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Sustainable Design - Transportation and Travel


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Good design is sustainable design. We explore what sustainability is, why it's important, and why the design, usability, and ux community should care. We then explore what some travel companies are doing to be more sustainable, and what we as individuals can do to change our travel habits and our mindset.

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Sustainable Design - Transportation and Travel

  1. 1. Minimal environmental impact
  2. 2. Why is it important?
  3. 3. We all breathe
  4. 4. Climate change affects everyone
  5. 5. and we’re running out…
  6. 6. Out of fossil fuels.
  7. 7. Out of clean air Cairo
  8. 8. Out of raw materials (globally) an area of  forest equal to 20  football fields is lost  every minute The Amazon rainforest
  9. 9. Only 0.3% of Earth’s water is drinkable.
  10. 10. Out of food Zimbabwe
  11. 11. OUT OF TIME
  12. 12. Sustainability = Usability? quot;[Usability refers to] the extent to which a product can be used by  specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and  satisfaction in a specified context of use.  Smart design is sustainable design. Sustainability, like usability seeks to improve efficiency.
  13. 13. We must change the way we think about  making things, if we want to be able to keep making things.
  14. 14. If things are to change, it needs to start with us.
  15. 15. Uses 20% less ink. Very little visible difference at  standard body text sizes.
  16. 16. Easy to open. Less wasted materials.
  17. 17. the average server produces the same  emissions as a 15 mpg SUV
  18. 18. Airlines
  19. 19. Every extra pound of fuel weight burns 3% extra fuel per hour. The greatest amount of weight that can be reduced on an aircraft is the weight of fuel.
  20. 20. Load Planning: By shifting an aircraft’s center of gravity to the aft limit, load planning tools can help airplanes achieve ideal trim. Once the ideal trim position is determined and the cargo is loaded as planned, the aircraft’s lift capability is increased and its drag reduced, which leads to improved fuel efficiency.
  21. 21. The Load Calculations page (shown to the right) includes an ideal trim and zone indicator for zero fuel weight. The system visually shows the load planner the ideal center of gravity for zero fuel. The Balance Graph page (shown to the left) lets a load planner view a graphic chart of the current weight and balance status of the zero fuel, take-off, landing and ramp limits in the selected aircraft. As items are added or moved on the load plan, the bars are automatically updated.
  22. 22. Ground Operations: Delays that result from inclement weather, mechanical failures or late arrivals increase fuel usage. Using automated systems, airlines can increase flight utilization, swap planes, and reduce ground time.
  23. 23. Airlines optimize the movement of their aircrafts with Gantt charts, which update dynamically to reflect current movement information. Colors show the status of flights and maintenance checks, departure/arrival delays and any negative ground times. Gantt charts are used to reduce down time and swap aircraft.
  24. 24. When planes are on the ground, some sustainable transportation procedures for the ground crews include: - Switching to electric ground power - Reducing ground maneuvers - Landing by the closest gate - Driving planes on one engine to a gate - Using a tractor to pull the airplane - Fueling where gas is cheaper
  25. 25. Gate Planning: Efficient airport operations depend in part on gating aircraft for a smooth flow of arriving and departing flights. Reducing fuel burn and facilitating less wait time are key components of an effective gate system.
  26. 26. One airline reported that by using a gate management system, they reduced excess aircraft fuel burn cost up to 5% by increasing efficiency on the taxiway alone.
  27. 27. Fleet Planning: Deploying the most efficient aircraft for a route improves aircraft fuel savings by using the right product at the right time. Case Study: Lufthansa reported they were able to accommodate an additional 62,900 passengers in one month by just using a fleet planning tool alone.
  28. 28. Flight Planning: Optimizing route, altitude, speed, payload and fuel with the onboard flight-management computer provides airlines with the means to calculate flying speed based on winds and aircraft weight, for a more flexible, fuel-efficient flight plan. Case Study: China Southern Airlines reported that its computerized flight planning saved 2,368 tons of jet fuel last year.
