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Mba2216 business research week 3 research methodology 0613

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Research problem, Model, Hypothesis, Literature Review

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Mba2216 business research week 3 research methodology 0613

  1. 1. Research MethodologyResearch MethodologyResearch MethodologyResearch Methodology MBA2216 BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECTMBA2216 BUSINESS RESEARCH PROJECT by Stephen Ong Visiting Fellow, Birmingham City University, UK
  2. 2. RecapRecap  What is Research?What is Research?  Research and BusinessResearch and Business  Business Managers and ResearchBusiness Managers and Research  Approach to Business ResearchApproach to Business Research
  3. 3. Topics of DiscussionTopics of Discussion  Research Area and Topic of ResearchResearch Area and Topic of Research  Sources of Research ProblemSources of Research Problem  Management problem and researchManagement problem and research problemproblem  Literature ReviewLiterature Review
  4. 4. Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives Understand . . .Understand . . . The terminology used by professionalThe terminology used by professional researchers employing scientificresearchers employing scientific thinking.thinking. What you need to formulate a solidWhat you need to formulate a solid research hypothesis.research hypothesis. The need for sound reasoning toThe need for sound reasoning to enhance research results.enhance research results.
  5. 5. Research and AttitudesResearch and Attitudes ““Brand communities play a pivotal role forBrand communities play a pivotal role for a brand connecting with its consumers, anda brand connecting with its consumers, and as one of our Never Ending Friending focusas one of our Never Ending Friending focus group respondent notes:group respondent notes: “I want brands to“I want brands to be my friends,”be my friends,” which means thatwhich means that consumers would like to have commonconsumers would like to have common ideas, conversations and benefits deliveredideas, conversations and benefits delivered to them on their own terms.”to them on their own terms.” Judit NagyJudit Nagy Vice president, Consumer insightsVice president, Consumer insights MySpace/Fox Interactive MediaMySpace/Fox Interactive Media
  6. 6. 3-6 PulsePoint:PulsePoint: Research RevelationsResearch Revelations 55 The percent of executives whoThe percent of executives who admitted that their companiesadmitted that their companies do not have an official policydo not have an official policy for social networks.for social networks.
  7. 7. 3-7 Language of ResearchLanguage of Research VariablesVariables ModelsModelsModelsModels Terms usedTerms used in researchin research ConstructsConstructs OperationalOperational definitionsdefinitions OperationalOperational definitionsdefinitions Propositions/Propositions/ HypothesesHypotheses Propositions/Propositions/ HypothesesHypotheses ConceptualConceptual schemesschemes ConceptualConceptual schemesschemesConceptsConceptsConceptsConcepts
  8. 8. 3-8 Language of ResearchLanguage of Research Clear conceptualizationClear conceptualization of conceptsof concepts Shared understandingShared understanding of conceptsof concepts SuccessSuccess ofof ResearchResearch
  9. 9. 3-9 Job RedesignJob Redesign Constructs and ConceptsConstructs and Concepts
  10. 10. 3-10 Operational DefinitionsOperational Definitions FreshmanFreshman SophomoreSophomore JuniorJunior SeniorSenior < 30 credit hours< 30 credit hours 30-50 credit hours30-50 credit hours 60-89 credit hours60-89 credit hours > 90 credit hours> 90 credit hours How can we define the variableHow can we define the variable ““class level of students”?class level of students”?
  11. 11. 3-11 A Variable Is the PropertyA Variable Is the Property Being StudiedBeing Studied VariableVariableVariableVariable EventEventEventEvent ActActActAct CharacteristicCharacteristicCharacteristicCharacteristic TraitTraitTraitTrait AttributeAttributeAttributeAttribute
  12. 12. 3-12 Types of VariablesTypes of Variables DichotomousDichotomousDichotomousDichotomous Male/FemaleMale/Female Employed/ UnemployedEmployed/ Unemployed Male/FemaleMale/Female Employed/ UnemployedEmployed/ Unemployed DiscreteDiscreteDiscreteDiscrete Ethnic backgroundEthnic background Educational levelEducational level Religious affiliationReligious affiliation Ethnic backgroundEthnic background Educational levelEducational level Religious affiliationReligious affiliation ContinuousContinuousContinuousContinuous IncomeIncome TemperatureTemperature AgeAge IncomeIncome TemperatureTemperature AgeAge
  13. 13. 3-13 Independent and Dependent VariableIndependent and Dependent Variable SynonymsSynonyms IndependentIndependent Variable (IV)Variable (IV) PredictorPredictor Presumed causePresumed cause StimulusStimulus Predicted from…Predicted from… AntecedentAntecedent ManipulatedManipulated Dependent VariableDependent Variable (DV)(DV) CriterionCriterion Presumed effectPresumed effect ResponseResponse Predicted to….Predicted to…. ConsequenceConsequence MeasuredMeasured outcomeoutcome
  14. 14. 3-14 Relationships Among VariableRelationships Among Variable TypesTypes
  15. 15. 3-15 Relationships Among VariableRelationships Among Variable TypesTypes
  16. 16. 3-16 Relationships Among VariableRelationships Among Variable TypesTypes
  17. 17. 3-17 Moderating Variables (MV)Moderating Variables (MV) • The introduction of a four-day weekThe introduction of a four-day week (IV)(IV) willwill lead to higher productivitylead to higher productivity (DV),(DV), especiallyespecially among younger workersamong younger workers (MV)(MV) • The switch to commission from a salaryThe switch to commission from a salary compensation systemcompensation system (IV)(IV) will lead towill lead to increased salesincreased sales (DV)(DV) per worker, especiallyper worker, especially more experienced workersmore experienced workers (MV).(MV). • The loss of mining jobsThe loss of mining jobs (IV)(IV) leads toleads to acceptance of higher-risk behaviors to earn aacceptance of higher-risk behaviors to earn a family-supporting incomefamily-supporting income (DV)(DV) – particularly– particularly among those with a limited educationamong those with a limited education (MV).(MV).
