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Mba2216 week 12 research presentation

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Mba2216 week 12 research presentation

  1. 1. MBA2216 BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECT Research Reporting Research Reporting by Stephen Ong Visiting Fellow, Birmingham City University, UK
  2. 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES LEARNING OUTCOMES After this lecture, you should be able to 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Discuss the research report from the perspective of the communications process Define the parts of a research report following a standard format Explain how to use tables for presenting numerical information Summarize how to select and use the types of research charts Describe how to give an effective oral presentation Discuss the importance of Internet reporting and research follow-up
  3. 3. Figure 14.2 A format for developing the storyline Source: Developed from Raimond (1993:175) Management Project: Design, Research and Presentation . Reproduced with permission of Thompson Publishing Services
  4. 4. Using a matrix in the planning of the content for the results and conclusions chapters Figure 14.1
  5. 5. Communication Process  Communication Process   The process by which one person or source sends a message to an audience or receiver and then receives feedback about the message. Elements that Influence Successful Communication      Communicator Message Medium Audience Feedback
  6. 6. The Communication Process
  7. 7. Communication Occurs in a Common Field of Experience
  8. 8. Written Presentation and the Research Process 20-8
  9. 9. Relevance. Not Quantity. “Focus on relevance. It’s never about the volume of analyzed data or the complexity of an algorithm but about the actionability of derived insight.” Michael Fassnacht, founder Loyalty Matrix 20-9
  10. 10. What is a Business Research Report?  Research Report  An oral presentation or written statement of research results, strategic recommendations, and/or other conclusions to a specific audience.  Directed to the client or management who initiated the research.  Usually supported by a formal presentation delivered in person or via the Internet.
  11. 11. Report Format
  12. 12. Adapting Report Format to Required Formality
  13. 13. The Parts of the Report  Title page should state:  The title of the report  The title should give a brief but complete indication of the purpose of the research project.  Addresses and titles of the preparer and recipient may also be included.  For whom the report was prepared  By whom it was prepared  Date of release or presentation
  14. 14. The Parts of the Report (cont’d)  Letter of Transmittal    Releases or delivers the report to the recipient in relatively formal and very formal reports. Letter of Authorization  Approves the project, details who has responsibility for it, and describes resources available to support it. The Table of Contents  Should list the divisions and subdivisions of the report with page references.  Is based on the final outline of the report, but it should include only the first-level subdivisions.
  15. 15. EXHIBIT 25.5 25.5 Sample Letter of Transmittal
  16. 16. The Parts of the Report (cont’d)  The Executive Summary  Briefly explains why the research project was conducted, what aspects of the problem were considered, what the outcome was, and what should be done.  The Body  Introduction section—discusses background information and the specific objectives of the research.
  17. 17. The Parts of the Report (cont’d)  The Body (cont’d)  Research methodology section— describes the structure and technical procedures of the project. It may be supplemented with an appendix or glossary of technical terms. Research design  Sample design  Data collection and fieldwork  Analysis   Results section— presents the findings of the project. It includes tables, charts, and an organized narrative.
  18. 18. The Parts of the Report (cont’d)  The Body (cont’d)  Conclusions and recommendations section —provides opinions based on the results and suggestions for action.   The conclusions and recommendations should be presented in this section in more detail than in the summary, and the text should include justification as needed. The Appendix  Contains material that is too technical or too detailed to go in the body —includes materials of interest only to some readers or subsidiary materials not directly related to the objectives.
  19. 19. Basic Business Research Report Outline 1. 2. 3. Abstract Introduction Background a. b. 4. 5. 6. Literature Review Hypotheses Research Methods Results Discussion a. b. c. Implications Limitations Future Research 7. 8. 9. Conclusions References Appendices
  20. 20. Using Tables Effectively  Graphic Aids Pictures or diagrams used to clarify complex points or emphasize a message.  Should always be interpreted in the text.   Creating Tables  Most useful for presenting numerical information, especially when several pieces of information have been gathered about each item discussed. Table number  Title  Stubheads and bannerheads  Footnotes and source notes 
  21. 21. Parts of a Table
  22. 22. Reporting Format for a Typical Cross-Tabulation
  23. 23. Reporting Format for a Typical Statistical Test
  24. 24. Using a Stubhead Format to Include Several Cross-Tabulations in One Table
  25. 25. Using Charts Effectively  Charts  Translate numerical information into visual form so that relationships may be easily grasped.  Chart elements  Figure number  Title  Explanatory legends  Source and footnotes  Charts are subject to distortion.
  26. 26. Distortion by Alternating Scales
  27. 27. Distortion from Treating Unequal Time Intervals as Equal Source: Adapted with permission from Mary Eleanor Spear, Practical Charting Techniques (New York; McGraw-Hill, 1969), p. 57.
