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Library Strategy: Models and Measurement

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Presentation delivered at the University of Lund, 19 September 2012.

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Library Strategy: Models and Measurement

  1. 1. Library Strategy: models and measurement University of Lund Wednesday 19th September 2012
  2. 2. Summary 1. To provide some models and frameworks for strategy and measurement 2. To consider how these apply in real situations (York & Lund)
  3. 3. WHAT IS A STRATEGY? Strategy Refresher
  4. 4. Definition ‘Strategy is the direction and scope of an organisation over the long term: which achieves advantage for the organisation through its configuration of resources within a changing environment, to meet the needs of markets and to fulfil stakeholder expectations’
  5. 5. Characteristics of Strategy • Long-term direction • Advantage • Scope of activities • Matching of activities to environment • Contextual • Different to operational management ‘ambiguous, complex, organisation-wide & fundamental, with long-term implications’
  6. 6. Framework • Understanding strategic issues – Strategic analysis • Decisions on strategies – Strategic choice • Making strategies happen – Strategic implementation Johnson, G & Scholes, K : Exploring corporate strategy. 5th ed. Prentice Hall, 1999.
  7. 7. Levels & Effects of Strategy • Corporate - overall purpose & scope • Business Unit - particular market • Operational - to deliver the above strategies leading to • major resource changes • operational changes • structural changes • competency changes
  8. 8. Strategy Triangle (Earl) • Top Down – Senior management & Business plan • ‘Inside out’ – Staff & technical creativity • Bottom Up – User views (eg from LibQUAL+)
  9. 9. University of York Plan • Excellence • Internationalistion • Inclusivity • Sustainability
  10. 10. Lund University Plan • Cross-boundary collaboration • Internationalisation • Quality enhancement • Leader, teacher and employee excellence
  11. 11. Strategy Development 1 • Environmental analysis • Current systems evaluation • Information need • Future systems evaluation • Options and resources Earl, M.
  12. 12. Strategy Development 2 Business Planning: • Local Profile • Market Structure • Competitive Position • Market Forces • Local Strategic Implications
  13. 13. Strategy Development 3 Corporate Planning: • Corporate Objectives & Targets • Gap Analysis (External & Internal) • Strategic Appraisal (SWOT) • Formulation & Decision (Options) • Implementation (Action plans & Budgets)
  14. 14. Documentary Sources • Local – Vision – Mission – Forward Plans & Existing Strategies • Government Policies & Plans • Sectoral analyses – Higher Education (national & international) – Information & Scholarly communication • Research findings & futurology • Internal documents
  15. 15. Data Inputs • Review of existing Information Strategy, reflections on progress • Review of other University Strategies • Departmental MTP/LTP documents • Survey Outcomes: NSS, PRES, Staff Survey, Library, IT • External strategies: Gartner, UCISA, Educause, SCONUL, National Archives
  16. 16. Emergent strategy & scenarios Scenario development is a means of providing a more coherent and dramatic picture of what the Research Library might look like in the future (longer term) This vision of the future may form an introduction or an appendix to a formal strategic plan, providing a compelling or challenging narrative
  17. 17. A Scenario is … • ‘A self-contained envelope of consistent possibilities which describe the future.’ • ‘Conceptual stories composed around carefully constructed plots.’ • ‘Scenario planning attempts to capture the richness and range of possibilities, stimulating decision makers to consider changes they would otherwise ignore … it organises those possibilities into narratives that are easier to grasp … scenarios aim to challenge the prevailing mind-set.’
  18. 18. Scenario building • Consider the main environmental trends for the future (these may arise from a PEST analysis) • Translate these into opposing ‘uncertainties’ • Choose a pair to set against each other, and identify the two possible variants for each issue • Use the matrix to create up to four scenarios arising from the possibilities • Label each with a subtitle, and characterise the future vision implied as fully as you can
  19. 19. Decisions? • Which scenario for the future would you like to choose? – Which is the most likely? – Which is the least likely? – Which is closest to the status quo? • What implications are there for the Research Library in terms of choice of strategy? • How can a desirable scenario be brought about through an implementation plan?
  20. 20. ANALYSIS PHASE Strategy Phase One
  21. 21. Analysis options • Environmental analyses – PEST – Scenarios – Futurology • Organisational analysis – SWO(O)T – Portfolio (Boston Box) • Stakeholder analysis – Needs – Stakeholder power
  22. 22. Environmental analysis objectives • To understand the environmental influences on your research library (global to local) • To collect data to set the environmental analysis against your organisational strengths and weaknesses (gap analysis) • To consider actions required to achieve a better fit to prevailing conditions • To generate a set of the main constraints and drivers of the strategy
  23. 23. York and Lund … “world-class information services for a world class University” “strengthen international position and competitiveness”
  24. 24. Organisational analysis objectives • What are your library’s Strengths and Weaknesses in relation to the marketplace? • What needs to change to achieve the vision, or to meet changing requirements • Are all elements of the portfolio still needed, and what need attention either practically or politically? • What are the key areas the strategy needs to address?
  25. 25. Information Services SWOT Strengths • Building / Physical Space • Creativity and Collaboration • Embedding Academic Liaison into departments • Partnerships and Collaborations Weaknesses • Celebration/Communication of achievements • Patchy engagement with student bodies • Links with planning (MTP/LTP) • Fragmentation with staff in different office buildings
