Mba2216 business research week 5 data collection part 1 0713


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Research Design strategy, data collection techniques, qualitative, quantitative

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  • Exhibit 6-1 illustrates design in the research process and highlights the topics covered by the term research design. Subsequent chapters will provide more detailed coverage of the research design topics.
  • There are many definitions of research design. Research design is the blueprint for fulfilling research objectives and answering questions. Its essentials include 1) an activity and time-based plan, 2) a plan based on the research questions, 3) a guide for selecting sources and types of information, 4) a framework for specifying the relationships among the study’s variables, and 5) a procedural outline for every research activity.
  • Exhibit 6-2 provides one project management tool: critical path method (CPM). In a CPM chart: The nodes represent major milestones. The arrows suggest the work needed to get to the milestones. More than one arrow pointing to a node indicates all those tasks must be completed before the milestone has been met. Usually a number is placed along the arrow showing the number of days or weeks required for that task to be completed. The pathway from start to end that takes the longest time to complete is called the critical path .
  • A Gantt chart ( Exhibit 5-11, MindWriter project) is a common project planning tool that reveals summary tasks, benchmarking milestones, and detailed tasks against a time frame for the overall project. Tasks may be color coded to indicate a particular team member’s responsibilities. Many project-management software packages include Gantt charting. The chart may be used to monitor projects to keep them on time, as well as to alert the client or manager to steps requiring their approval—and what happens to the project’s schedule if approval is not forthcoming when it is needed.
  • Mba2216 business research week 5 data collection part 1 0713

    1. 1. Research Design :Research Design : Data Collection Methods –Data Collection Methods – Qualitative & Quantitative ResearchQualitative & Quantitative Research part 1part 1 Research Design :Research Design : Data Collection Methods –Data Collection Methods – Qualitative & Quantitative ResearchQualitative & Quantitative Research part 1part 1 MBA2216 BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECTMBA2216 BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECT by Stephen Ong Visiting Fellow, Birmingham City University, UK
    2. 2. 6-2 Design in the Research ProcessDesign in the Research Process
    3. 3. 7–3 LEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMES 1. List and understand the differences between qualitative research and quantitative research 2. Understand the role of qualitative research in exploratory research designs 3. Describe the basic qualitative research orientations 4. Recognize common qualitative research tools and know the advantages and limitations of their use 5. Know the risks associated with acting on only exploratory results After the lecture, you should be able to
    4. 4. 7–4 LEARNING OUTCOMES (cont’d)LEARNING OUTCOMES (cont’d)LEARNING OUTCOMES (cont’d)LEARNING OUTCOMES (cont’d) 6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of secondary data 7. Define types of secondary data analysis conducted by business research managers 8. Identify various internal and proprietary sources of secondary data 9. Give examples of various external sources of secondary data After the lecture, you should be able to
    5. 5. Figure 5.1 The research onion Source: © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill (2008), reproduced with permission
    6. 6. What is Qualitative Research?What is Qualitative Research?  Qualitative business researchQualitative business research  Research that addresses business objectivesResearch that addresses business objectives through techniques that allow the researcherthrough techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations ofto provide elaborate interpretations of phenomena without depending on numericalphenomena without depending on numerical measurementmeasurement  Its focus is on discovering true inner meanings andIts focus is on discovering true inner meanings and new insights.  Researcher-dependentResearcher-dependent  Researcher must extract meaning fromResearcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses such as text from aunstructured responses such as text from a recorded interview or a collage representingrecorded interview or a collage representing the meaning of some experience.the meaning of some experience.
    7. 7. 7–7 Uses of Qualitative ResearchUses of Qualitative Research  Qualitative research is useful when:Qualitative research is useful when:  It is difficult to develop specific and actionableIt is difficult to develop specific and actionable decision statements or research objectives.decision statements or research objectives.  The research objective is to develop a detailedThe research objective is to develop a detailed and in-depth understanding of some phenomena.and in-depth understanding of some phenomena.  The research objective is to learn how aThe research objective is to learn how a phenomenon occurs in its natural setting or tophenomenon occurs in its natural setting or to learn how to express some concept in colloquiallearn how to express some concept in colloquial terms.terms.  The behaviour the researcher is studying isThe behaviour the researcher is studying is particularly context-dependent.particularly context-dependent.  A fresh approach to studying the problem isA fresh approach to studying the problem is needed.needed.
