EMYOU ONLINE & SOFT SERVICES PVT LTD   ENGLISH GRAMMAR TRAINING MANUAL
Table of ContentsNoun .......................................................................................................
Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE .................................................................................... 24Rules ...........
Grammar                                Parts of SpeechEvery word in the English language belongs to a particular family or...
Kiss                       kissesSome nouns have the same form for singular and also for plural as shownbelow:sheep, deer,...
Collective nounIt is a noun used for a group of persons or animals or things taken together andconsidered as one single un...
PrepositionPreposition is a word that shows the relationship between any two words in asentence. The two words may beA nou...
Whether a single word or phrases or pairs, the job of a conjunction is to join twosimple sentences.ArticlesArticle is a wo...
When we want to refer to a particular doctor or a book or an instructor, we usethe definite article THE. Study the followi...
the grammar part of one sentence and attach it to the meaning part of anothersentence and vice versa. Here are some exampl...
(This is an important tense because most of what we say about people, things orabout ourselves will always be in the prese...
Present Continuous TenseWhen to useWe use this tense to describe an action actually in progress or going on at thetime of ...
Examples using universal auxiliaries:   1.   Some students may not be coming with us for the picnic.   2.   We shall be ge...
Present Perfect TensePresent perfect tense belongs mostly to the past period and partly to the presenttime period. We use ...
Here some examples of sentences:   1.   Where have you worked before?   2.   They have written one or two essays before.  ...
Here are some examples:   1.   What have your friends been doing all these days?   2.   She has been mending all these old...
Here are some examples:   1.   I was at my aunt’s house.   2.   I was not in my new house yesterday morning   3.   The civ...
Here are some examples:   1)   Who was talking so loudly inside the auditorium?   2)   Shobana was talking very loudly.   ...
Examples with would and could:   1.   Why didn’t you attend the net practice yesterday?   2.   I could hear some noise all...
Here are some examples with Universal auxiliaries:   1.   Hadn’t your children got used to your new house?   2.   My class...
Future TenseWe use future tense to talk about an action we propose to do in some futuretime. The ‘action’ is only in your ...
Future Continuous TenseWe use this for an action we propose to do sometime in the future. Thisdefinition is the same as fo...
2. I could be taking part in it.   3. You won’t be becoming used to modern dancing, will you?   4. You could be getting us...
Future Perfect Continuous TenseWe us the future perfect continuous tense to indicate an activity as being inprogress over ...
2. My deskmate quarreled …………… me ………….. a small point.   3. We should be always loyal ……….. our country.   4. A circle ma...
Correct the mistake in the following statements:   1. This girl aren’t in her room now.   2. Susan have only two sisters. ...
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English grammar training manual

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English grammar training manual

  1. 1. EMYOU ONLINE & SOFT SERVICES PVT LTD ENGLISH GRAMMAR TRAINING MANUAL
  2. 2. Table of ContentsNoun ..........................................................................................................................................5Number .....................................................................................................................................5Proper noun..............................................................................................................................6Common Noun .........................................................................................................................6Collective noun .........................................................................................................................7Abstract noun ...........................................................................................................................7VERB AND AUXILIARY ............................................................................................ 7Preposition ................................................................................................................................8Conjunction ..............................................................................................................................8Articles ......................................................................................................................................9SENTENCE STRUCTURE....................................................................................... 10Structure of a simple sentence ..............................................................................................10PRESENT TENSE ................................................................................................... 11 S – A – V rules.................................................................................................................12 Possessive case.................................................................................................................12 Universal Auxiliaries ...........................................................................................................12PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE .......................................................................... 