Stop Doing What Youre Told

Stephen Anderson
Stephen AndersonProduct Strategy & Design Consultant
The title of this presentation is


Stop Doing
What You’re Told!
which, if you think about it for too long, is a rather
odd and difficult imperative statement, as complying
with this command would also place you in
violation of this command…

This presentation has been lovingly crafted by
S T E P H E N P. A N D E R S O N and will begin in
a few moments. Tweeting? Please use #whywhy
and/or #ias13 hashtag. Comments and questions
may alse be directed to @stephenanderson. Enjoy!
Product
Stephen P.   Strategy




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 Anderson
Product
Stephen P.   Strategy




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             Deonsisuglting
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 Anderson
Product
Stephen P.   Strategy




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             Deonsisuglting
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 Anderson
A C T I V I T Y



You have 2 minutes.
Design a vase.




                    (example from Marc Rettig)
A C T I V I T Y



You have 2 minutes.
Design a vase.
Design a better way
for people to enjoy
flowers in their home.

                     (example from Marc Rettig)
“ Always the beautiful answer who
 asks a more beautiful question.”  
–E.E. CUMMINGS
A ROUGH DESIGN MATURITY CONTINUUM

DESIGN AS                                                        Design redefines the challenges facing the
                                                                 organization.


 FRAMING                                                         Framing sets the agenda, outlines the
                                                                 boundaries and axes of interest, and moves
                                                                 design from executing strategy to shaping
                                                                 strategy. Disruptive innovation lives here.

                                                                 Design finds new opportunities by solving
                                                                 existing problems.

 PROBLEM                                         ?
                                                                 Design process generates alternatives within
                                                                 a problem space. Design also narrows down

  SOLVING                                                        those options to a specific solution.



                                                                 Design makes things work better.


FUNCTION                                                         This is the classic practice of design - but it's
                                                                 still commonly limited to incremental
                                            +                    improvements through iteration over existing

AND FORM
                                                                 solutions.




                                                                 Design is the gateway to be hip and cool.



        STYLE                           ,                        Design is stylish, but too often is percieved
                                                                 and practiced as a cosmetic afterthought.



                                                                 Design value isn't recognized.

NO CONSCIOUS
      DESIGN                                     ?               This attitude fosters design by default -
                                                                 however things come out is fine, because
                                                                 there are more important issues to deal with.


   (Jess McMullin - Design Maturity Model - http://www.bplusd.org/2005/10/19/a-rough-design-maturity-model/ )
A ROUGH DESIGN MATURITY CONTINUUM

DESIGN AS                                                        Design redefines the challenges facing the
                                                                 organization.


 FRAMING                                                         Framing sets the agenda, outlines the
                                                                 boundaries and axes of interest, and moves
                                                                 design from executing strategy to shaping
                                                                 strategy. Disruptive innovation lives here.

                                                                 Design finds new opportunities by solving
                                                                 existing problems.

 PROBLEM                                         ?
                                                                 Design process generates alternatives within
                                                                 a problem space. Design also narrows down

  SOLVING                                                        those options to a specific solution.



                                                                 Design makes things work better.


FUNCTION                                                         This is the classic practice of design - but it's
                                                                 still commonly limited to incremental
                                            +                    improvements through iteration over existing

AND FORM
                                                                 solutions.




                                                                 Design is the gateway to be hip and cool.



        STYLE                           ,                        Design is stylish, but too often is percieved
                                                                 and practiced as a cosmetic afterthought.



                                                                 Design value isn't recognized.

NO CONSCIOUS
      DESIGN                                     ?               This attitude fosters design by default -
                                                                 however things come out is fine, because
                                                                 there are more important issues to deal with.