    8. 8. 7–8 Qualitative “versus” QuantitativeQualitative “versus” Quantitative ResearchResearch  Quantitative business research  Descriptive and conclusive  Addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and statistical analysis.  Qualitative business research  Exploratory  Uses small versus large samples  Asks a broad range of questions versus structured questions  Subjective interpretation versus statistical analysis
    9. 9. 7–9 EXHIBIT 7.EXHIBIT 7.11 Comparing Qualitative and Quantitative ResearchComparing Qualitative and Quantitative Research
    10. 10. 7–10 Contrasting Exploratory andContrasting Exploratory and Confirmatory ResearchConfirmatory Research  Qualitative data  Data that are not characterized by numbers but rather are textual, visual, or oral.  Focus is on stories, visual portrayals, meaningful characterizations, interpretations, and other expressive descriptions.  Quantitative data  Represent phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and meaningful way.
    11. 11. 7–11 Qualitative Research OrientationsQualitative Research Orientations  MajorMajor OrientationsOrientations of Qualitativeof Qualitative ResearchResearch 1.1. Phenomenology—originating inPhenomenology—originating in philosophy and psychologyphilosophy and psychology 2.2. Ethnography—originating inEthnography—originating in anthropologyanthropology 3.3. Grounded theory—originating inGrounded theory—originating in sociologysociology 4.4. Case studies—originating inCase studies—originating in psychology and in business researchpsychology and in business research
    12. 12. 7–12 What Is a PhenomenologicalWhat Is a Phenomenological Approach to Research?Approach to Research?  PhenomenologyPhenomenology  A philosophical approach to studyingA philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea thathuman experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherentlyhuman experience itself is inherently subjective and determined by the contextsubjective and determined by the context in which people which people live.  Seeks to describe, reflect upon, andSeeks to describe, reflect upon, and interpret experiences.interpret experiences.  Relies on conversational interview toolsRelies on conversational interview tools and respondents are asked to tell a storyand respondents are asked to tell a story about some experience.about some experience.
    13. 13. 7–13 What Is Ethnography?What Is Ethnography?  EthnographyEthnography  Represents ways of studying culturesRepresents ways of studying cultures through methods that involvethrough methods that involve becoming highly active within thatbecoming highly active within that culture.culture.  Participant-observationParticipant-observation  An ethnographic research approachAn ethnographic research approach where the researcher becomeswhere the researcher becomes immersed within the culture that he orimmersed within the culture that he or she is studying and draws data fromshe is studying and draws data from his or her observations.his or her observations.
    14. 14. 7–14 What Is Grounded Theory?What Is Grounded Theory?  Grounded TheoryGrounded Theory  Represents an inductive investigation inRepresents an inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questionswhich the researcher poses questions about information provided byabout information provided by respondents or taken from historicalrespondents or taken from historical records.records.  The researcher asks the questions to him orThe researcher asks the questions to him or herself and repeatedly questions theherself and repeatedly questions the responses to derive deeper explanations.responses to derive deeper explanations.  Key questions:Key questions:  What is happening here?What is happening here?  How is it different?How is it different?
    15. 15. 7–15 What Are Case Studies?What Are Case Studies?  Case StudiesCase Studies  The documented history of aThe documented history of a particular person, group,particular person, group, organization, or event.organization, or event.  ThemesThemes  Are identified by the frequency withAre identified by the frequency with which the same term (or a synonym)which the same term (or a synonym) arises in the narrative description.arises in the narrative description.
    16. 16. Figure 5.2 The action research spiral Source: © Saunders et al. (2009), reproduced with permission
    17. 17. COMMON TECHNIQUES USEDCOMMON TECHNIQUES USED IN QUALITATIVE RESEARCHIN QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  Some common techniques used in qualitative research are:  Focus Group Interview  Depth Interviews  Conversations  Free-Association and Sentence Completion Methods  Observation  Collages  Projective Research Techniques  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 7–17
    18. 18. 7–18 EXHIBIT 7.2EXHIBIT 7.2 Common Qualitative Research ToolsCommon Qualitative Research Tools
    19. 19. 7–19 Focus Group InterviewFocus Group Interview An unstructured, free-flowing interview with a small group (6-10 people) led by a moderator who encourages dialogue among respondents. Advantages: 1. Relatively fast 2. Easy to execute 3. Allow respondents to piggyback off each other’s ideas – one respondent stimulates thought among the others. 4. Provide multiple perspectives 5. Flexibility to allow more detailed descriptions 6. High degree of scrutiny – session can be observed since they are usually conducted in a room with a two-way mirror and are generally tape recorded or videotaped for later examination.