  18. 18. 3-18 Extraneous Variables (EV)Extraneous Variables (EV) • With new customersWith new customers (EV-control),(EV-control), a switch toa switch to commission from a salary compensationcommission from a salary compensation systemsystem (IV)(IV) will lead to increased saleswill lead to increased sales productivityproductivity (DV)(DV) per worker, especially amongper worker, especially among younger workersyounger workers (MV).(MV). • Among residents with less than a high schoolAmong residents with less than a high school educationeducation (EV-control),(EV-control), the loss of jobsthe loss of jobs (IV)(IV) leads to high-risk behaviorsleads to high-risk behaviors (DV),(DV), especiallyespecially due to the proximity of the firing rangedue to the proximity of the firing range (MV).(MV).
  19. 19. 3-19 Intervening Variables (IVV)Intervening Variables (IVV) • The switch to a commission compensationThe switch to a commission compensation systemsystem (IV)(IV) will lead to higher saleswill lead to higher sales (DV)(DV) byby increasing overall compensationincreasing overall compensation (IVV).(IVV). • A promotion campaignA promotion campaign (IV)(IV) will increasewill increase savings activitysavings activity (DV),(DV), especially when freeespecially when free prizes are offeredprizes are offered (MV),(MV), but chiefly amongbut chiefly among smaller saverssmaller savers (EV-control).(EV-control). The resultsThe results come from enhancing the motivation to savecome from enhancing the motivation to save (IVV).(IVV).
  20. 20. 3-20 Propositions and HypothesesPropositions and Hypotheses  Brand Manager Jones (Brand Manager Jones (casecase) has a) has a higher-than-average achievementhigher-than-average achievement motivation (motivation (variablevariable).).  Brand managers in Company Z (Brand managers in Company Z (casescases)) have a higher-than-averagehave a higher-than-average achievement motivation (achievement motivation (variablevariable).). GeneralizationGeneralization
  21. 21. 3-21 Hypothesis FormatsHypothesis Formats DescriptiveDescriptive HypothesisHypothesis In Detroit, ourIn Detroit, our potato chip marketpotato chip market share stands atshare stands at 13.7%.13.7%. American cities areAmerican cities are experiencing budgetexperiencing budget difficulties.difficulties. ResearchResearch QuestionQuestion What is the marketWhat is the market share for our potatoshare for our potato chips in Detroit?chips in Detroit? Are American citiesAre American cities experiencing budgetexperiencing budget difficulties?difficulties?
  22. 22. 3-22 Relational HypothesesRelational Hypotheses CorrelationalCorrelational Young women (underYoung women (under 35) purchase fewer35) purchase fewer units of our productunits of our product than women who arethan women who are older than 35.older than 35. The number of suitsThe number of suits sold varies directly withsold varies directly with the level of the businessthe level of the business cycle.cycle. CausalCausal An increase in familyAn increase in family income leads to anincome leads to an increase in theincrease in the percentage of incomepercentage of income saved.saved. Loyalty to a groceryLoyalty to a grocery store increases thestore increases the probability ofprobability of purchasing that store’spurchasing that store’s private brand products.private brand products.
  23. 23. 3-23 The Role of HypothesesThe Role of Hypotheses Guide the direction of the studyGuide the direction of the study Identify relevant factsIdentify relevant facts Suggest most appropriate research designSuggest most appropriate research design Provide framework for organizing resulting conclusions Provide framework for organizing resulting conclusions
  24. 24. 3-24 Characteristics ofCharacteristics of Strong HypothesesStrong Hypotheses AA StrongStrong HypothesisHypothesis IsIs AA StrongStrong HypothesisHypothesis IsIs AdequateAdequate TestableTestable Better than rivals Better than rivals
  25. 25. 3-25 Theory within ResearchTheory within Research
  26. 26. 3-26 The Role of ReasoningThe Role of Reasoning
  27. 27. 3-27 A Model within ResearchA Model within Research
  28. 28. 3-28 The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method
  29. 29. 3-29 ResearchersResearchers •Encounter problemsEncounter problems •State problemsState problems •Propose hypothesesPropose hypotheses •Deduce outcomesDeduce outcomes •Formulate rivalFormulate rival hypotheseshypotheses •Devise and conductDevise and conduct empirical testsempirical tests •Draw conclusionsDraw conclusions
  30. 30. 3-30 Curiosity Is the Ally of a ResearcherCuriosity Is the Ally of a Researcher Synovate’s campaignSynovate’s campaign associates importantassociates important discoveries in researchdiscoveries in research to a common trait ofto a common trait of entrepreneurs:entrepreneurs: curiosity.curiosity. As one of the world’sAs one of the world’s largest researchlargest research organizations, it claimsorganizations, it claims curiosity is “whatcuriosity is “what makes us tick.”makes us tick.”