   (Jess McMullin - Design Maturity Model - http://www.bplusd.org/2005/10/19/a-rough-design-maturity-model/ )
What I’m not talking about
   (though relevant and important!)                                                               Frames, Metaphors,
                                                                                                 Language (a la Lakoff),
                                                                                                   Linguistic Relativity
  Cynefin Framework
                                                    Tame, Complex,
                                                   Wicked and Super-
                                                   Wicked Problems




                                                                               Systems
Chaotic, Complex, Complex and                                                  Thinking
       Simple Problems


                   Known vs Unknown Problems
                   4 Types of Problem                                                     Adjacent
                   According to Drucker, there’s four types of problems:
                                                                                          Problems
                     1.   Truly Generic (individual occurrence is a symptom;
                          Two Different Kinds of Compromises)
                     2.   Generic, but Unique for the individual institution
                     3.   Truly exceptional, truly unique
                     4.   Early manifestation of a new generic problem
What I’m not talking about
   (though relevant and important!)                                                               Frames, Metaphors,
                                                                                                 Language (a la Lakoff),
                                                                                                   Linguistic Relativity
  Cynefin Framework
                                                    Tame, Complex,
                                                   Wicked and Super-
                                                   Wicked Problems




                                                                               Systems
Chaotic, Complex, Complex and                                                  Thinking
       Simple Problems


                   Known vs Unknown Problems
                   4 Types of Problem                                                     Adjacent
                   According to Drucker, there’s four types of problems:
                                                                                          Problems
                     1.   Truly Generic (individual occurrence is a symptom;
                          Two Different Kinds of Compromises)
                     2.   Generic, but Unique for the individual institution
                     3.   Truly exceptional, truly unique
                     4.   Early manifestation of a new generic problem

                                                                                                            Unicorns!
Build a tricycle
     with wings!


*
Build a tricycle   (SILLY REQUEST)
     with wings!


*
Build a tricycle   (SILLY REQUEST)
     with wings!


*
    B
    What color
     do you
     want it?
Build a tricycle        (SILLY REQUEST)
     with wings!


*
    B
    B
    What color
     do you
     want it?
              We can try
               out some
             HTML5-coated
               titanium!
Build a tricycle        (SILLY REQUEST)
     with wings!


*
    B                               b
              We can try                   Stop.
               out some                 Why is this
             HTML5-coated             valuable? And
               titanium!                for whom?




    B
    What color
     do you
     want it?
Build a tricycle        (SILLY REQUEST)
     with wings!


*
    B                               b
              We can try                   Stop.
               out some                 Why is this
             HTML5-coated             valuable? And
               titanium!                for whom?




    B
    What color
     do you
     want it?
Let’s name some
bad requests.
But first… Write down a recent problem you were asked to solve.
write some case
 studies to show
how our customers              We need a health
     love us!                game to help employees
                               meet wellness goals

           Is this the real problem, or are we…

           “Anchoring”
           Framing the problem in the context of a specific
           solution which immediately discounts all other solutions
Product or Task Focused   Experience Focused.


Design a vase.            Design a better way
                          for people to enjoy
                          flowers in their home.
Product or Task Focused   Experience Focused.


Design a better search    Design a better way to learn
engine results page.      about [topic]
Product or Task Focused   Experience Focused.
Product or Task Focused             Experience Focused.




   Calculator             Calcbot                 Soulver
If we’re thinking of [designing] a lunchbox we’d
be rea&y careful about not having the word “box”
already give you a bunch of ideas that could be
quite narrow. Because you think of a box as being
square and like a cube. And so we’re quite careful
with the words we use, because those can
determine the path you go down.

— S I R J O N AT H A N I V E O N “ B L U E P E T E R ”
We need a new Drupal
CMS to make it easier for
 our team to edit pages.
                                     Our company needs a
                                     Sharepoint installation.



              Is this the real problem, or are we…

              “Solutioneering”
              Framing the problem in terms of a technology purchase
              when the issues may not be technical
We need our new site
to be able to do this,
    this and this.




               Is this the real problem, or are we…

               “Wishlisting”
               Framing a problem as a set of desired features
Stop Doing What Youre Told
We're going to be
the iTunes of health               This will be the
     insurance!                  Angry Birds of online
                                       shopping!



             Is this the real problem, or are we…



 Y           “Buzzwording”
             Likening the solution to some other popular product or
             service
Friendster + Tribe
 A tool for students to log into
                                          + Craigslist
the computer lab, but also a way
  for teachers to sift through
          student data
                                                YouTube meets
                                                   Craigslist


                     Is this the real problem, or are we…

                     “Frankensteining”
                     Framing the problem as a blend of things (that may or
                     may not mix)
Stop Doing What Youre Told
Stop Doing What Youre Told
iTunes
     + iPhoto
     + YouTube
     + Facebook
     + Cloud Storage

                            Is this the real problem, or are we…

                            “Boiling the Ocean”
                            Framing the problem as a HUGE blend of things that
                            are most certainly not acheivable out of the gate!