    20. 20. 7–20 Focus Group Interview -Focus Group Interview - Focus Group RespondentsFocus Group Respondents  Group Composition  6 to 10 people  Relatively homogeneous  Similar lifestyles and experiences
    21. 21. 7–21 Focus Group Interview - The Focus Group Moderator  Moderator  A person who leads a focus group interview and insures that everyone gets a chance to speak and contribute to the discussion.  Qualities of a good moderator:  Develops rapport with the group  Good listener  Tries not to interject his or her own opinions  Controls discussion without being overbearing
    22. 22. 7–22 Focus Group Interview -Focus Group Interview - Planning a Focus Group OutlinePlanning a Focus Group Outline  Discussion guideDiscussion guide  Includes written introductoryIncludes written introductory comments informing the groupcomments informing the group about the focus group purpose andabout the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics orrules and then outlines topics or questions to be addressed in thequestions to be addressed in the group session.
    23. 23. 7–23 EXHIBIT 7.3EXHIBIT 7.3 Discussion Guide for a Focus Group InterviewDiscussion Guide for a Focus Group Interview
    24. 24. 7–24 Disadvantages of FocusDisadvantages of Focus GroupsGroups  Focus groups:  Require objective, sensitive, and effective moderators.  May have unique sampling problems.  May not be useful for discussing sensitive topics in face-to-face situations.  Cost a considerable amount of money, particularly when they are not conducted by someone employed by the company desiring the focus group.
    25. 25. 7–25 Depth InterviewsDepth Interviews  Depth interviewDepth interview  A one-on-one interview between aA one-on-one interview between a professional researcher and a researchprofessional researcher and a research respondent conducted about some relevantrespondent conducted about some relevant business or social or social topic.  LadderingLaddering  A particular approach to probing askingA particular approach to probing asking respondents to compare differences betweenrespondents to compare differences between brands at different levels.brands at different levels.  Produces distinctions at the:Produces distinctions at the:  attribute levelattribute level  benefit levelbenefit level  value or motivation level
    26. 26. ConversationsConversations  Conversations  An informal qualitative data-gathering approach in which the researcher engages a respondent in a discussion of the relevant subject matter.  Semi-structured interviews  Written form and ask respondents for short essay responses to specific open-ended questions.  Advantages  An ability to address more specific issues  Responses are easier to interpret  Without the presence of an interviewer, semi- structured interviews can be relatively cost effective
    27. 27. 7–27 Conversations - SocialConversations - Social NetworkingNetworking  One of the most impactful trends in recent times.  For many, social networking sites have become the primary tool for communicating with friends both far and near and known and unknown.  MySpace  Second Life  Zebo  A large portion of this information discusses business and consumer-related information.  Companies monitor these sites for information related to their brands.
    28. 28. 7–28 Free-Association and SentenceFree-Association and Sentence Completion MethodsCompletion Methods  Free-association techniquesFree-association techniques  Record a respondent’s first cognitiveRecord a respondent’s first cognitive reactions (top-of-mind) to some stimulus.reactions (top-of-mind) to some stimulus.  Allow researchers to map a respondent’sAllow researchers to map a respondent’s thoughts or memory.thoughts or memory.  E.g. what is the No. 1 shampoo brand?E.g. what is the No. 1 shampoo brand?  Sentence completionSentence completion  People who drink beer arePeople who drink beer are  A man who drinks light beer isA man who drinks light beer is  Imported beer is most liked byImported beer is most liked by  The woman drinking beer in the commercialThe woman drinking beer in the commercial
    29. 29. 7–29 Other TechniquesOther Techniques  ObservationObservation  Field notesField notes  The researcher’s descriptions of what actuallyThe researcher’s descriptions of what actually happens in the field.happens in the field.  These notes then become the text from whichThese notes then become the text from which meaning is extracted.meaning is extracted.  Advantageous for gaining insight into thingsAdvantageous for gaining insight into things that respondents cannot or will not verbalize.that respondents cannot or will not verbalize.  CollagesCollages  Respondents prepare a collage to representRespondents prepare a collage to represent their experiences.their experiences.  Analyzed for meaning.Analyzed for meaning.
    30. 30. 7–30 Other Techniques (cont’d)Other Techniques (cont’d)  Projective Research TechniquesProjective Research Techniques  An indirect means of questioningAn indirect means of questioning enabling respondents to projectenabling respondents to project beliefs and feelings onto a thirdbeliefs and feelings onto a third party, an inanimate object, or a taskparty, an inanimate object, or a task situation.situation.  Particularly useful in studyingParticularly useful in studying sensitive issues.sensitive issues.