  29. 29. Building Better Planes: Boeing claims their newest 787 model will be at least 20% more fuel-efficient than the current competing aircraft models with: -1/3 the efficiency gain will come from the engines -1/3 from advanced systems -1/3 from aerodynamic improvements and increased use of lighter weight composite materials
  30. 30. Testing: Computer modeling and wind tunnels are used to make airplanes more aerodynamic. Did you know: A square meter of rough skin on an airplane can translate to 3,000 to 12,000 additional liters of fuel consumed per year.
  31. 31. Design Thinking: The engine pods on the latest Boeing 787 airplanes are built with lighter material to save on fuel and chevron edges to reduce noise pollution.
  32. 32. Improved Production: For the 737 line, Boeing reports: - 23% reduction in hazardous waste - 41% reduction in factory size - 52% reduction in power consumption
  33. 33. E-tickets: IATA estimates that by moving to e-tickets, 50,000 trees a year are saved.
  34. 34. Hotels
  35. 35. Sadie Cove Lodge in Alaska At Kachemak Bay State Park, the entire place is completely off the grid, generating its own electricity through wind and hydro power. The lodges are hand-built from scavenged driftwood and the hotel supplies its own kayaks and fishing gear to lodgers at no extra cost. It’s not only eco-friendly it’s relaxing: Groups of eight can Sadie Cove Wilderness Lodge, Homer, Alaska have a lodge to themselves and watch bald eagles flock on the beach.
  36. 36. Journey Inn in Wisconsin The floors of this tiny B&B are heated with a solar-powered water system, and the cooling is handled naturally with cross- ventilation. Curl up on a bed of natural latex foam wrapped in wool and organic cotton that rests on a wood frame harvested from sustainably managed forests. The native landscape is managed through composting, and Journey Inn, Maiden Rock, Wis. furnishings are treated with minimally chemical-laden paints, varnishes, adhesives, and sealants.
  37. 37. Apex International Hotel—England Apex International Hotel in the United Kingdom offers a stunning view of Edinburgh Castle, which is within walking distance. The hotel has these green initiatives: - Uses non-toxic cleaning agents - Earth-friendly housekeeping - Uses non-disposable plates/cups - Recycles all papers/newspapers - Buys produce locally - Rooftop dining with vegan offerings - Pool is sterilized with ozone - Educational classes offered for hotel guests on how to travel green. Walking and bicycling tours are encouraged at the hotel, as there are many historical sites (not including the Castle) close to the hotel. Edinburgh Castle (as seen from Apex Hotel)
  38. 38. Fairmont in Washington, DC Fairmont has been an industry leader in greening their hotels, making the process part of their corporate mission. Measures vary by hotel, but free parking for hybrids, for example, is offered in all of their California properties. In D.C., the hotel directs some of its electricity dollars to wind power and have installed a hydrocarbon-powered dry cleaning machine. The Fairmont, Washington, DC. They’ll soon be rolling out Eco Meet so businesses can hold green conferences, as well as a green wedding program.
  39. 39. Waste: On average, each guest produces over 2 pounds (1 kilogram) of waste each night, mostly composed of beverage and paper products—65% of all hotel waste. Recycling: In 2004, the majority of Fairmont hotels each recycled an average of 1,261 tons (1,144 tonnes) of paper, cardboard, cans and glass.
  40. 40. Water: A typical occupied hotel room soaks up 218 gallons (825 liters) of water every day. Reduction: Installation of water-efficient guest fixtures has helped Fairmont decrease water use by an average of 31%.
  41. 41. Energy: An investment in energy conservation of $20-30 USD per room yields an annual savings of over $100 USD per room. Conservation: Fairmont’s Sonoma Mission & Spa retrofit with fluorescent bulbs for an annual savings of $61,000 USD and prevented the releases of 317,165 lbs of carbon dioxide.
  42. 42. Natural Preservation: Fairmont has developed an extensive integrated management plan for improvements to their golf courses. Stewardship: Fairmont established a “Greening the Greens” program, applying for certification in the Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary System. To date, seven courses are certified.