  31. 31. 3-31 Sound ReasoningSound Reasoning Exposition Argument InductionDeduction Types of Discourse
  32. 32. 3-32 Deductive ReasoningDeductive Reasoning Inner-city household interviewing is especially difficult and expensive Inner-city household interviewing is especially difficult and expensive This survey involves substantial inner-city household interviewing This survey involves substantial inner-city household interviewing The interviewing in this survey will be especially difficult and expensive The interviewing in this survey will be especially difficult and expensive
  33. 33. 3-33 Inductive ReasoningInductive Reasoning  Why didn’t sales increase during ourWhy didn’t sales increase during our promotional event?promotional event?  Regional retailers did not have sufficientRegional retailers did not have sufficient stock to fill customer requests during thestock to fill customer requests during the promotional periodpromotional period  A strike by employees prevented stockA strike by employees prevented stock from arriving in time for promotion to befrom arriving in time for promotion to be effectiveeffective  A hurricane closed retail outlets in theA hurricane closed retail outlets in the region for 10 days during the promotionregion for 10 days during the promotion
  34. 34. 3-34 Why Didn’t Sales Increase?Why Didn’t Sales Increase?
  35. 35. 3-35 Tracy’s PerformanceTracy’s Performance
  36. 36. 3-36 Key TermsKey Terms • ArgumentArgument • CaseCase • ConceptConcept • Conceptual schemeConceptual scheme • ConstructConstruct • DeductionDeduction • EmpiricismEmpiricism • ExpositionExposition • HypothesisHypothesis  CorrelationalCorrelational  DescriptiveDescriptive  ExplanatoryExplanatory  RelationalRelational • Hypothetical constructHypothetical construct • InductionInduction • ModelModel • Operational definitionOperational definition • PropositionProposition • Sound reasoningSound reasoning • TheoryTheory • VariableVariable  ControlControl  Confounding (CFV)Confounding (CFV)  Dependent (DV)Dependent (DV)  Extraneous (EV)Extraneous (EV)  Independent (IV)Independent (IV)  Intervening (IVV)Intervening (IVV)  Moderating (MV)Moderating (MV)
  37. 37. THEORY BUILDINGTHEORY BUILDING 3–37
  38. 38. 3–38 LEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMESLEARNING OUTCOMES 1.1. Define the meaning ofDefine the meaning of theorytheory 2.2. Understand the goals of theoryUnderstand the goals of theory 3.3. Understand the termsUnderstand the terms conceptsconcepts,, propositionspropositions,, variablesvariables, and, and hypotheseshypotheses 4.4. Discuss how theories are developedDiscuss how theories are developed 5.5. Understand scientific methodUnderstand scientific method 6.6. Define ethics and understand how it applies toDefine ethics and understand how it applies to business researchbusiness research After studying this chapter, you should
  39. 39. IntroductionIntroduction  Theory building is the means by which basic researchers hope to expand knowledge and search for the truth.  A theory is a formal, logical explanation of some events that includes predictions of how things relate to one another.  It is built through a process of reviewing previous findings of similar studies, simple logical deduction and knowledge of applicable theoretical areas.  It plays a role in understanding practical research as well as academic or basic business research.  It helps the researcher know what variables need to be included in the study and how they may relate to one another. 3–39
  40. 40. 3–40 Goals of TheoryGoals of Theory  Two issues—understanding and predicting—are the two purposes of theory.  Accomplishing the first goal allows the theorist to gain an understanding of the relationship among various phenomena.  That understanding enables us to predict the behavior or characteristics of one phenomenon from the knowledge of another phenomenon.
  41. 41. Example  A business researcher may theorise that older investors tend to be more interested in investment income than younger investors.  This theory once verified, should allow researchers to predict the importance of expected dividend yield on the basis of investors’ ages.  The researcher also want to gain understanding of the situation. So the two goals go hand in hand! Theories provide these explanations. 3–41
  42. 42. RESEARCH CONCEPTS, CONSTRUCTS,RESEARCH CONCEPTS, CONSTRUCTS, PROPOSITIONS, VARIABLES, ANDPROPOSITIONS, VARIABLES, AND HYPOTHESESHYPOTHESES  Concept (or construct)Concept (or construct) Concept (or construct) is aConcept (or construct) is a generalized idea about ageneralized idea about a class of objects, attributes,class of objects, attributes, occurrences or process thatoccurrences or process that has been given a name.has been given a name.