    31. 31. 7–31 Other Techniques (cont’d)Other Techniques (cont’d)  Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)  Presents subjects with anPresents subjects with an ambiguous picture(s) in whichambiguous picture(s) in which consumers and products are theconsumers and products are the center of of attention.  Investigator asks the subject toInvestigator asks the subject to tell what is happening in thetell what is happening in the picture(s) now and what mightpicture(s) now and what might happen next.happen next.
    32. 32. 7–32 An Example of a TAT PictureAn Example of a TAT Picture
    33. 33. 8–33 Secondary Data ResearchSecondary Data Research  Secondary DataSecondary Data  Data gathered and recorded by someoneData gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other thanelse prior to and for a purpose other than the current project.the current project. • AdvantagesAdvantages AvailableAvailable Faster and less expensive thanFaster and less expensive than acquiring primary dataacquiring primary data Requires no access to subjectsRequires no access to subjects Inexpensive—government data isInexpensive—government data is often freeoften free May provide informationMay provide information otherwise not accessibleotherwise not accessible • DisadvantagesDisadvantages Uncertain accuracyUncertain accuracy Data not consistentData not consistent with needswith needs Inappropriate units ofInappropriate units of measurementmeasurement Time periodTime period inappropriateinappropriate (outdated)(outdated)
    34. 34. 8–34 Is it possible to go to the original data source? Evaluating Secondary DataEvaluating Secondary Data
    35. 35. 8–35 Secondary Data Research…Secondary Data Research…  Data conversionData conversion  The process of changing the originalThe process of changing the original form of the data to a format suitableform of the data to a format suitable to achieve the research objectiveto achieve the research objective  Also called data transformationAlso called data transformation  Cross-checksCross-checks  The comparison of data from oneThe comparison of data from one source with data from another sourcesource with data from another source to determine the similarity ofto determine the similarity of independent projects.independent projects.
    36. 36. Common Research ObjectivesCommon Research Objectives for Secondary-Data Studiesfor Secondary-Data Studies
    37. 37. 8–37 Typical Objectives for Secondary-Typical Objectives for Secondary- Data Research DesignsData Research Designs  Fact FindingFact Finding Identification of consumer behaviour for aIdentification of consumer behaviour for a product categoryproduct category  Trend AnalysisTrend Analysis  Market trackingMarket tracking—t—the observation and analysishe observation and analysis of trends in industry volume and brand shareof trends in industry volume and brand share over time.over time.  Environmental ScanningEnvironmental Scanning  Information gathering and fact-finding that isInformation gathering and fact-finding that is designed to detect indications of environmentaldesigned to detect indications of environmental changes in their initial stages of development.changes in their initial stages of development.
    38. 38. Cola’s Share of the Carbonated Soft-Drink MarketCola’s Share of the Carbonated Soft-Drink Market Source: Theresa Howard, “Coca-Cola Hopes Taking New Path Leads to Success,” USA Today, March 6, 2001, p. 6b. From USA Today a division of Gannett Co., Inc. Reprinted with Permission.
    39. 39. Model BuildingModel Building  Model building involves specifyingModel building involves specifying relationships between two or morerelationships between two or more variables.variables.  3 common objectives:3 common objectives: Estimating Market PotentialEstimating Market Potential for Geographic Areasfor Geographic Areas Forecasting SalesForecasting Sales Analysis of Trade Areas andAnalysis of Trade Areas and SitesSites 7–39
    40. 40. 8–40 Model BuildingModel Building Analysis of TradeAnalysis of Trade Areas and SitesAreas and Sites Analysis of TradeAnalysis of Trade Areas and SitesAreas and Sites Estimating MarketEstimating Market PotentialPotential Estimating MarketEstimating Market PotentialPotential ForecastingForecasting SalesSales ForecastingForecasting SalesSales ModelModel BuildingBuilding ModelModel BuildingBuilding
    41. 41. 8–41 Data MiningData Mining  Data MiningData Mining  The use of powerful computers to digThe use of powerful computers to dig through volumes of data to discoverthrough volumes of data to discover patterns about an organization’spatterns about an organization’s customers and products; applies tocustomers and products; applies to many different forms of analysis.many different forms of analysis.  Neural NetworkNeural Network  A form of artificial intelligence inA form of artificial intelligence in which a computer is programmed towhich a computer is programmed to mimic the way that human brainsmimic the way that human brains process information.process information.