13When to use ............................................................................................................................13 Rules ................................................................................................................................13SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ..................................................................................... 14 Rules ................................................................................................................................14Subject Auxiliary Verb...............................................................................................14 Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................14PRESENT PERFECT TENSE.................................................................................. 15 Rules ................................................................................................................................15Subject Auxiliary verb form ......................................................................................15 2
  3. 3. Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................15PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE......................................................... 16 Rules ................................................................................................................................16Subject Auxiliary verb form ......................................................................................16 Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................16PAST TENSE........................................................................................................... 17Subject Auxiliary Verb form .....................................................................................17 Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................17PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE.................................................................................. 18 Rules ................................................................................................................................18Subject Auxiliary verb form .......................................................................................18 Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................18SIMPLE PAST TENSE ............................................................................................ 19 Rule ..................................................................................................................................19 Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................19PAST PERFECT TENSE ......................................................................................... 20 Rule ..................................................................................................................................20Subject Auxiliary Verb form .....................................................................................20 Universal Auxiliary..........................................................................................................20PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ................................................................ 21 Rule ..................................................................................................................................21Subject Auxiliary verb form ......................................................................................21 Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................21FUTURE TENSE...................................................................................................... 22 Rules ................................................................................................................................22Subject Auxiliary Verb form .....................................................................................22 Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................22FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE............................................................................. 23Rules ........................................................................................................................................23Subject Auxiliary verb form .......................................................................................23 Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................23 3
  4. 4. FUTURE PERFECT TENSE .................................................................................... 24Rules ........................................................................................................................................24Subject Auxiliary Verb form ....................................................................................24 Universal Auxiliary..........................................................................................................24FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ........................................................... 25 Rules ................................................................................................................................25Subject Auxiliary Verb form .....................................................................................25 Universal Auxiliaries .......................................................................................................25EXERCISES FOR GRAMMAR ................................................................................ 25 4