Eva-Lotta Lamm drew this!
We need more customer
support folks to answer all
   these incoming calls.



              Is this the real problem, or are we…

              “Treating a Symptom”
              Reacting to urgent problems rather than seeking the
              reason for that problem
We need more customer
support folks to answer all
   these incoming calls.             Why are you
                              gettting so many calls?
                            How can we improve the
                               product to reduce the
              Is this the real problem, or are we…
                                  number of incoming
              “Treating a Symptom”         calls?
               Reacting to urgent problems rather than seeking the
               reason for that problem
Our customers don’t
know how to use [x].

               Let’s give them more
               training... or add more
                  instructional text.
               Or maybe a ‘tooltip’ to
                 explain what to do.
Stop Doing What Youre Told
Stop Doing What Youre Told
(Insert Jeremy’s example from Quizno’s)
The problem of getting a kid to learn to ride a bike… Two solutions:



              training wheels                                                                             pushbike




The engineer looks at the problem and says "Oh, Timmy falls down.                 The designer looks at the problem and says: "What if Timmy keeps
We can fix that:"                                                                 falling down because he isn't learning to balance, in turn because
                                                                                  we're giving him too many things to learn at once? What if we take
                                                                                  something away?"




                                                       http://doriantaylor.com/teaching-timmy-to-ride
We must fix this now! I’ve got
 several customers complaing
   about our new changes



            Is this the real problem, or are we…

            “Amplifying the Feedback”
            Allowing the complaints (or praise) of a few people to
            drive decisions, even when statistically invalid
We’ve tried that
Our technology doesn't      before
 allow us to do that            The Senior VP will
                                 never go for that


              Is this the real problem, or are we…

              “Hamstringing”
              Artificially constraining the problem with assumptions
              (usually tech, user or political)
We’ve tried that
Our technology doesn't            before
 allow us to do that                   The Senior VP will
                                        never go for that
              “John selects a nearby fishing
                     spots on the map”

              “John needs a way to discoor r a we…
                Is this the real problem, ve are
                 great new fishing spot”
                “Hamstringing”
                Artificially constraining the problem with assumptions
                (usually tech, user or political)
We need a
Facebook page!
                            We need a blog


          Is this the real problem, or are we…

          “Bandwagoning”
          Framing the problem as something important to do
          because everyone else it doing that thing
Book a hotel




         Is this the real problem, or are we…

         “Narrowing the problem”
         Framing the problem in the context of a specific
         solution which immediately discounts all other solutions
Book a hotel                 User needs to compare pr
                                                     icing.

                               which sellers will give me
                             the products I want with
                                                        the
                                 best contract offer?

         Is this the real problem, or are we…

         “Narrowing the problem”
         Framing the problem in the context of a specific
         solution which immediately discounts all other solutions
We need a new
homepage to promote
 our featured deals.        Users will complete brief
                          conversation surveys that will
                         help us measure program impact




               Is this the real problem, or are we…

               “Pacifying [insert name]”
               Problem is framed entirely in terms of one group's
               priorities (typically the business)
User will book a
hotel w/ Expedia              People will educate their
                              families, friends about our
                                 life saving product



          Is this the real problem, or are we…

          “Being Presumptuous”
          Presuming users will do some implausible activity.
Is this the real problem, or are we…

“Overlooking the Obvious”
Problem as presented is missing a vital piece of
information or based on a flawed assumption
Where to best add armor to the plane's structure?
Where to best add armor to the plane's structure?
Stop Doing What Youre Told
A   B
A        B

WRONG PROBLEM!
Stop Doing What Youre Told
!   ?
!         ?


(RIGHT PROBLEM TO SOLVE)
Stop Doing What Youre Told
[Insert whatever you like -
the HiPPO* asked for it…]




                Is this the real problem, or are we…

                “Ego Stroking”
                Problem exists because it's important to the HiPPO




                *Highest Paid Person’s Opinion
Like AirBNB, but with
this missing feature



         Is this the real problem, or are we…

         “Flavoring”
         Framing the problem as an existing product + “missing”
         features.