  43. 43. Concept (or construct) (cont’d)  Concepts are the building blocks of theory.  Concepts abstract reality (i.e., concepts express in words various events or objects).  Concepts may vary in degree of abstraction.  Ladder of abstraction —organization of concepts in sequence from the most concrete and individual to the most general.  Moving up the ladder of abstraction, the basic concept becomes more general, wider in scope, and less amenable to measurement. 3–43
  44. 44. 44 Vegetation Fruit Banana Reality Increasinglymoreabstract A Ladder Of AbstractionA Ladder Of Abstraction For ConceptsFor Concepts
  45. 45. Concept (or construct) (cont’d)  The basic or scientific business researcher operates at two levels—on the abstract level of concepts (and propositions) and on the empirical level of variables (and hypotheses).  Empirical level —  Abstract level — 3–45
  46. 46. 46 CONCEPTSCONCEPTS OBSERVATION OF OBJECTS AND EVENTS (REALITY) Empirical Level Abstract Level Concepts are Abstractions ofConcepts are Abstractions of RealityReality
  47. 47. Concept (or construct) (cont’d)  Latent construct —a concept that is not directly observable or measurable, but can be estimated through proxy measures.  Researchers are concerned with the observable world (i.e., reality).  Theorists translate their conceptualization of reality into abstract ideas.  Things are not the essence of theory; ideas are.  Concepts in isolation are not theories—to construct a theory we must explain how concepts relate to other concepts. 3–47
  48. 48. 3–48 Concepts are Abstractions of RealityConcepts are Abstractions of Reality
  49. 49. Research Propositions andResearch Propositions and HypothesesHypotheses  Propositions are statements concerned with the relationships among concepts and explain the logical linkage among certain concepts by asserting a universal connection between concepts.  A hypothesis is a formal statement explaining some outcome.  In its simplest form, a hypothesis is a guess.  A hypothesis is a proposition that is empirically testable, so when on estates a hypothesis, it should be written in a manner that can be supported or shown to be wrong through an empirical test.  It is an empirical statement concerned with the relationship among variables.  Often apply statistics to data to empirically test hypotheses.
  50. 50. Research Propositions andResearch Propositions and Hypotheses (cont’d)Hypotheses (cont’d)  Empirical testing means that something has been examined against reality using data.  When the data are consistent with a hypotheses - hypothesis is supported.  When the data are inconsistent with a hypothesis - hypothesis is not supported.  Variables : Anything that may assume different numerical values or categorical values. (anything that varied or changes in value).  Operationalizing —the process of identifying the actual measurement scales to assess the variables of interest. 3–50
  51. 51. 51 V Always makes four sales calls a day V- Dollar bonus for sales volume over quota Concept B (Habits) Hypothesis at Empirical Level Concept A (Reinforcement) Proposition at Abstract LevelProposition at Abstract Level
  52. 52. 52  The abstract proposition “Reinforcement will increase habit strength” may be tested empirically with a hypothesis.  Bonus pay and sales calls are variables – reflecting the concepts – reinforcement and habits.  Variables may be measured.Variables may be measured.
  53. 53. Theory Building A Process OfTheory Building A Process Of Increasing AbstractionIncreasing Abstraction Theories Propositions Concepts Observation of objects and events (reality ) Increasinglymoreabstract
  54. 54. 3–54 Theory BuildingTheory Building  Theory generation can occur at the abstract, conceptual level and at the empirical level.  Deductive reasoning is  Inductive reasoning is  Over the course of time, theory construction is often the result of a combination of deductive and inductive reasoning.
  55. 55. The Scientific MethodThe Scientific Method  Scientific Method  A set of prescribed procedures for establishing and connecting theoretical statements about events, for analyzing empirical evidence, and for predicting events yet unknown.  Techniques or procedures used to analyze empirical evidence in an attempt to confirm or disprove prior conceptions.  Suggested steps: 1. Assess relevant existing knowledge of phenomenon 2. Formulate concepts and propositions 3. State hypotheses 4. Design research to test the hypotheses 5. Acquire empirical data 6. Analyze and evaluate data 7. Propose an explanation of the phenomenon and state new problems raised by the research
  56. 56. 56 AssessAssess relevantrelevant existingexisting knowledgeknowledge FormulateFormulate concepts &concepts & PropositionsPropositions StatementStatement ofof HypothesesHypotheses DesignDesign researchresearch AcquireAcquire empiricalempirical datadata Analyze &Analyze & evaluateevaluate datadata ProvideProvide explanation-explanation- state newstate new problemproblem The Scientific Method:The Scientific Method: An OverviewAn Overview
  57. 57. IntroductionIntroduction  Topic identification is a most difficult andTopic identification is a most difficult and yet the most important part in the processyet the most important part in the process of research.of research.  It is the starting point of your research,It is the starting point of your research, once you have clear about this, you will beonce you have clear about this, you will be able to choose the most appropriateable to choose the most appropriate research strategy and data collection andresearch strategy and data collection and analysis techniques.analysis techniques.  TheThe formulating and clarifying processformulating and clarifying process isis time consuming. However, withouttime consuming. However, without spending time on this stage you are farspending time on this stage you are far less likely to achieve successful research.less likely to achieve successful research.
  58. 58. Research ProblemResearch Problem  Any question that you want answered andAny question that you want answered and any assumption or assertion that you want toany assumption or assertion that you want to challenge or investigate can become achallenge or investigate can become a research problem or a research topic for yourresearch problem or a research topic for your study. But not all questions can bestudy. But not all questions can be transformed into research problems.transformed into research problems.  As a newcomer it might seem easy toAs a newcomer it might seem easy to formulate a problem but it requires aformulate a problem but it requires a considerable knowledge of both the subjectconsiderable knowledge of both the subject area and research methodology.area and research methodology.  When we examine a question more closelyWhen we examine a question more closely we will soon realise the complexity ofwe will soon realise the complexity of formulating an idea into a problem which isformulating an idea into a problem which is researchable.researchable.