  5. 5. Grammar Parts of SpeechEvery word in the English language belongs to a particular family or group orcategory named “Part of Speech”.There are in all ten parts of speech in the English language. This means thatevery English word would fall under one of these parts of speech. They are:Noun, Pronoun, Verb, auxiliary, adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction,Article and Interjection.NounNoun is a word used for person, place or thing. Every noun has number, genderand kind.NumberThere are singular nouns and plural nouns as shown below:Singular PluralGirl girlsSchool SchoolsPencil PencilsBox BoxesWatch WatchesFish FishesKnife KnivesWife WivesThief ThievesVictory VictoriesIn order to get the plural, we add the letter ‘S’ to some nouns, letters ‘es’ tosome, ‘ves’ to such nouns that end in ‘f’ and ‘ies’ to the nouns that end in ‘y’.For some nouns, the plural spelling is altogether different like the following:Man menWoman womenFoot feetOasis oases
  6. 6. Kiss kissesSome nouns have the same form for singular and also for plural as shownbelow:sheep, deer, series, corps, swine, species, and means.Some nouns are used only in the plural even if the noun referred and used is insingle quantity as shown below:Scissors, tongs, pincers, spectacles, drawers, breeches and arrears.Some are used only in singular form though they sound like plurals in terms ofspelling. The following are the examples:News, innings, ethics, civics, physics, athletics, economics.We write the plurals for the compound words in a different way as shownbelow:Son-in-law sons-in-lawDaughter-in-law daughters-in-lawBrother-in-law brothers-in-lawMan-of-law men-of-warPasser-by passers-byLooker-on lookers-onFootman footmenAdd an apostrophe and the letter ‘s’ to get the plurals of letters, figures andsymbols.Nouns are of four kinds as follows:Proper nounThe name of a particular person or place is called a proper noun, they are uniqueand we cannot use that name to any other person or place. Here are theexamples:Rajendran, Narayanan, Nirmala, Samuel.Common NounA noun used for any person or place. Here are some examples:Man, Teacher, student, graduate. 6
  7. 7. Collective nounIt is a noun used for a group of persons or animals or things taken together andconsidered as one single unit. Here are the examples:Crowd, mob, herd, family, army.Abstract nounIt is a noun used for quality or action or state as shown in the followingexamples:Quality – honesty, wisdom, truth, braveryAction – theft, movement, hatredState – youth, slavery, boyhood, manhood Verb and AuxiliaryVerb is a word of action. We can see action in a broad sense, when there is amovement of any part of the body of a living being, be it a human or animal orbird or fish. We cannot use a verb in a sentence without supporting it with aword called auxiliary. The auxiliary will usually be to the left of a verb. In somecases we may use more than one auxiliary to help a verb. We call such a groupof auxiliaries as auxiliary set. All the auxiliaries that go to form a se will also beout of the same list of 32. Thus, a very and an auxiliary would form aninseparable pair. We can never use an auxiliary or a verb singly at all but alwaysas pairs.Every verb has three forms, namely, Present, Past and Past Participle forms.There are only 32 auxiliaries in the English language. The job of an auxiliary isto help a verb. It has no other function. There are two type of auxiliaries: pureauxiliaries, (whose sole job is only to help a verb in any of its 3 forms in asentence) and auxiliary cum verbs.The pure auxiliaries are also known as universal auxiliaries because we usethem for more than one tense and for all persons.Auxiliaries do not have a precise meaning like other English words. Everyauxiliary is used for a particular situation. You need to know that before youcould select an auxiliary to use in a sentence.Auxiliaries enable us to frame negative answers. There are only two categoriesof answers, as we saw a little earlier positive and negative. We write or speak anegative sentence by making the auxiliary negative i.e. by putting the adverbNOT after the auxiliary. 7
  8. 8. PrepositionPreposition is a word that shows the relationship between any two words in asentence. The two words may beA noun/pronoun and a noun/pronoun OrA verb and a noun/pronoun OrAn adjective/adverb and a noun/pronounStudy the following examples:We saw a dog inside the house. (Relationship between a noun and a noun)Will you come to my house this evening? (Between a verb and a noun)My Father is angry with me. (Between an adverb and a pronoun)I am traveling in a Car. (Between a verb and a noun)My brother is behind me always. (Between an aux, verb and a pronoun)The words underlined are prepositions and show the true relationship betweenthe word to its left and right. If you remove the preposition, you will not get thecorrect meaning out of the sentence or you may get several possible meanings.Thus if you want to know the accurate meaning of sentence, you must use thecorrect preposition.Simple prepositions are recognizable words. Some of them are: AT, BY FOR,FROM, IN, OF, TO, DOWN, ON, OUT, THROUGH, TILL, WITH,WITHOUT, ABOUT, UNDER, ACROSS, ALONG, AMONG, AROUND,BEFORE, AFTER BEHIND, BETWEEN, BEYOND, INSIDE, OUTSIDE.ConjunctionConjunction is a word that joins two or more simple sentences. “And” is theonly conjunction, which in addition can connect any two words also, except twoverbs.Conjunctions are used in complex sentences. A complex sentence will consist oftwo simple sentences connected by one conjunction.Conjunctions are also recognizable words. Some of the single word conjuctionsare: AND, SINCE, BECAUSE, IF, THAT, UNLESS, BUT, STILL, YET,UNTIL, AS, THOUGH, AFTER, BEFORE. 8