         *credit goes to Matthew Milan for this one!
"Don't spend too
much time on this"
                                         M.V.P.*

           Is this the real problem, or are we…

           “Satisficing”
           Aims for a "good enough" solution that avoids the risk
           and costs associated with identifying and responding to
           the root problem



           *as practiced!
Just copy Amazon




           Is this the real problem, or are we…

           “Following the Leader”
           Framing the problem as having been already been
           solved by someone else
We're building THE
Community for parents of                          ALREADY EXISTS!
   Type I diabetics




                 Is this the real problem, or are we…

                 “Supsending Reality”
                 Believing the problem has not been solved already.
This UI looks great while we
only have a few options, but we’ll
 have hundreds in a few years!
 We need to design for both…




                 Is this the real problem, or are we…

                 “Future Proofing”
                 Solving for a problem that doesn’t exist yet
Anchoring                              Narrowing the problem
Solutioneering                         Pacifying [insert name or role]
Wishlisting                            Being Presumptuous
Buzzwording                            Overlooking the Obvious
Frankensteining                        Ego Stroking
Boiling the Ocean                      Flavoring
Treating a Symptom                     Satisficing
Amplifying the Feedback                Following the Leader
Hamstringing                           Supsending Reality
Bandwagoning                           Future Proofing


           Please add to, edit, and improve this list:


    http://bit.ly/badproblems
“So… How can I write a GOOD problem statement?”
One simple tip:
Ask Why
Getting to the real
problem…
requirements (and user stories)
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
requirements (and user stories)
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes


         x
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
requirements (and user stories)
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes


         x
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
requirements (and user stories)
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes


         x x
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
requirements (and user stories)
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes


         x x
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
requirements (and user stories)
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes


         x x
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.




             Y             =
requirements (and user stories)
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
                    for clarity (why? why? why?)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
                    for clarity (why? why? why?)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
                    My wallpaper is peeling off–
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
                    how do I get the wallpaper to
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
                    stay on the wall?
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
                   Why is it falling off the wall?

                   The wall is wet

                   Why is the wall is wet?

                   The wall is wet because there’s a
                   leak in the attic.

                   Why is there a leak in the attic?
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
             desired outcomes
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
                          Who needs what by when?
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
                          Focuses on Desired Outcomes
                          Why do they want it?
                          Shifts the conversation to Experiences
                          What are their conditions of
          Desired         Creates a Generative Thinking Space
                          satisfaction?
       Outcome(s)         Focuses on Value
                          How will we measure success?
        Worksheet         Encourages Objective Feedback
                          If Who = user
                          What Needs and Insights are driving this request?
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
             desired outcomes
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
                          Who needs what by when?
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
                          Why do they want it?
                          What are their conditions of
          Desired         satisfaction?
       Outcome(s)         How will we measure success?
        Worksheet         If Who = user
                        What Needs and Insights are driving this request?
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
             desired outcomes
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
                               A teenage girl with a bl
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!ak    e
                               oneeds what by to fe
                          Who utlook needswhen?el more
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
                               s do ally acc p
                          Why ocithey wanteit?ted when eating
                               healttheir ood, because in
                         sWhat are hy f conditions of
  A teenag  e girl need       hood a social risk is mo
                                                                 her
          Desiredous food dange
               iti        satisfaction?                        re
  more nutr                            rous tha
                          re will we measure success? n a health risk
       Outcome(s)ins a How
      ause vitam
  bec
         Worksheet ealth If Who = user
         to good h
   vital
                                   What Needs and Insights are driving this request?




*example from Stanford D. School
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
           conflicting desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
                                     User Goals

7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
                                               Desired
                                            Outcome(s)
                                  the
                                 Sweet
                                 Spot!
        Desired
       Outcome(s)


                Business Goals
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
           conflicting desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
                                     User Goals

7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
                           Desired
                         Outcome(s)
                                  the
                                 Sweet
                                 Spot!

                             Desired
                            Outcome(s)

                Business Goals
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
            Real from Perceived Constraints
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.