  59. 59. Formulating a Research ProblemFormulating a Research Problem  It is like the identification of aIt is like the identification of a destination before undertaking adestination before undertaking a journey. In the absence of a clearjourney. In the absence of a clear research problem, a clear andresearch problem, a clear and economical plan is impossible. Theeconomical plan is impossible. The problem serves as the foundationproblem serves as the foundation of aof a research study, it is well formulated,research study, it is well formulated, you can expect a good study to follow.you can expect a good study to follow.
  60. 60. Attributes of a Good Research TopicAttributes of a Good Research Topic  Your research topic must be somethingYour research topic must be something you are capable of undertakingyou are capable of undertaking  Your ability to find the financial andYour ability to find the financial and time resources to undertake on thetime resources to undertake on the topictopic  Data availabilityData availability  Clearly defined research questions andClearly defined research questions and objectivesobjectives  Link with theoryLink with theory  Career goalsCareer goals
  61. 61. Research Area and TopicResearch Area and Topic  Research Topic falls within a area. SelectionResearch Topic falls within a area. Selection of topic is more difficult part of research.of topic is more difficult part of research.  Example:Example:  Research Area: E-BusinessResearch Area: E-Business  Research Topic:Research Topic:  Internet Marketing behavior among MNC’s andInternet Marketing behavior among MNC’s and Domestic companiesDomestic companies  Factors Determining adoption of e-business among theFactors Determining adoption of e-business among the domestic companies in Malaysiadomestic companies in Malaysia  Cost Benefit analysis on e-business with reference toCost Benefit analysis on e-business with reference to consumer durable Goods Manufactures in Malaysiaconsumer durable Goods Manufactures in Malaysia
  62. 62. Choice of the ProblemChoice of the Problem  Based on the Purpose of Research:Based on the Purpose of Research:  Basic ResearchBasic Research  Applied ResearchApplied Research  Based on the objectivesBased on the objectives  ExploratoryExploratory  DescriptiveDescriptive  Explanatory (Hypothesis testing)Explanatory (Hypothesis testing)
  63. 63. Methods of Generating andMethods of Generating and Refining Research IdeasRefining Research Ideas  Rational ThinkingRational Thinking  Examine your own strength andExamine your own strength and interestinterest  Looking at past research reportsLooking at past research reports  DiscussionsDiscussions  SearchingSearching the literaturethe literature  Creative ThinkingCreative Thinking  Exploring personal preferences usingExploring personal preferences using past projectspast projects  brainstormingbrainstorming
  64. 64. Sources of Problem of ResearchSources of Problem of Research  Practical Problems in your fieldPractical Problems in your field  Literature in your specific fieldLiterature in your specific field  Request for proposalRequest for proposal  Secondary Data AnalysisSecondary Data Analysis  Pilot StudyPilot Study  Brain StormingBrain Storming  Focus GroupsFocus Groups
  65. 65. Choice of the ProblemChoice of the Problem  Should be TimelyShould be Timely  Area should not be Too CrowedArea should not be Too Crowed  The Area should not be Too ProminentThe Area should not be Too Prominent  Consumer of ResearchConsumer of Research  Feasibility of the Research StudyFeasibility of the Research Study
  66. 66. Formulation of a ResearchFormulation of a Research ProblemProblem  The following steps may beThe following steps may be followed to narrowing thefollowed to narrowing the problem or ‘zeroing in on theproblem or ‘zeroing in on the problem, to have a betterproblem, to have a better formulated research problemformulated research problem
  67. 67. Research Problem : FormulationResearch Problem : Formulation  Identify: a broad areaIdentify: a broad area  Dissect the broad area into sub-areaDissect the broad area into sub-area  Select a sub-areaSelect a sub-area  Raise Research questionsRaise Research questions  Formulate objectivesFormulate objectives  Assess these objectivesAssess these objectives  Double checkDouble check
  68. 68. Turning Research Idea intoTurning Research Idea into Research ProjectResearch Project  Research QuestionResearch Question  It is important that the question is sufficientlyIt is important that the question is sufficiently involved to generate the sort of project. Begin withinvolved to generate the sort of project. Begin with one general focus research questionone general focus research question that flowsthat flows from your research idea. This may leads to severalfrom your research idea. This may leads to several more detailed questions or the research objectivesmore detailed questions or the research objectives  Research ObjectivesResearch Objectives  From the research question you can write a set ofFrom the research question you can write a set of research objectives. It is more generally accepted toresearch objectives. It is more generally accepted to the research community as a evidence of thethe research community as a evidence of the researcher’s clear sense of purpose and direction.researcher’s clear sense of purpose and direction. Research objectives require more rigorous thinkingResearch objectives require more rigorous thinking which derives use ofwhich derives use of more formal languagemore formal language..