  9. 9. Whether a single word or phrases or pairs, the job of a conjunction is to join twosimple sentences.ArticlesArticle is a word we use to refer to the number of a noun. For a singular nounwe use the article A or AN. AN is used for a noun that starts with a vowel orvowel sound. Examples are:An umbrella, an egg, an elephantFor all other single nouns, use A. A and AN are also known as indefinite articlebecause it will refer to any single noun like, a doctor, a book, a pencil, aninstructor, an engineer and so on.We also use A and AN before an adjective if that adjective describes a singlenoun.Here are some examples:An intelligent student never has any doubts.A good boy will always obey his parents.Ronald is an excellent football playerNo one could find an immediate solution to the problem.Use A or AN for every common noun if it appears in the middle of a sentence asshown below:It was an earthquake.Won’t she be a good dancer for our entertainment programme?Use A or AN as applicable, in expressing quantity or certain numbers as shownin the examples given below:A lot of, a dozen, a couple of runs, an occasional cup of coffee, a hundred, athousand, a million.Use A or AN before “half” when it follows a whole number like this,One and a half kilo (But, don’t use ‘a’ if only ½ is to be pronounced½ k = half kilo. “half a kilo” is wrong English)Whereas, with other numbers, “a” must be used as shown below:a third, a quarter, a fifth 9
  10. 10. When we want to refer to a particular doctor or a book or an instructor, we usethe definite article THE. Study the following sentences:The doctor examined susan. (‘the’ here refers to a particular doctor, possibly thefamily doctor)The class teacher is sick today.We use THE also to refer to any large numbers or plural nouns. Here are theexamples:The boys, the students, the colleges, the people and so on.The overall meaning of the sentence will make it clear whether the definitearticle THE refers to a particular noun or any plural nouns.We saw that for a single number we use A or AN and for a large number, THWWhat then about the intermediate numbers, say 2,3..8..10, 11 or so? For suchsmall numbers, we use the articles SOME, ANY, A FEW, A LITTLE, MANY,ALL AND SUCH. Study the following sentences:Some boys were at the football ground. (A small number of boys, say 7 or 8)Did any students fail in English?A few persons only accepted our invitation.Please give me a little sugar. (Here “ a little sugar” would mean a couple ofspoons of sugar)Many students failed in mathematics.All the winners were present at the prize awarding ceremony.There are many bad boys in your school; don’t go near such boys.If the words in bold describe the noun, we may treat them as adjectives. But ifthey refer to the number of the noun concerned, then we treat them as articles.In all the examples given above, the words in bold refer to the number of thenoun, hence they are articles. Sentence structureStructure of a simple sentenceWe may divide every simple sentence into two distinct parts – the grammar partand Meaning part. One makes mistakes only in the grammar part and seldom inthe meaning part; or, one cannot make any serious mistakes in the meaning partat all. The meaning part has nothing to do with the grammar part. We can take 10
  11. 11. the grammar part of one sentence and attach it to the meaning part of anothersentence and vice versa. Here are some examples:Mani could have beaten up/this poor street dog.Grammar part meaning partIsaac loves/the small children in his colony.We can swap the meaning part like this,Mani could have beaten up/ the small children in his colonyIsaac loves/this poor street dog.The new sentences sound meaningful all right.The grammar part is different for each tense. And the English language uses inall 18 tenses. Each of these tenses has its own grammar rules. Once you masterthese grammar rules, you could never make any mistake in composing anEnglish sentence.The grammar rules themselves are very simple indeed and very simple toremember too. The grammar part is divided into three sections – SUBJECT,AUXILIARY and VERB. In short, S-A-V.The meaning part consists of OBJECT AND COMPLEMENT or both in anycombination. We will indicate this part henceforth as, O/C.Thus the formula for a simple sentence will be like this,S – A – V – O/CDo note that an English sentence must have S-A-V or S-A.V. It need not haveO/C at all. But, without O/C you may only get a small meaning out of S-A-V. Itis the O/C parts that give the full meaning of a sentence. A simple sentence isone that is self-contained in meaning. In other words, there must be the O/Cparts in the sentence. Present TenseWhen to useWe use it to denote the existence of or give information about yourself, anotherperson or thing that we see before our eyes or hear about, in present time.We use it to convey information about the things and qualities we and the thirdpersons possess in present time 11