  28. 28. Using Charts Effectively (cont’d)  Pie Charts  Show the composition of some total quantity at a particular time.  Each angle, or “slice,” is proportional to its percentage of the whole.
  29. 29. Pie Charts
  30. 30. Using Charts Effectively (cont’d)  Line Graphs  Show the relationship of one variable to another.  The dependent variable generally is shown on the vertical axis, and the independent variable on the horizontal axis.  Simple line graph  Multiple-line graph  Stratum chart
  31. 31. Simple Line Graph
  32. 32. Multiple-Line Graph
  33. 33. Stratum Chart
  34. 34. Using Charts Effectively (cont’d)  Bar Charts  Show changes in the value of a dependent variable (plotted on the vertical axis) at discrete intervals of the independent variable (on the horizontal axis).  Types:  Subdivided-bar chart  Multiple-bar chart
  35. 35. Simple Bar Chart
  36. 36. Subdivided Bar Chart
  37. 37. Multiple-Bar Chart
  38. 38. The Written Research Report 20-38
  39. 39. Guidelines for Short Reports Tell reader why you are writing Tell reader why you are writing Remind reader of request Remind reader of request Write in an expository style Write in an expository style Write report and hold for review Write report and hold for review Attach detailed materials in appendix Attach detailed materials in appendix 20-39
  40. 40. Components: Short Report Memo or Letter-Style Introduction    Problem statement Research objectives Background Conclusions   Summary and conclusions Recommendations
  41. 41. Components: Short Report Technical  Prefatory Information (all)  Introduction (all, plus brief methodology and limitations)  Findings  Conclusions  Appendices 20-41
  42. 42. The Long Research Report 20-42
  43. 43. Report Modules Prefatory Information Prefatory Information Introduction Introduction Methodology Methodology Findings Findings Conclusions & Recommendations Conclusions & Recommendations Appendices Appendices Bibliography Bibliography 20-43
  44. 44. Components: Long Report Management Prefatory Information Prefatory Information Introduction Introduction (includes brief methodology (includes brief methodology & limitations) & limitations) Findings Findings Conclusions & Conclusions & Recommendations Recommendations Appendices Appendices 20-44
  45. 45. Components Long Report: Technical Prefatory Information Prefatory Information Introduction Introduction Methodology(detailed) Methodology(detailed) Findings Findings Conclusions Conclusions Appendices Appendices Bibliography Bibliography 20-45
  46. 46. Prewriting Concerns What is the report’s purpose? What is the report’s purpose? Who will read the report? Who will read the report? What are the circumstances? What are the circumstances? How will the report be used? How will the report be used?
  47. 47. The Outline Major Topic Heading A. Major subtopic heading 1. Subtopic a. Minor subtopic 1) Further detail 20-47
  48. 48. Types of Outlines Topic Demand A. How measured 1. Voluntary error 2. Shipping error a. Monthly variance Sentence Demand for refrigerators A. Measured in terms of factory shipments as reported by the U.S. Department of Commerce 1. Error is introduced into year to year comparisons 20-48
  49. 49. Grammar and Style Proofreader Results 20-49
  50. 50. Adjusting Pace Use ample white space Use ample white space Use headings Use headings Use visual aids Use visual aids Use italics and underlining Use italics and underlining Choose words carefully Choose words carefully Repeat and summarize Repeat and summarize Use service words Use service words strategically strategically
  51. 51. Considerations for Writing Readability Comprehensibility Tone
  52. 52. Avoiding Overcrowded Text Use shorter paragraphs Indent or space parts of text Use headings Use bullets 20-52
  53. 53. Appropriate Data Displays
  54. 54. Sample Findings Page: Tabular 20-54
  55. 55. Charts for Written Reports 20-55
  56. 56. Components of a Whole or Frequency 20-56
  57. 57. Relationships or Comparisons 20-57
  58. 58. Sample Findings Page: Graphical 20-58
  59. 59. Findings Page Templates 20-59
  60. 60. Appropriate Data Displays 20-60
  61. 61. Text Presentation Wal-mart regained its number-1 rank in the Forbes 500 due to its strong sales performance (11% increase; $351.1 billion). Although Wal-mart surpassed number-2ranked ExxonMobil in sales, Wal-mart’s profitability ($11.2 billion) was far below the oil giant ($39.5 billion). Some credit several challenging public relations problems with the lower-than-expected level. Number-6ranked General Electric also outperformed Walmart in profits with $20.8 billion. GE’s robust sales growth (27.4%) is an indication that it will likely challenge both Walmart and ExxonMobil in the future. 20-61