  43. 43. Staff: Any sustainable program is only as good as the individuals that run the daily operations the program. Training: 26,000 Fairmont employees have become environmental ambassadors, helping protect the habitat, resources, and culture.
  44. 44. Travel Retailers
  45. 45. E-ticketing E-tickets: IATA estimates that by moving to e-tickets, 50,000 trees a year are saved. Most, but not all, online travel retailers use e-ticketing.
  46. 46. Carbon Offsetting • Travelocity Travel For Good Program – GoZero! - first Online travel agency to offer carbon offsets by contributing to the Conservation Fund • 20,000 trees planted Bogue Chitto National Wildlife Refuge in Louisiana, Trinity National Wildlife Refuge in Texas •’s CarbonWise – Helps consumers offset the environmental impact of travel with contributions to renewable energy programs • 20,000 tons of CO2 offset in first year
  47. 47. Dedicated Green Travel Sites We do see some dedicated green travel sites. Online travel retailers do provide content for green air, car, hotels, and other destinations.
  48. 48. Voluntourism A recent travel study noted that more than 55 million Americans have participated in a volunteer vacation. Travelocity’s Change Ambassador Grant was given out recently to help meerkats of the Kalahari.
  49. 49. Eco-tourism Eco-tourism: Targeted tourism to evaluate environmental and cultural factors, which promotes recycling, energy efficiency, water conservation, and creation of economic opportunities for the local communities. Eco-trip Facts: - 82% are college educated - Most eco-trips last 3 weeks
  50. 50. Glamping Glamping: Upscale—or glamorous—camping is designed for people who do not want to deal with the reality of pitching a tent and building a fire. Eco-Facts: - Most glamping sites are off the grid - No electricity, no cell or Wi-Fi coverage
  51. 51. Education and Awareness Travelocity created this award winning animation to raise awareness about carbon footprints and carbon offsetting: - Several animated adventures - Lesson plans for Kindergarten to 8th grade - Name the bunnies contest - Earth Day Escapade - Ability to add to Facebook Note: No other travel site offers eco-videos specifically targeted to educate children.
  52. 52. Shipping Cargo
  53. 53. Hybrid Vehicles The Postal Service has the largest civilian car fleet with over 43,000 alternative-fuel capable. The E-85 alternative-fuel project put 584 ethanol-powered vehicles on the road in Minnesota alone. UPS is evaluating hydraulic hybrid diesel technology thought to achieve a 45-50% improvement in fuel economy and a 30% reduction in CO2 emissions compared with traditional diesel-powered vehicles. FedEx operates the largest commercial fleet of hybrid trucks in North America, consisting of more than 170 hybrid-electric trucks and several other types of low-emission trucks.
  54. 54. Packaging • First shipping company to achieve Cradle to Cradle certification for its packaging and eco-friendly stamps. • A half billion US packages/envelopes meet higher eco-standards, which equates to more than 15,000 metric tons of carbon equivalent emissions prevented. • Introduced the industry’s first Reusable Next Day Air envelope in 1998, which is bleach free and 100% recycled fiber. • Reduced the amount of energy used in the manufacturing process by 12%. • Most envelopes made from 100% recycled content and are recyclable. • FedEx 10kg and 25kg boxes contain minimum of 70% recycled content and are recyclable.
  55. 55. No Left Turn The New York Times reported that UPS lopped off some 28.5 million miles from its delivery routes thanks to the route-optimizing software that eliminated many of the left turns on routes. The company ended up saving 3 million gallons of fuel and cutting carbon dioxide emissions by close to 69 million pounds.
  56. 56. Energy Conservation • USPS is upgrading their buildings to reduce energy consumption 30% by 2015. • USPS delivers one-third of its mail in the most energy-efficient way possible—on foot. • Solar power provides 70% of the power needs at its Palm Springs facility. • In 2007, upgrades to lights saved enough energy to power 600 homes for a year. • Upgraded planes led to greater capacity, which saw an 18% decrease in fuel usage. • 50% of electricity supplied to California locations are from green energy sources.
