Case StudyDefinition: In a case study, aparticular individual, programor event is studied in depth;but findings may not begeneralizable.(Leedy & Ormrod 2013)
Case Study as a Method Method : The researchercollects extensive data on theindividual(s), program(s), orevent(s) on which theinvestigation is focused.
Evolution of Case Study Method Roman Experience : Aristotle and Socrates usedto teach philosophy in form of cases. i.e., about eachEmpire. Law Schools : Used cases extensively whethercivil or criminal in giving judgment. Harvard Business School : Pioneers in casestudies and use them extensively. Case Clearing Houses : Harvard BusinessSchool has built more than 150,000 cases and theyperiodically update all the cases.8
Case Study : Benefit 1The Development of Diagnosis Skills Solutions cannot be developedproperly until problems have beenidentified. Case study enables researchers todevelop realistic solutions to theproblems and to understand crucialnature of accurate diagnosis bothspecifically and generally.1 - 9
Case Study : Benefit 2Subject and functional integration Case studies enable researchersto pursue issues across subjectand departmental boundaries. This gives a much more integratedview of management than mightotherwise be achieved.1 - 10
Case Study : Benefit 3Deep vs. Surface Learning Thorough analysis of a case studyand complex issues may facilitatea deeper understanding, unlikeother surface learningmethods, i.e. listening to lectureon subject matter etc.1 - 11
Case Study : Benefit 4Review of policy and practice If in-house cases are used inclient organizations, these maylead to constructive debatesabout appropriate policy andpractice.1 - 12
7–13What Are Case Studies? Case Studies The documented history of aparticularperson, group, organization, or event. Themes Are identified by the frequency withwhich the same term (or a synonym)arises in the narrative description.
Types of Case Studies Intrinsic To understand a particular case Instrumental To provide insight into an issue or toredraw a generalization Collective To study several cases to investigatephenomenon, population, or generalcondition
Specific Classification (1)Classical Case Detailedinformationabouthistoricalpersonalities,eg. NapoleonSecondary Case Describing akey event of amajor case.17Empirical Case Observation, based onempirical facts.
Specific Classification (2)Decision Oriented Gives the prosand cons of thecase. For example, aclient may ask theresearcher tosuggest the righttime for launchingtheir new productCase History Historicalevents, eg.World War II.18Desk Type Collect allavailableinformation inone place.
Specific Classification (3)Development Oriented Externalenvironmentanalysis of currentissues and policyrecommendationsfor futureprogress ortransformation, eg. Vision 2020Sectoral Type Case study onprivate orpublic sectors.19Biography An account of aperson’s lifeexperienceseg.My life by Bill
7–20Qualitative ResearchOrientations Major Orientations of QualitativeResearch1. Phenomenology—originating in philosophyand psychology2. Ethnography—originating in anthropology3. Grounded theory—originating in sociology4. Case studies—originating inpsychology and in businessresearch
TECHNIQUES USED IN CASE STUDYRESEARCH Qualitative research techniquesused in Case Studies are:1. Focus Group Interview2. Depth Interviews3. Free-Association andSentence CompletionMethods4. Observation Quantitative research techniques
7–22EXHIBIT 7.2 Common Qualitative Research Tools
7–23Technique 1 : Focus Group Interview An unstructured, free-flowing interview with asmall group (6-10 people) led by a moderator whoencourages dialogue among respondents. Advantages:1. Relatively fast2. Easy to execute3. Allow respondents to piggyback off eachother’s ideas – one respondent stimulatesthought among the others.4. Provide multiple perspectives5. Flexibility to allow more detailed descriptions6. High degree of scrutiny – session can beobserved since they are usually conducted in aroom with a two-way mirror and are generallytape recorded or videotaped for laterexamination.
7–241.1 Focus Group Interview - FocusGroup Respondents GroupComposition6 to 10 peopleRelativelyhomogeneousSimilar lifestylesand experiences
7–25Focus Group Interview - TheFocus Group Moderator Moderator A person who leads a focus groupinterview and insures that everyone getsa chance to speak and contribute to thediscussion. Qualities of a good moderator: Develops rapport with the group Good listener Tries not to interject his or her ownopinions Controls discussion without beingoverbearing
7–26Focus Group Interview - Planning aFocus Group Outline Discussion guide Includes written introductory commentsinforming the group about the focus grouppurpose and rules and then outlines topicsor questions to be addressed in the groupsession.
7–27EXHIBIT 1.2 Discussion Guide for a Focus Group Interview
7–281.3 Disadvantages of Focus Groups Focus groups: Require objective, sensitive, and effectivemoderators. May have unique sampling problems. May not be useful for discussing sensitivetopics in face-to-face situations. Cost a considerable amount ofmoney, particularly when they are notconducted by someone employed by thecompany desiring the focus group.
7–29Technique 2 : Depth Interviews Depth interview A one-on-one interview between aprofessional researcher and a researchrespondent conducted about some relevantbusiness or social topic. Laddering A particular approach to probing askingrespondents to compare differences betweenbrands at different levels. Produces distinctions at the: attribute level benefit level value or motivation level
7–30Technique 3 : Free-Association and SentenceCompletion Methods Free-association techniques Record a respondent’s first cognitivereactions (top-of-mind) to somestimulus. Allow researchers to map arespondent’s thoughts or memory. E.g. what is the No. 1 shampoobrand? Sentence completion People who drink beer are A man who drinks light beer is Imported beer is most liked by The woman drinking beer in thecommercial
7–31Technique 4 : Observation Observation Field notes The researcher’s descriptions of whatactually happens in the field. These notes then become the text fromwhich meaning is extracted. Advantageous for gaining insight intothings that respondents cannot orwill not verbalize.