  69. 69. Research Idea to Research QuestionResearch Idea to Research Question (General Focus)(General Focus) Research ideaResearch idea General FocusGeneral Focus Research QuestionResearch Question The sponsorship ofThe sponsorship of country food clubs bycountry food clubs by commercial organizationscommercial organizations What benefit do commercialWhat benefit do commercial organizations derive from theirorganizations derive from their sponsorship of country cricketsponsorship of country cricket clubs?clubs? The adoption of FlexibleThe adoption of Flexible workforce byworkforce by manufacturing companymanufacturing company Why do manufacturingWhy do manufacturing companies divide theircompanies divide their workforces into core andworkforces into core and peripheral workers?peripheral workers? The future of trade unionsThe future of trade unions What strategies should tradeWhat strategies should trade unions adopt to ensure theirunions adopt to ensure their viability in the future?viability in the future?
  70. 70. Formulation of ObjectivesFormulation of Objectives  Objectives should be listed under twoObjectives should be listed under two headingsheadings  Main objectives andMain objectives and  Sub-objectivesSub-objectives  The main objective is an overall statement ofThe main objective is an overall statement of the thrust of your study.the thrust of your study.  It is also a statement of the mainIt is also a statement of the main associations and relationships that you seekassociations and relationships that you seek to discover or establish.to discover or establish.  The sub objectives are the specific aspectsThe sub objectives are the specific aspects of the topic that you want to investigateof the topic that you want to investigate within the main framework of your study.within the main framework of your study.
  71. 71. Formulation of ObjectivesFormulation of Objectives  Objectives should be listedObjectives should be listed under two headings;under two headings; Main objective(s)Main objective(s) Sub-objectivesSub-objectives
  72. 72. Research Question to ResearchResearch Question to Research ObjectivesObjectives Research QuestionResearch Question Research ObjectivesResearch Objectives Why have organizationsWhy have organizations introduced team briefing?introduced team briefing? To identify organization’sTo identify organization’s objectives for team briefingobjectives for team briefing How can the effectivenessHow can the effectiveness of team- briefing schemesof team- briefing schemes be measures?be measures? To establish suitableTo establish suitable effectiveness criteria for team-effectiveness criteria for team- briefing schemes.briefing schemes. How can the team briefingHow can the team briefing effectiveness beeffectiveness be explained?explained? To determine the factorsTo determine the factors associated with theassociated with the effectiveness of the teameffectiveness of the team briefing.briefing. Has team briefing beenHas team briefing been effective?effective? To describe the extent to whichTo describe the extent to which the effectiveness criteria forthe effectiveness criteria for team briefing have been met.team briefing have been met.
  73. 73. Management Problems vs. ResearchManagement Problems vs. Research ProblemsProblems  Most management research problemsMost management research problems manifest themselves asmanifest themselves as ManagementManagement Decision ProblemsDecision Problems  Situation arises, management needs to make aSituation arises, management needs to make a decision, requires research, starts the researchdecision, requires research, starts the research processprocess  No actionable guidanceNo actionable guidance  Simply a statement of the issue thatSimply a statement of the issue that management is dealing withmanagement is dealing with  Must restatement in research terms.Must restatement in research terms.
  74. 74. Management Problems vs. ResearchManagement Problems vs. Research ProblemsProblems  Management ProblemManagement Problem: a: a statement of the informationstatement of the information needed by a decision makerneeded by a decision maker to help solve a managementto help solve a management decision problem.decision problem.
  75. 75. Tips for Accurately DefiningTips for Accurately Defining Research ProblemsResearch Problems  Find out why the information is beingFind out why the information is being sought.sought.  Determine whether the information alreadyDetermine whether the information already exists.exists.  Determine whether the question reallyDetermine whether the question really can/should be answered.can/should be answered.  Use exploratory research to defineUse exploratory research to define background of the problembackground of the problem  Situation analysisSituation analysis  The iceberg principleThe iceberg principle  Determine relevant variablesDetermine relevant variables
  76. 76. Definition of Research ObjectivesDefinition of Research Objectives  Management Research ObjectivesManagement Research Objectives: the: the specific bits of knowledge that need tospecific bits of knowledge that need to be gathered to close the informationbe gathered to close the information gaps highlighted in the researchgaps highlighted in the research problem.problem.  Stated in action termsStated in action terms  Serve as a standard to evaluate the qualityServe as a standard to evaluate the quality and value of the researchand value of the research  Objectives should be specific andObjectives should be specific and unambiguousunambiguous
  77. 77. Putting It All TogetherPutting It All Together  Management ProblemManagement Problem  Placement office has noticed, while major companies make annualPlacement office has noticed, while major companies make annual recruiting visits to campus for engineers, not many national or localrecruiting visits to campus for engineers, not many national or local companies are formally recruiting business majors through thecompanies are formally recruiting business majors through the placement officeplacement office  Why? How do we address this?Why? How do we address this?  Management Research Problem QuestionsManagement Research Problem Questions  Why are companies not taking advantage of the resources that theWhy are companies not taking advantage of the resources that the placement service offers? Are companies going around theplacement service offers? Are companies going around the service?service?  Are companies aware of the University placement service?Are companies aware of the University placement service?  Are companies aware of the reputation of the MBA programme?Are companies aware of the reputation of the MBA programme?  What kind of things might generate more recruiting activity?What kind of things might generate more recruiting activity?  Management Research ObjectivesManagement Research Objectives  To determine to what extent companies are aware of the placementTo determine to what extent companies are aware of the placement serviceservice  Determine whether companies, especially locals, are aware of theDetermine whether companies, especially locals, are aware of the strong reputation of the Business Schoolstrong reputation of the Business School  To determine whether a quarterly newsletter highlighting businessTo determine whether a quarterly newsletter highlighting business programs and students might generate more recruiting activity.programs and students might generate more recruiting activity.