  26. 26. Information Services SWOT Opportunities • Student experience funding • New forums for engagement - Academic Co-ordinators, GSA Forum, Student/staff liaison groups • Membership of RLUK Threats • Above inflation increases in content subscription costs • Raised expectations in new funding regime • Needs for funding with student growth
  27. 27. STRATEGIC CHOICE Strategy Phase Two
  28. 28. Strategic Choices 1? • No Change • New Markets (Penetration or Development) • New Products • New Business Areas (Diversification) After Ansoff, I.
  29. 29. Strategic Choices 2? • Cost leadership - lowest price • Differentiation - uniqueness • Focus - particular segment Porter, M.
  30. 30. Testing your strategy Does it achieve: • A distinctive value proposition • A tailored value chain • Trade-offs (choices) different from competitors • Fit (strength/alignment) across the value chain • Continuity (facilitates appropriate innovation) Porter, M.
  31. 31. IMPLEMENTATION Strategy Phase Three
  32. 32. The Information Strategy
  33. 33. York core strategic programmes… A unified information strategy: 1. Information systems 2. Portals and access systems 3. Content 4. Infrastructure 5. Policy 6. Environments
  34. 34. Enablers Vision Statement The environment to permit and encourage the core programmes to progress Portfolio – Relationships – Quality – Staff and Culture – Resourcing – Collaboration and Partnerships
  35. 35. Lund LUB Strategies • Information services • Research support • Support for education and learning • Physical and virtual learning environments • A worldwide library
  36. 36. Programme Management Rationale: • Integrated delivery of change • Framework for senior management to direct • Better management of risk • Improved control • Bridge the gap between strategies and projects • Consistent policies, standards & working practices UK Office of Government Commerce
  37. 37. MSP approach Vision led and Outcome driven Vision as opposed to specification Outcome as opposed to benefit Thus your programmes are based on “outward facing description of new capabilities” arising, and measured by results generating change in “real world behaviours or circumstances”
  38. 38. Senior Staff Structure: focus on strategy
  39. 39. An outcome driven strategy: Content programme 1. An array of information resources which matches requirements and competitors 2. Better availability of core material for teaching 3. The capability to create and build digital special collections as required 4. An increasing volume of digital information for teaching, research and administration 5. The ability to offer, manipulate, store and preserve media in all relevant formats 6. The capability to embed the right content into teaching programmes 7. Users and stakeholders engaged with helping select what is required 8. Effective collection, management and distribution of the University’s knowledge assets
  40. 40. Programmes Defined by: • Vision statement • Blueprint (Roadmap?) • Business case • Organisation • Project portfolio • Benefit profile • Stakeholder map Governance requires: • Quality management • Stakeholder management • Issue resolution • Risk management • Benefits management • Resource management • Planning and control
  41. 41. Project management “The rational management of change” Identify a portfolio of projects which will achieve the vision expressed in each programme The implementation plan will need timescales, resources required, and the benefits and impact of each
  42. 42. Project matrix
  43. 43. STRATEGIC MEASUREMENT Monitoring progress
  44. 44. One Director’s perspective … • Articulating the value proposition • Translating what we understand about changing need into strategies and plans • The transformation and sustenance of our services into a different social, technological and economic future • To demonstrate that our value proposition encompasses a contribution that transcends narrow and local assumptions about the library’s role
  45. 45. Some frameworks • Critical success factors • The Balanced scorecard • EFQM • Quality maturity models • A Value scorecard
  46. 46. Critical Success Factors Definition A term used to mean the most important sub- goals for an organisation. CSFs are what must be accomplished for the strategy to be achieved. CSFs are followed by the key processes for the strategy - the activities that must be done particularly well for the CSFs to be achieved. After Oakland, J.
  47. 47. Critical Success Factors The minimum key factors or subgoals that the organisation must have or need and which together will achieve the strategy Not necessarily directly manageable, but provide direction and success criteria. Each is necessary and together they are sufficient for the strategy to be achieved. No more than eight, no less than four.
  48. 48. Application • Can be used at all levels – Organisational (Library) – Programme – Project – Service
  49. 49. Proposed Critical Success Factors 1. We must meet information needs 2. We need sufficient resource to achieve aspirations 3. We must inspire and enable innovation 4. We need to engage the University community 5. We must align with University plans 6. We must manage risk and comply with regulation
  50. 50. EFQM (2003). Introducing Excellence. Brussels: EFQM. Available at: http://www.efqm.org [Accessed 30 March 2005] Leadership People Processes Key Performance Results Policy & Strategy Partnerships & Resources People Results Customer Results Society Results Innovation and Learning Enablers Results
  51. 51. Capability Maturity Model
  52. 52. Transcendent contributions to … • The student experience • Research impact • Reputation • Internationalisation • Financial sustainability • Society
  53. 53. A Value Scorecard • Relationship & reputation capital • Organisational capital – Tangible assets and resources – Intangible and meta-assets • Library virtue – Impact and social capital • Library momentum
  54. 54. A narrative of momentum?

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