8–32Secondary Data Research Secondary Data Data gathered and recorded by someoneelse prior to and for a purpose other thanthe current project.• Advantages Available Faster and less expensivethan acquiring primary data Requires no access tosubjects Inexpensive—governmentdata is often free May provide informationotherwise not accessible• Disadvantages Uncertain accuracy Data not consistent withneeds Inappropriate units ofmeasurement Time periodinappropriate (outdated)
Data AnalysisData Analysis: involves :1. organization of details about thecase,2. categorization of data,3. interpretation of single instances,4. identification of patterns, and5. synthesis and generalizations.
Research ReportResearch Report: includes a rationale for studying the case, a detailed description of facts related tothe case, a description of data that was collected, a discussion of patterns found, and a connection to the larger scheme ofthings.
Writing Cases from REAL WORLDsituations Cases are best written aboutactual situations. Facts which may appear to beof minor importance based onreal situations can turn out tobe of crucial importance.36
Source material There are many sources for a casestudy : experience of the author is veryimportant, issues that are reported in media, newspapers also give valuable information. Sometimes they can be adopted fromexisting materials. Cases developed for a client organizationcan be adapted for use elsewhere.37
Making a Start – Sources of dataPrimary Sources Observation Questionnaire Interviews Focus GroupsSecondary Sources Archives Museums Personal files Newspaperreports1- 38
Case Writing Process1. Planning - What to write ?2. Writing the case itself3. Cooling off Period4. Revision, refinements etc.5. Ornamentation39
10 PointsWhile Writing a case1. Anchor - Focuson issues2. Fairness &Objective3. Compactness4. Personality andleadership5. Length & Jargon6. Data confirmationwith the company7. Past tense8. Acknowledgements9. Evidence andfacts10. Exhibits & Accounts40
Business Case Format1. Introduction -CompanyBackground2. Industry Analysis3. CurrentVision, Mission &objectives4. Organisationstructure10. Competition11. Personalities12. Environment, Sustainability, Governance, & Globalisation13. Events, Issues & Problems14. Company’s Future plans415. Marketing - 4P6. Operations/ Production - ProductDesign, Production Planning &Control7. R & D8. Accounting & Finance9. HRD
IntroductionCase Study method- provides theopportunity to move from anarrow, specialized view thatemphasizes functional techniques to abroader, less precise analysis of theoverall corporation
Responsive Treatment Read the case, recognize problems/prospects Environmental Analysis - PESTEL Analysis SWOT Analysis Preliminary edit of SWOT Organizational Diagnosis Name the reasons for Weaknesses & Threats StrategiesVision - Mission - Objectives - Strategies Implementation of Strategies Visualization of Implementation plan Evaluation and controlRESPONSIVE 44
Researching the Case Situation Determine the time periods of the casein your research Sources of information: Company annual reports Stock analyst reports12-45
Business Case Analysis : AFinancial Analysis ApproachRatio analysis- the calculation of ratiosfrom data on financial statements Liquidity ratios Profitability ratios Activity ratios Leverage ratios Equity/stock ratios12-46
Financial Ratio Analysis :Liquidity Ratios12-47
12-52Analyzing Financial Statements Review historical income statements andbalance sheets Compare historical statements over time Calculate changes that occur inindividual categories form year to year Determine the change as a percentage Adjust for inflation
12-53Financial AnalysisCommon size statements- financial statements inwhich the dollar figures have been converted intopercentagesAltman’s Z Value bankruptcy formula- calculate thelikelihood of going bankrupt. Compare historicalstatements over timeIndex of sustainable growth- used to determinewhether a company embarking on a growth strategywill need to take on debt to fund the growth
12-54Useful Economic MeasuresConstant dollars- dollars adjusted forinflationPrime interest rate- the rate of interestbanks charge on their lowest risk loansGross domestic product- measures totaloutput of goods and services within acountry’s borders
CONCLUSION―Whether you consider case study as away of conceptualizing human socialbehaviour or merely as a way ofencapsulating it,…its strategic value lies in its ability todraw attention to what can be learnedfrom the single case.‖(Schram 2006)
Core Reading COOPER, D.R. AND SCHINDLER, P.S. (2011) BUSINESSRESEARCH METHODS, 11TH EDN, MCGRAW HILL ZIKMUND, W.G., BABIN, B.J., CARR, J.C. ANDGRIFFIN, M. (2010) BUSINESS RESEARCHMETHODS, 8TH EDN, SOUTH-WESTERN SAUNDERS, M., LEWIS, P. AND THORNHILL, A. (2012)RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS, 6THEDN, PRENTICE HALL. SAUNDERS, M. AND LEWIS, P. (2012) DOINGRESEARCH IN BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT, FTPRENTICE HALL. LEEDY, P.D. AND ORMROD, J.E. (2013) PRACTICALRESEARCH, 10TH EDITION, PEARSON GLESNE, C.(2011) BECOMING QUALITATIVERESEARCHERS, 4TH EDITION, PEARSON
Business Case Study : Reading Johnson, Gerry, Whittington, Richard &Scholes, Kevan (2011) Exploring Strategy,9th edition, FT Prentice Hall/Pearson UK. Grant, Robert M.(2010) ContemporaryStrategy Analysis, 7th edition, John Wiley David, Fred R.(2013) StrategicManagement, 14th edition, Pearson Wheelen & Hunger (2011) Essentials ofStrategic Management, 5th edition, Pearson Porter, M.E., (2008). On Competition,Harvard Business Press.