  78. 78. LITERATURE REVIEWLITERATURE REVIEW 1 - 78
  79. 79. Review of LiteratureReview of Literature  ImportanceImportance  SourcesSources  PurposePurpose  Stages of Research and LiteratureStages of Research and Literature ReviewReview  Method of PresentationMethod of Presentation
  80. 80. IntroductionIntroduction  Literature review for a proposal or aLiterature review for a proposal or a research study means locating andresearch study means locating and summarizing the studies about thesummarizing the studies about the topic. Often these summaries aretopic. Often these summaries are research studies, but it may alsoresearch studies, but it may also include conceptual articles or thoughtinclude conceptual articles or thought pieces that provide frameworks forpieces that provide frameworks for thinking about the topic.thinking about the topic.
  81. 81. Need and ImportanceNeed and Importance  Knowledge doesn’t exist in a vacuum, andKnowledge doesn’t exist in a vacuum, and your work only has value in relation to otheryour work only has value in relation to other people’s work. Your work and your findingpeople’s work. Your work and your finding will be significant only to the extent that theywill be significant only to the extent that they are same as or different from others workare same as or different from others work and findings. The items your read and writeand findings. The items your read and write about will enhance your subject knowledgeabout will enhance your subject knowledge and help you toand help you to clarify your researchclarify your research question(s) furtherquestion(s) further. This process is called. This process is called critically reviewing the literature.critically reviewing the literature.
  82. 82. Purpose of the LiteraturePurpose of the Literature ReviewReview  Literature reviews help researchers limit theLiterature reviews help researchers limit the scope of their inquiry.scope of their inquiry.  It convey the importance of the topic of studyIt convey the importance of the topic of study to the readersto the readers  It shares with the reader the results of otherIt shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the studystudies that are closely related to the study being reported.being reported.  It relates a study to the larger ongoingIt relates a study to the larger ongoing dialogue in the literature about a topic, maydialogue in the literature about a topic, may be fill in gaps and extending prior studiesbe fill in gaps and extending prior studies
  83. 83. PurposePurpose ItIt providesprovides a framework for the study,a framework for the study, to identify the important variables,to identify the important variables, to frame hypotheses,to frame hypotheses, source of data,source of data, method of data collection,method of data collection, measurement of subjective variables,measurement of subjective variables, to develop questionnaire,to develop questionnaire, to identify appropriate statisticalto identify appropriate statistical technique for data analysis.technique for data analysis.
  84. 84. Purpose …Purpose …  It serves as a benchmark for comparingIt serves as a benchmark for comparing the results of a study with otherthe results of a study with other findings.findings.
  85. 85. Forms of Literature ReviewForms of Literature Review  Integrative:Integrative:  The researcher summarizing broad themesThe researcher summarizing broad themes in literature. This is useful, in proposalin literature. This is useful, in proposal writing and to introduce the problem andwriting and to introduce the problem and background of the research.background of the research.  Theoretical:Theoretical:  The researcher focuses on extant theoryThe researcher focuses on extant theory that relates to the problem under study.that relates to the problem under study. This form is useful for development ofThis form is useful for development of theoretical frame work of the study,theoretical frame work of the study, integration of theory in to the study.integration of theory in to the study.
  86. 86. FormsForms  Methodological Review:Methodological Review:  In which the researcher focuses onIn which the researcher focuses on methods and definitions.methods and definitions.  The reviewers may provide not onlyThe reviewers may provide not only summary of studies but also an actualsummary of studies but also an actual critique of the strength and weakness ofcritique of the strength and weakness of the method sections.the method sections.  Normally it is put into a separate section orNormally it is put into a separate section or chapter, in dissertations and review ofchapter, in dissertations and review of related literature.related literature.
  87. 87. SourcesSources Documentation ServicesDocumentation Services  JournalsJournals  Government ReportsGovernment Reports  Research AbstractsResearch Abstracts
  88. 88. States of Research andStates of Research and Review of LiteratureReview of Literature  Identification and SelectionIdentification and Selection  Formulation of the SelectedFormulation of the Selected problemproblem  Operationalisation of ConceptsOperationalisation of Concepts  Research MethodologyResearch Methodology  Tools for collection of dataTools for collection of data  Writing the reportWriting the report
  89. 89. Presentation of the ReviewPresentation of the Review  By Chronological orderBy Chronological order  By TopicBy Topic  Problem - SolutionProblem - Solution  Cause - effectCause - effect  Argument and Counter argumentArgument and Counter argument  Group on the basis of a particularGroup on the basis of a particular VariableVariable
  90. 90. RESEARCH ETHICSRESEARCH ETHICS 1 - 90
  91. 91. ETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESSETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESS RESEARCHRESEARCH  Ethical Questions Are Philosophical Questions  Business ethics is the application of morals to behaviour related to the exchange environment.  Moral standards are principles that reflect beliefs about what is ethical and what is unethical (e.g., the Golden Rule).  Ethical dilemma refers to a situation in which one chooses from alternative courses of actions, each with different ethical implications.  Relativism is a term that reflects the degree to which one rejects moral standards in favor of the acceptability of some action. 3–91
  92. 92. ETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESSETHICAL ISSUES IN BUSINESS RESEARCHRESEARCH  Idealism is a term that reflects the degree to which one bases their morality on moral standards.  Researchers and business stakeholders face ethical dilemmas practically every day 3–92
  93. 93. 5–93 General Rights and ObligationsGeneral Rights and Obligations of Concerned Partiesof Concerned Parties  Everyone involved in research can face an ethical dilemma:  The people actually performing the research —the “doers.”  The research client, sponsor, or the management team requesting the research— the “users.”  The research participants—the actual research respondents or subjects.  Each party has certain rights and obligations toward the other parties.