        Desired
       Outcome(s)
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
            Real from Perceived Constraints
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
                 CONSTRAINT
                              CONSTRAINT
   CONSTRAINT




                 Desired
                Outcome(s)

                 CONSTRAINT
Separate Real from Perceived Constraints




                       You can pry the greenscreen
                        out of my cold, dead hands
Separate Real from Perceived Constraints


   Our technology stack doesn’t
         let us do that…
                       The CEO will never go for
                               that
We’ve already tried
something like that
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
            Real from Perceived Constraints
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
                 CONSTRAINT
                              CONSTRAINT
   CONSTRAINT




                 Desired
                Outcome(s)

                 CONSTRAINT
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
       back, look for complementary projects… and people!
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
            CONSTRAINT


                CONSTRAINT




                                                                      CONSTRAINT
 CONSTRAINT




               Desired                                    Desired
                               CONSTRAINT


                                            CONSTRAINT




              Outcome(s)                                 Outcome(s)




                             CONSTRAINT
Project A
                              Project B




                Project A
    Project B

                      Project C
Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
       back, look for complementary projects… and people!
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
       back, look for complementary projects… and people!
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
1 Ignore requirements (and user stories)
2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?)
3 Define the desired outcomes
4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes
5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints
6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
           repeat. Learn along the way.
7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
Stop.
  Why are we
doing this? What
 is the Desired
   Outcome?
Good. You're
finally asking the
right questions!
Thank you!
www.slideshare.net/stephenpa
slideshare.net/stephenpa




  getmentalnotes.com


Stephen P Anderson
         .
@stephenanderson
www.poetpainter.com
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Stop Doing What Youre Told