  12. 12. (This is an important tense because most of what we say about people, things orabout ourselves will always be in the present tense)S – A – V rulesSubject Auxiliary Verb formI AM AMHe, she, it IS ISWe, You, They ARE AREPossessive caseI, WE, YOU, THEY HAVE HAVEHE, SHE, IT HAS HAS Universal AuxiliariesAll persons am/is/are USED TO am/is/are act as verbs And will be to the left of the Auxiliary.Here are some examples using universal auxiliaries: 1. Many students in our class are used to regular homework. 2. All the young residents in my colony are not used to ragging. 3. Why are you used to white canvas shoes? 4. I am not used to a strict tuition teacher. 5. Your friends aren’t used to coffee, are they?USED TO – Universal auxiliaries have no meaning we use them for particularsituations. And they don’t belong to any particular tense either. Here, we usethis auxiliary to show a habit, which becomes pat of our routine activities.Have you noticed that although the words AM, IS, ARE are A.V s’. We haveused them in place of verbs, actually as regular verbs? And the verb so used isto the left of the auxiliary? Next, we use these verbs in the Question tag as wellinstead of an auxiliary? These are the peculiarities of USED TO and exceptionalcases as well. 12
  13. 13. Present Continuous TenseWhen to useWe use this tense to describe an action actually in progress or going on at thetime of talking. The person performing the action may be yourself or a secondor third person.RulesSubject Auxiliary VerbI AM Present ending in-ingHE, SHE, IT IS - do –WE, YOU, THEY ARE - do –Universal AuxiliariesAll persons can be Present verb ending in ING May be Could be Would be Should be Must be Shall be Will be Need be Ought to be Am/is/are going to beAm/is/are/can be/may be/ could be/Would be/should be/ must be/Shall be/will be/ought to be/ USED TO use only GETTINGGETTING/BECOMING and BECOMING and No other verb.Here are some examples: 1. Where are your parents living in the city? 2. He is giving me tuition daily in the evening time. 3. We are learning English there. 4. I am learning in Raman institute. 13
  14. 14. Examples using universal auxiliaries: 1. Some students may not be coming with us for the picnic. 2. We shall be getting used to him shortly, shan’t we? 3. Hostel students ought not to be loitering about even during holidays. 4. We should be moving out in the next five minutes. 5. Won’t you be helping me in my studies? 6. Some students could be watching the T.V. programme, couldn’t they? Simple Present TenseWe use the simple present tense, 1. To talk about the activities we do as a routine – daily, weekly, monthly or at some periodicity. 2. To give an order/command 3. To make a suggestion in Question form 4. To acknowledge an order/command or a suggestion.RulesSubject Auxiliary VerbI, WE, YOU, THEY DO Present formHE, SHE, IT DOES Present formUniversal AuxiliariesAll persons can Present form May Could Would Must Ought to Will Shall Dare NeedCan/may/would/should/must/ought to/ use only get, become or beWill/shall GET/BECOME/BE USED TO and no other verbDo/does/can /may/would/should/must/Ought to/ will/ shall KEEP Continuous Verb 14
  15. 15. Present Perfect TensePresent perfect tense belongs mostly to the past period and partly to the presenttime period. We use it for four different activities as described below: a) To indicate a completed activity in the immediate past, say a short while back b) To talk about an action that began sometime in the past and is continuing at the time of talking into the present time period. c) To talk about past-completed activity whose time is not known (The action probably finished some years back) d) To describe a completed activity in the past period when we think more about the effect of the activity at the time of talking (present time) than about the action itself.RulesSubject Auxiliary verb formI, WE, YOU, THEY HAVE P.P formHE, SHE, IT HASUniversal AuxiliariesAll persons MAY HAVE P.P. form Has/have/may have got/ Become/been USED TOUse only the P.P form of the verb shown in bold.Here are some example of verbs and their past participle formsPresent form Past form Past ParticipleLearn learned learntTalk talked talkedRest rested restedWash washed washedPunish punished punishedLock locked lockedImprove improved improvedLand landed landedDry dried dried 15
  16. 16. Here some examples of sentences: 1. Where have you worked before? 2. They have written one or two essays before. 3. We indeed have read this read already 4. I have met you already, haven’t I?Here are some examples with universal auxiliaries: 1. Don’t ever get used to drugs during your college life, ok? 2. Have you been used to late night during your school days? 3. Jonathan has got used to bad language, hasn’t he? 4. We may have contacted malaria during our overnight stay in the forest. Present Perfect Continuous TenseWe use the Present perfect continuous tense for three out of the four situationsas applicable to the present perfect tense. They are, a) For an activity that started in some past time period and is continuing into the present till the time of talking. b) For an activity completed in the immediate past time (same as in the present perfect case) but we want to give importance for the duration of that action than the time of its completion. c) For an activity already completed but as a statement of explanation of that action at the time of talking.Thus, this tense is interchangeable with the Present perfect tense.RulesSubject Auxiliary verb formI, WE, YOU, THEY HAVE BEEN Present in - INGHE, SHE, IT HAS BEENUniversal AuxiliariesAll persons May have been - do – Has/ have kept Has been/ have been getting/ Becoming USED TO use the verbs getting/ Becoming only 16
