscientists
  18. 18. The cost of ignorance

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