  • 1. The title of this presentation is Stop Doing What You’re Told! which, if you think about it for too long, is a rather odd and difficult imperative statement, as complying with this command would also place you in violation of this command… This presentation has been lovingly crafted by S T E P H E N P. A N D E R S O N and will begin in a few moments. Tweeting? Please use #whywhy and/or #ias13 hashtag. Comments and questions may alse be directed to @stephenanderson. Enjoy!
  • 2. Product Stephen P. Strategy aND n Deonsisuglting C Anderson
  • 3. Product Stephen P. Strategy aND n Deonsisuglting C Anderson
  • 4. Product Stephen P. Strategy aND n Deonsisuglting C Anderson
  • 5. A C T I V I T Y You have 2 minutes. Design a vase. (example from Marc Rettig)
  • 6. A C T I V I T Y You have 2 minutes. Design a vase. Design a better way for people to enjoy flowers in their home. (example from Marc Rettig)
  • 7. “ Always the beautiful answer who asks a more beautiful question.”   –E.E. CUMMINGS
  • 8. A ROUGH DESIGN MATURITY CONTINUUM DESIGN AS Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. FRAMING Framing sets the agenda, outlines the boundaries and axes of interest, and moves design from executing strategy to shaping strategy. Disruptive innovation lives here. Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. PROBLEM ? Design process generates alternatives within a problem space. Design also narrows down SOLVING those options to a specific solution. Design makes things work better. FUNCTION This is the classic practice of design - but it's still commonly limited to incremental + improvements through iteration over existing AND FORM solutions. Design is the gateway to be hip and cool. STYLE , Design is stylish, but too often is percieved and practiced as a cosmetic afterthought. Design value isn't recognized. NO CONSCIOUS DESIGN ? This attitude fosters design by default - however things come out is fine, because there are more important issues to deal with. (Jess McMullin - Design Maturity Model - http://www.bplusd.org/2005/10/19/a-rough-design-maturity-model/ )
  • 9. A ROUGH DESIGN MATURITY CONTINUUM DESIGN AS Design redefines the challenges facing the organization. FRAMING Framing sets the agenda, outlines the boundaries and axes of interest, and moves design from executing strategy to shaping strategy. Disruptive innovation lives here. Design finds new opportunities by solving existing problems. PROBLEM ? Design process generates alternatives within a problem space. Design also narrows down SOLVING those options to a specific solution. Design makes things work better. FUNCTION This is the classic practice of design - but it's still commonly limited to incremental + improvements through iteration over existing AND FORM solutions. Design is the gateway to be hip and cool. STYLE , Design is stylish, but too often is percieved and practiced as a cosmetic afterthought. Design value isn't recognized. NO CONSCIOUS DESIGN ? This attitude fosters design by default - however things come out is fine, because there are more important issues to deal with. (Jess McMullin - Design Maturity Model - http://www.bplusd.org/2005/10/19/a-rough-design-maturity-model/ )
  • 10. What I’m not talking about (though relevant and important!) Frames, Metaphors, Language (a la Lakoff), Linguistic Relativity Cynefin Framework Tame, Complex, Wicked and Super- Wicked Problems Systems Chaotic, Complex, Complex and Thinking Simple Problems Known vs Unknown Problems 4 Types of Problem Adjacent According to Drucker, there’s four types of problems: Problems 1. Truly Generic (individual occurrence is a symptom; Two Different Kinds of Compromises) 2. Generic, but Unique for the individual institution 3. Truly exceptional, truly unique 4. Early manifestation of a new generic problem
  • 11. What I’m not talking about (though relevant and important!) Frames, Metaphors, Language (a la Lakoff), Linguistic Relativity Cynefin Framework Tame, Complex, Wicked and Super- Wicked Problems Systems Chaotic, Complex, Complex and Thinking Simple Problems Known vs Unknown Problems 4 Types of Problem Adjacent According to Drucker, there’s four types of problems: Problems 1. Truly Generic (individual occurrence is a symptom; Two Different Kinds of Compromises) 2. Generic, but Unique for the individual institution 3. Truly exceptional, truly unique 4. Early manifestation of a new generic problem Unicorns!
  • 12. Build a tricycle with wings! *
  • 13. Build a tricycle (SILLY REQUEST) with wings! *
  • 14. Build a tricycle (SILLY REQUEST) with wings! * B What color do you want it?
  • 15. Build a tricycle (SILLY REQUEST) with wings! * B B What color do you want it? We can try out some HTML5-coated titanium!
  • 16. Build a tricycle (SILLY REQUEST) with wings! * B b We can try Stop. out some Why is this HTML5-coated valuable? And titanium! for whom? B What color do you want it?
  • 17. Build a tricycle (SILLY REQUEST) with wings! * B b We can try Stop. out some Why is this HTML5-coated valuable? And titanium! for whom? B What color do you want it?
  • 19. But first… Write down a recent problem you were asked to solve.
  • 20. write some case studies to show how our customers We need a health love us! game to help employees meet wellness goals Is this the real problem, or are we… “Anchoring” Framing the problem in the context of a specific solution which immediately discounts all other solutions
  • 21. Product or Task Focused Experience Focused. Design a vase. Design a better way for people to enjoy flowers in their home.
  • 22. Product or Task Focused Experience Focused. Design a better search Design a better way to learn engine results page. about [topic]
  • 23. Product or Task Focused Experience Focused.
  • 24. Product or Task Focused Experience Focused. Calculator Calcbot Soulver
  • 25. If we’re thinking of [designing] a lunchbox we’d be rea&y careful about not having the word “box” already give you a bunch of ideas that could be quite narrow. Because you think of a box as being square and like a cube. And so we’re quite careful with the words we use, because those can determine the path you go down. — S I R J O N AT H A N I V E O N “ B L U E P E T E R ”