    42. 42. 8–42 Data Mining (cont’d)Data Mining (cont’d)  Market-Basket AnalysisMarket-Basket Analysis  A form of data mining that analyzesA form of data mining that analyzes anonymous point-of-sale transactionanonymous point-of-sale transaction databases to identify coinciding purchasesdatabases to identify coinciding purchases or relationships between productsor relationships between products purchased and other retail shoppingpurchased and other retail shopping information.information.  Customer DiscoveryCustomer Discovery  Involves mining data to look for patternsInvolves mining data to look for patterns identifying who is likely to be a valuableidentifying who is likely to be a valuable customer.customer.
    43. 43. 8–43 Sources of Internal Secondary DataSources of Internal Secondary Data  Internal and Proprietary DataInternal and Proprietary Data  Accounting informationAccounting information  Sales information andSales information and backordersbackorders  Customer complaints, serviceCustomer complaints, service records, warranty card returns,records, warranty card returns, and other records.and other records.  IntranetsIntranets
    44. 44. 8–44 External Secondary Data SourcesExternal Secondary Data Sources  External DataExternal Data  Generated or recorded by an entity other than theGenerated or recorded by an entity other than the researcher’s organization.researcher’s organization.  Information as a product and its distributionInformation as a product and its distribution  LibrariesLibraries  InternetInternet  VendorsVendors  ProducersProducers  Books and periodicalsBooks and periodicals  GovernmentGovernment  MediaMedia  Trade associationsTrade associations  Commercial sourcesCommercial sources
    45. 45. 8–45 InformationInformation as a Productas a Product and Itsand Its DistributionDistribution ChannelsChannels
    46. 46. 8–46 Commercial SourcesCommercial Sources  Market-share dataMarket-share data  Demographic and censusDemographic and census updatesupdates  Consumer attitude and publicConsumer attitude and public opinion researchopinion research  Consumption and purchaseConsumption and purchase behaviour databehaviour data  Advertising researchAdvertising research
    47. 47. 8–47 Single-Source and Global Research DataSingle-Source and Global Research Data  Single-Source DataSingle-Source Data  Diverse types of data offered by a singleDiverse types of data offered by a single  Usually integrated on the basis of a commonUsually integrated on the basis of a common variable (i.e., geographic area or store).variable (i.e., geographic area or store).  Government AgenciesGovernment Agencies  Global secondary dataGlobal secondary data  Typical limitations of secondary dataTypical limitations of secondary data  Additional pitfallsAdditional pitfalls  Unavailable in some countriesUnavailable in some countries  Questionable accuracy (political influences)Questionable accuracy (political influences)  Lack of standardized research terminologyLack of standardized research terminology  CIA’s World Factbook; National Trade Data BankCIA’s World Factbook; National Trade Data Bank
    48. 48. 8–48 Examples of Single-Source DatabasesExamples of Single-Source Databases
    49. 49. 8–49 Research Snapshot: Around the World of DataResearch Snapshot: Around the World of Data
    50. 50. 8–50 EXHIBIT 8.10EXHIBIT 8.10 Examples of Information Contained in the NTDBExamples of Information Contained in the NTDB • Agricultural commodity production and trade • Basic export information • Calendars of trade fairs and exhibitions • Capital markets and export financing • Country reports on economic and social policies and trade practices • Energy production, supply, and inventories • Exchange rates • Export licensing information • Guides to doing business in foreign countries • International trade terms directory • How-to guides • International trade regulations/agreements • International trade agreements • Labor, employment, and productivity • Maritime and shipping information • Market research reports • Overseas contacts • Overseas and domestic industry information • Price indexes • Small business information • State exports • State trade contacts • Trade opportunities • U.S. export regulations • U.S. import and export statistics by country and commodity • U.S. international transactions • World Fact Book • World minerals production
    51. 51. 6-51 Exercise : Research Design PlanExercise : Research Design Plan BlueprintBlueprintBlueprintBlueprint PlanPlanPlanPlan GuideGuideGuideGuide FrameworkFrameworkFrameworkFramework
    52. 52. 6-52 What Tools Are Used in DesigningWhat Tools Are Used in Designing Research?Research?
    53. 53. 6-53 Example :Example : Project Plan inProject Plan in Gantt chart formatGantt chart format What Tools Are Used inWhat Tools Are Used in Designing Research?Designing Research?