  62. 62. Alternative Text Presentation • Oil giant and energy exploration leader ExxonMobil is the most profitable company in the Fortune 500 due to record crude oil prices increasing its profits to $39.5 billion, compared to $11.2 billion for Wal-mart. • ExxonMobil’s profits jumped 9% on a 2% increase in sales, while Wal-mart’s profits increased a mere 0.5% on an 11% increase in sales. • General Electric provided a 27.4% increase in profits on a 7.1% increase in sales, and outperformed Walmart on profits ($20.8 billion to $11.2 billion).  Although Wal-Mart regained the top spot in the Fortune 500, its performance shows signs of weakness in profitability. 20-62
  63. 63. Parts of a Table Body 20-63
  64. 64. Tabular Presentation Wal-mart regained its number one rank in 2007 by increasing its sales 11 percent over its prior year’s sales. But it still trails in profitability. Company Rank Revenue ($, millions) Sales Growth Profits Profit Growth Wal-Mart 1 $351,139.0 11.2% $11,284.0 0.5% Exxon Mobil 2 $347,254.0 02.2% $39,500.0 9.3% General Electric 6 $168,307.0 07.1% $20,829.0 27.4% 20-64
  65. 65. Sample Graphics within Report 20-65
  66. 66. Sample Line Graph 2008 2009 2010 20-66
  67. 67. Sample Area Chart 20-67
  68. 68. Sample Pie Charts 20-68
  69. 69. Sample Bar Chart 20-69
  70. 70. Pictograph 20-70
  71. 71. Geographs 20-71
  72. 72. 3-D Graphs 20-72
  73. 73. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report 20-73
  74. 74. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report Prefatory Information Prefatory Information Introduction Introduction Methodology Methodology 20-74
  75. 75. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report
  76. 76. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report 20-76
  77. 77. Preparing & Delivering the Written Report 20-77
  78. 78. Assignment Report Format  The sample report format (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill (2012) Chapter 14) :          Abstract Introduction Literature review Methodology Findings Discussion Conclusions References Appendices (including Survey Questionnaire, Data analysis)
  79. 79. Oral Presentation and the Research Process 21-79
  80. 80. Model for Presentation Planning 21-80
  81. 81. Artistotle’s Proofs 21-81
  82. 82. Aristotle Proofs & the Presentation Ethos Ethos Pathos Pathos Logos Logos 21-82
  83. 83. Questions Guide the Plan 21-83
  84. 84. Audience Analysis Seven Questions to Understand Your Audience • Who are they? • Why are they here? • What keeps them up at night? • Why should they care about the presentation? • What do you want them to do? • Should you expect resistance? • How can you best reach them? 21-84
  85. 85. The Oral Presentation  Oral Presentation A spoken summary of the major findings, conclusions, and recommendations, given to clients or line managers to provide them with the opportunity to clarify any ambiguous issues by asking questions.  Keys to effective presentation:  Preparation (rehearsal)  Adapting to the audience  Not lecturing or reading to the audience  Use graphic aids effectively  Speaking effectively and convincingly 
  86. 86. Rx for Better Slides Low Word Count Low Word Count Avoid Slideuments Avoid Slideuments Keep it Simple Keep it Simple 10-20-30 Rule 10-20-30 Rule Large Font Size Large Font Size Use Bullets in Moderation Use Bullets in Moderation
  87. 87. Modes of Delivery Impromptu Impromptu Memorized Memorized Manuscript Reading Manuscript Reading Extemporaneous Extemporaneous
  88. 88. Delivery Principles Avoid Avoid Clutter Clutter Reduce Jargon Reduce Jargon Align Non-Verbal Align Non-Verbal Communication Communication Practice Practice
  89. 89. Non Verbal Admonitions for a Speaker
  90. 90. Causes of Anxiety Perceiving audience as judges Perceiving audience as judges Possibility of visible failure Possibility of visible failure Need to avoid failure Need to avoid failure Uncertainty of ability to do well Uncertainty of ability to do well Focus on own behaviour Focus on own behaviour & appearance & appearance 21-90
  91. 91. Anxiety Coping Strategies
  92. 92. Speaker Behaviours to Avoid Vocal Physical •Speak •Rock too softly •Speak too rapidly •Fail to vary volume, tone, and rate of speaking •Fill pauses with “you know, um, ah” back and forth •Pace without purpose •Fiddle with things, hair, jewelry, clothing •Stare into space •Fail to make eye contact •Move cursor without purpose. 21-92
  93. 93. Further Reading      COOPER, D.R. AND SCHINDLER, P.S. (2011) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 11TH EDN, MCGRAW HILL ZIKMUND, W.G., BABIN, B.J., CARR, J.C. AND GRIFFIN, M. (2010) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 8TH EDN, SOUTH-WESTERN SAUNDERS, M., LEWIS, P. AND THORNHILL, A. (2012) RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS, 6TH EDN, PRENTICE HALL. SAUNDERS, M. AND LEWIS, P. (2012) DOING RESEARCH IN BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT, FT PRENTICE HALL. 360° CUBE© Copyright S.Ong & S.Hassani (2012). All rights reserved.

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