  • 26. We need a new Drupal CMS to make it easier for our team to edit pages. Our company needs a Sharepoint installation. Is this the real problem, or are we… “Solutioneering” Framing the problem in terms of a technology purchase when the issues may not be technical
  • 27. We need our new site to be able to do this, this and this. Is this the real problem, or are we… “Wishlisting” Framing a problem as a set of desired features
  • 29. We're going to be the iTunes of health This will be the insurance! Angry Birds of online shopping! Is this the real problem, or are we… Y “Buzzwording” Likening the solution to some other popular product or service
  • 30. Friendster + Tribe A tool for students to log into + Craigslist the computer lab, but also a way for teachers to sift through student data YouTube meets Craigslist Is this the real problem, or are we… “Frankensteining” Framing the problem as a blend of things (that may or may not mix)
  • 33. iTunes + iPhoto + YouTube + Facebook + Cloud Storage Is this the real problem, or are we… “Boiling the Ocean” Framing the problem as a HUGE blend of things that are most certainly not acheivable out of the gate! Eva-Lotta Lamm drew this!
  • 34. We need more customer support folks to answer all these incoming calls. Is this the real problem, or are we… “Treating a Symptom” Reacting to urgent problems rather than seeking the reason for that problem
  • 35. We need more customer support folks to answer all these incoming calls. Why are you gettting so many calls? How can we improve the product to reduce the Is this the real problem, or are we… number of incoming “Treating a Symptom” calls? Reacting to urgent problems rather than seeking the reason for that problem
  • 36. Our customers don’t know how to use [x]. Let’s give them more training... or add more instructional text. Or maybe a ‘tooltip’ to explain what to do.
  • 39. (Insert Jeremy’s example from Quizno’s)
  • 40. The problem of getting a kid to learn to ride a bike… Two solutions: training wheels pushbike The engineer looks at the problem and says "Oh, Timmy falls down. The designer looks at the problem and says: "What if Timmy keeps We can fix that:" falling down because he isn't learning to balance, in turn because we're giving him too many things to learn at once? What if we take something away?" http://doriantaylor.com/teaching-timmy-to-ride
  • 41. We must fix this now! I’ve got several customers complaing about our new changes Is this the real problem, or are we… “Amplifying the Feedback” Allowing the complaints (or praise) of a few people to drive decisions, even when statistically invalid
  • 42. We’ve tried that Our technology doesn't before allow us to do that The Senior VP will never go for that Is this the real problem, or are we… “Hamstringing” Artificially constraining the problem with assumptions (usually tech, user or political)
  • 43. We’ve tried that Our technology doesn't before allow us to do that The Senior VP will never go for that “John selects a nearby fishing spots on the map” “John needs a way to discoor r a we… Is this the real problem, ve are great new fishing spot” “Hamstringing” Artificially constraining the problem with assumptions (usually tech, user or political)
  • 44. We need a Facebook page! We need a blog Is this the real problem, or are we… “Bandwagoning” Framing the problem as something important to do because everyone else it doing that thing
  • 45. Book a hotel Is this the real problem, or are we… “Narrowing the problem” Framing the problem in the context of a specific solution which immediately discounts all other solutions
  • 46. Book a hotel User needs to compare pr icing. which sellers will give me the products I want with the best contract offer? Is this the real problem, or are we… “Narrowing the problem” Framing the problem in the context of a specific solution which immediately discounts all other solutions
  • 47. We need a new homepage to promote our featured deals. Users will complete brief conversation surveys that will help us measure program impact Is this the real problem, or are we… “Pacifying [insert name]” Problem is framed entirely in terms of one group's priorities (typically the business)
  • 48. User will book a hotel w/ Expedia People will educate their families, friends about our life saving product Is this the real problem, or are we… “Being Presumptuous” Presuming users will do some implausible activity.
  • 49. Is this the real problem, or are we… “Overlooking the Obvious” Problem as presented is missing a vital piece of information or based on a flawed assumption
  • 50. Where to best add armor to the plane's structure?
  • 51. Where to best add armor to the plane's structure?
  • 53. A B
  • 54. A B WRONG PROBLEM!
  • 56. ! ?
  • 57. ! ? (RIGHT PROBLEM TO SOLVE)
  • 59. [Insert whatever you like - the HiPPO* asked for it…] Is this the real problem, or are we… “Ego Stroking” Problem exists because it's important to the HiPPO *Highest Paid Person’s Opinion
  • 60. Like AirBNB, but with this missing feature Is this the real problem, or are we… “Flavoring” Framing the problem as an existing product + “missing” features. *credit goes to Matthew Milan for this one!
  • 61. "Don't spend too much time on this" M.V.P.* Is this the real problem, or are we… “Satisficing” Aims for a "good enough" solution that avoids the risk and costs associated with identifying and responding to the root problem *as practiced!
  • 62. Just copy Amazon Is this the real problem, or are we… “Following the Leader” Framing the problem as having been already been solved by someone else
  • 63. We're building THE Community for parents of ALREADY EXISTS! Type I diabetics Is this the real problem, or are we… “Supsending Reality” Believing the problem has not been solved already.
  • 64. This UI looks great while we only have a few options, but we’ll have hundreds in a few years! We need to design for both… Is this the real problem, or are we… “Future Proofing” Solving for a problem that doesn’t exist yet
  • 65. Anchoring Narrowing the problem Solutioneering Pacifying [insert name or role] Wishlisting Being Presumptuous Buzzwording Overlooking the Obvious Frankensteining Ego Stroking Boiling the Ocean Flavoring Treating a Symptom Satisficing Amplifying the Feedback Following the Leader Hamstringing Supsending Reality Bandwagoning Future Proofing Please add to, edit, and improve this list: http://bit.ly/badproblems