  57. 57. If 10% of the freight currently moved by trucks were switched to trains, the US would see a savings of 1billion gallons of fuel each year. --Association of American Railroads
  58. 58. BNSF Rail plans improvements to its proposed Southern California International Gateway including: - Electric cranes and low-emission trucks - Planting an urban forest - Building a 20-mile rail line from port of LA to downtown Expect to eliminate over one million truck trips on I-710.
  59. 59. Reduce Idle Time • 4.2 million large diesel trucks in US • 1.3 million long-haul trucks with sleepers • These trucks transport 80% of US goods • Trucks idle during 8-10 hour rest periods • Estimated 3 billion gallons burned during extended idling each year Diesel engines emit various substances into the atmosphere, including: Did you know: - Nitrogen oxide - Particulate matter Idling engines are inefficient. - Carbon dioxide During winter, 85% of idle burn - Carbon monoxide. is to heat the cab. During the summer, 91% of idle burn is to Also, consider noise as drivers try to rest. cool the cab.
  60. 60. Improved Ground Operations IdleAir provides a service to long-haul drivers, where they can turn the engines off, plug into power cool perishable cargo, install a tube that brings cool or warm air through the driver’s window. For $10 USD, drivers buy a clamping device to install the tube to their truck. Tubes drop from above to supply more than just air.
  61. 61. Improved User Experience Pay for fuel, multiple electrical outlets, video on demand, high-speed internet, and night light are available on the touch-screen application. The cost for these services is 75% lower than idling the truck and less noisy (truckers can sleep).
  62. 62. What you can do “Personal transportation (i.e., home use) is responsible for 30 to  50% of greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, 33% of toxic  water pollution, and over 45% of toxic air emissions.”
  63. 63. Think before you go. Do you really need to travel?  Can you work/collaborate virtually? Can you combine trips?
  64. 64. <head> conference
  65. 65. Your choices make the difference
  66. 66. Where to go Sustainable Travel Resources and Destination Ratings •Destinations rated on: •Environmental quality •Social & cultural integrity •Condition of historic sites •Aesthetic appeal •Quality of tourism management •Outlook for the future
  67. 67. What to do • Geotourism - tourism that sustains or enhances the geographical character of a place—its environment, culture, aesthetics, heritage, and the well-being of its residents. • Voluntourism – ever wonder if there’s more to the vacation concept than lying on a beach and getting toasted? Showing thanks for your own good fortune, perhaps?
  68. 68. Where to stay Hotel alternatives Examine hotel sustainability policy Glamping: The beauty of the outdoors, without having to set up a tent or sleep on the ground. Camping? Yes. Roughing it? Not quite. Small eco-footprint? Yes.
  69. 69. bike
  70. 70. Riding a bus rather than driving your own car  reduces carbon monoxide emissions by 95%
  71. 71. San Francisco's City  Carshare found that  members reduced  their gasoline  consumption and their  CO2 emissions by 90%  over a 2 year period  versus non‐members.
  72. 72. Car pooling Reduce pollution Save money Reduce traffic congestion Reduce stress
  73. 73. Selecting a car MPG vs. GPM Upgrade: Upgrade:  Old SUV – 12 mpg to or Old Sedan – 25 mpg to Hybrid SUV – 18 mpg Hybrid Sedan – 46 mpg
  74. 74. Selecting a car MPG vs. GPM Upgrade: Upgrade:  Old SUV – 12 mpg to or Old Sedan – 25 mpg to Hybrid SUV – 18 mpg Hybrid Sedan – 46 mpg Would save Would save 278 gallons of fuel  183 gallons of fuel  Per 10,000 miles Per 10,000 miles
  75. 75. Stephen Thomas Brian Sullivan @stephenjthomas Attributions Wsdot ‐ Ninahale ‐ Sokwanele ‐ Pfala ‐ Colin Donald ‐  Longhorndave ‐ PaulEisenberg ‐ Splorp ‐