  94. 94. 5–94 EXHIBIT 5.EXHIBIT 5.77 Interaction of Rights and ObligationsInteraction of Rights and Obligations
  95. 95. 5–95 Rights and Obligations: Research ParticipantRights and Obligations: Research Participant  Rights:  Obligations:
  96. 96. Rights and Obligations: Research ParticipantRights and Obligations: Research Participant (cont’d)(cont’d)  Rights to be informed  Most business research is conducted with the research participant’s consent (i.e., the participant is active).  Informed consent means that the individual understands what the researcher wants him/her to do and agrees to in the research study.  The obligation to be truthful  In return for being truthful, the subject has the right to expect confidentiality.  Confidentiality means that information involved in the research will not be shared with others. 3–96
  97. 97. Rights and Obligations: Research ParticipantRights and Obligations: Research Participant (cont’d)(cont’d) Participants’ Right to Privacy  Active Research  The issue involves the participant’s freedom to choose whether to comply.  Be considerate of participants’ time and identify yourself.  Adhere to the principles of the “Do Not Call” policy and respect consumers’ “Internet privacy.”  Passive Research  It is generally believed that unobtrusive observation of public behavior is not an invasion of privacy.  Recording behavior that is not conducted in public would be a violation of privacy.  Technology allows the passive collection of data based on consumers’ on-line behavior, and researchers should gain consent before harvesting information. 3–97
  98. 98. 5–98 Rights and Obligations: Research ParticipantRights and Obligations: Research Participant (cont’d)(cont’d)Protection from Harm  Questions to ask to help avoid harming a research participant:  Has the research subject provided consent to participate in an experiment?  Is the research subject subjected to substantial physical or psychological trauma?  Can the research subject be easily returned to his or her initial state?  Human subjects review committee  Reviews proposed research designs to ensure that no harm can come to any research participant.
  99. 99. 5–99 Rights and Obligations of theRights and Obligations of the ResearcherResearcher  The researcher should:  Understand that the purpose of research is research (no sales pitch to research participants)  Maintain objectivity  Not misrepresent research  Be honest in reporting errors  Protect the confidentiality of both subjects and clients
  100. 100. Rights and Obligations of theRights and Obligations of the Researcher (cont’d)Researcher (cont’d)  Researchers have rights, too:  right to cooperation from the sponsoring client  right to be paid as long as the work is done professionally  right to be paid in full and in a timely manner 3–100
  101. 101. 5–101 Rights and Obligations of the Client Sponsor (User)Rights and Obligations of the Client Sponsor (User)  Ethical Behavior between Buyer and Seller  The general business ethics expected between a purchasing agent and a sales representative should hold in a research situation.  An Open Relationship with Research Suppliers  To encourage objectively, a full and open statement of the decision situation, a full disclosure of constraints in time and money, and any other insights that assist the researcher should be provided.  Researcher should be provided adequate access to key decision makers.
  102. 102. Rights and Obligations of the ClientRights and Obligations of the Client Sponsor (User) (cont’d)Sponsor (User) (cont’d)  An Open Relationship with Interested Parties  Conclusions should be based on data – not conjecture.  Advocacy research – research undertaken to support a specific claim in a legal action or to represent some advocacy groups.  Researchers often conduct advocacy research in their role as an expert witness. 3–102
  103. 103. 1 - 103 Further ReadingFurther Reading  COOPER, D.R. AND SCHINDLER, P.S. (2011) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 11TH EDN, MCGRAW HILL  ZIKMUND, W.G., BABIN, B.J., CARR, J.C. AND GRIFFIN, M. (2010) BUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS, 8TH EDN, SOUTH-WESTERN  SAUNDERS, M., LEWIS, P. AND THORNHILL, A. (2012) RESEARCH METHODS FOR BUSINESS STUDENTS, 6TH EDN, PRENTICE HALL.  SAUNDERS, M. AND LEWIS, P. (2012) DOING RESEARCH IN BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT, FT PRENTICE HALL.
  104. 104. 2 - 104 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs,Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, andand social entrepreneurship potentialsocial entrepreneurship potential physiological safety and security belongingess self-esteem cognitive aesthetic self-actualization self-transcendence Proper nutrition School and neighborhood safety Community programs Empowerment programs Academic programs The arts College scholarships Programs to create mentors Maslow’s hierarchy Example programs that meet different needs physiological safety and security belongingess self-esteem cognitive aesthetic self-actualization self-transcendence Proper nutrition School and neighborhood safety Community programs Empowerment programs Academic programs The arts College scholarships Programs to create mentors Maslow’s hierarchy Example programs that meet different needs

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