  • 66. “So… How can I write a GOOD problem statement?”
  • 69. Getting to the real problem…
  • 70. requirements (and user stories) 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 71. requirements (and user stories) 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes x 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 72. requirements (and user stories) 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes x 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 73. requirements (and user stories) 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes x x 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 74. requirements (and user stories) 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes x x 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 75. requirements (and user stories) 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes x x 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. Y =
  • 76. requirements (and user stories) 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 77. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) for clarity (why? why? why?) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 78. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) for clarity (why? why? why?) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes My wallpaper is peeling off– 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints how do I get the wallpaper to 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! stay on the wall? 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. Why is it falling off the wall? The wall is wet Why is the wall is wet? The wall is wet because there’s a leak in the attic. Why is there a leak in the attic?
  • 79. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) desired outcomes 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! Who needs what by when? 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. Focuses on Desired Outcomes Why do they want it? Shifts the conversation to Experiences What are their conditions of Desired Creates a Generative Thinking Space satisfaction? Outcome(s) Focuses on Value How will we measure success? Worksheet Encourages Objective Feedback If Who = user What Needs and Insights are driving this request?
  • 80. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) desired outcomes 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! Who needs what by when? 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. Why do they want it? What are their conditions of Desired satisfaction? Outcome(s) How will we measure success? Worksheet If Who = user What Needs and Insights are driving this request?
  • 81. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) desired outcomes 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints A teenage girl with a bl 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!ak e oneeds what by to fe Who utlook needswhen?el more 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. s do ally acc p Why ocithey wanteit?ted when eating healttheir ood, because in sWhat are hy f conditions of A teenag e girl need hood a social risk is mo her Desiredous food dange iti satisfaction? re more nutr rous tha re will we measure success? n a health risk Outcome(s)ins a How ause vitam bec Worksheet ealth If Who = user to good h vital What Needs and Insights are driving this request? *example from Stanford D. School
  • 82. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes conflicting desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! User Goals 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. Desired Outcome(s) the Sweet Spot! Desired Outcome(s) Business Goals
  • 83. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes conflicting desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! User Goals 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. Desired Outcome(s) the Sweet Spot! Desired Outcome(s) Business Goals
  • 84. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes Real from Perceived Constraints 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. Desired Outcome(s)
  • 85. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes Real from Perceived Constraints 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT Desired Outcome(s) CONSTRAINT
  • 86. Separate Real from Perceived Constraints You can pry the greenscreen out of my cold, dead hands
  • 87. Separate Real from Perceived Constraints Our technology stack doesn’t let us do that… The CEO will never go for that We’ve already tried something like that
  • 88. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes Real from Perceived Constraints 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT Desired Outcome(s) CONSTRAINT
  • 89. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints back, look for complementary projects… and people! 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way. CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT Desired Desired CONSTRAINT CONSTRAINT Outcome(s) Outcome(s) CONSTRAINT
  • 90. Project A Project B Project A Project B Project C
  • 91. Step back, look for complementary projects… and people!
  • 92. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints back, look for complementary projects… and people! 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 93. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints back, look for complementary projects… and people! 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 94. 1 Ignore requirements (and user stories) 2 Keep questioning for clarity (why? why? why?) 3 Define the desired outcomes 4 Resolve conflicting desired outcomes 5 Separate Real from Perceived Constraints 6 Step back, look for complementary projects… and people! repeat. Learn along the way. 7 Rinse & repeat. Learn along the way.
  • 95. Stop. Why are we doing this? What is the Desired Outcome?
  • 96. Good. You're finally asking the right questions!
  • 97. Thank you! www.slideshare.net/stephenpa slideshare.net/stephenpa getmentalnotes.com Stephen P Anderson . @stephenanderson www.poetpainter.com