  17. 17. Here are some examples: 1. What have your friends been doing all these days? 2. She has been mending all these old clothes of hers. 3. Pushpa hasn’t been mending too many clothes. 4. Most of the students have been conducting themselves very well.Here are some example using universal auxiliaries: 1. Hasn’t your younger daughter kept pestering you for more and more sarees? 2. Indeed she has kept worrying me for more sarees 3. Many students from the final semester have kept asking for more study leave. 4. Some of us have been getting used to the new canteen contactor’s food for our lunch. Haven’t we? 5. You haven’t been getting used to late nights, have you? Past TenseWe use the past tense, a) To denote the existence of or give information about yourself, another person or what we saw before eyes in the past time. b) To give information about the things/qualities a person (s) possessed in the past time. (Possessive case)RulesSubject Auxiliary Verb formI, He, She, It was wasWe, You, They were werePossessive caseAll persons had hadUniversal AuxiliariesAll persons was/were USED TO was/were take the Place of verbs (A Noun must follow USED TO) 17
  18. 18. Here are some examples: 1. I was at my aunt’s house. 2. I was not in my new house yesterday morning 3. The civil engineers were not keen on a visit to the Zoo. 4. We were there for 3 hours.Here are some example using universal auxiliaries: 1. We were used to this college till last year. 2. Wasn’t this child used to this ayah for quite a few months? 3. Our children were never used to powder milk during their childhood. 4. Some of us weren’t used to harassment inside the class room.Note: USED TO must be followed always by a Noun (object). Past continuous TenseWe use the Past continuous tense a) To talk about an action or activities going on for a certain duration of time in the past and also finished in the past time. b) To refer to a point of time in that duration. This use will be only in complex sentences.Since this tense deals with a completed activity, it is interchangeable withsimple past. But, if we want to give importance for the duration of the action,we opt for the past continuous tense.RulesSubject Auxiliary verb formI, He, She, It was Present form ending in INGWe, You, They wereUniversal AuxiliariesAll Persons did KEEP continuous present verb Was/were getting/ Use only getting/ Becoming USED TO becoming and no other verb 18
  19. 19. Here are some examples: 1) Who was talking so loudly inside the auditorium? 2) Shobana was talking very loudly. 3) Thangaraj was standing in the sun for an hour. 4) They were simply wasting time in the basketball court.Here are some examples using Universal Auxiliaries: 1) You did keep worrying your parents for more and more pocket money during your college life, didn’t you? 2) My friend was getting used to the hostel life very slowly. 3) Didn’t you keep writing to your parents during your stay abroad? 4) I did keep writing to them every week. Simple Past TenseWe use simple past tense to talk about the action/ activities that started in thepast time and also finished in the past time.If you look back, we gave the same definition for the past continuous tense also.So, this tense is interchangeable with past continuous since both deal with acompleted activity. But, when we want to give importance for the duration ofthe action, we opt for the continuous tense.RuleSubject Auxiliary Verb formAll persons DID present formUniversal AuxiliariesAll persons could Would Did USE TOHere are some examples: 1. She did leave college at 4 p.m. 2. He did drop out of our college in April last year 3. They did pose some difficult questions. 4. The smart students did didn’t pose many question. 19
  20. 20. Examples with would and could: 1. Why didn’t you attend the net practice yesterday? 2. I could hear some noise all night. It was very faint. 3. I couldn’t do so yesterday for some reasons. 4. My small brother would have his own way always, wouldn’t he?Sentence with “Did Use” 1. I did use to live there till last year. 2. When did you use to live in London? 3. Did you use to lend your class notes to Krishnan regularly? 4. You used to seek my help for every subject last year, didn’t you? Past Perfect TenseWe use the past perfect tense 1) For an action that started and finished in the past period. (Thus, this tense is interchangeable with the simple past) 2) If two actions took place in the past, we use the past perfect for the first action and simple past for the second 3) When we refer to an action of the past as a follow up matter. 4) In reported speeches, i.e. when we describe what someone had said sometime in the past. (This use also comes in complex sentence)RuleSubject Auxiliary Verb formAll persons had P.P formUniversal AuxiliaryAll persons had become/got/been use only the P.P USED TO verbs shown in bold.Here are some examples with HAD: 1. When had Sasikaran obtained his science degree? 2. Had Reshmi continued her studies for 2 more years? 3. I had met him once before 4. You had already abandoned this idea, hadn’t you? 20
  21. 21. Here are some examples with Universal auxiliaries: 1. Hadn’t your children got used to your new house? 2. My classmates had been used to this location already as a picnic site 3. When had you become used to your new motorbike? 4. I hadn’t been used to it as yet. Past Perfect Continuous TenseWe use the past perfect continuous tense for the same 4 situations as given forthe past perfect tense. When we want to give importance for the duration of theaction concerned we choose the continuous tense. Thus. The continuous tense isinterchangeable with the past perfect tense.RuleSubject Auxiliary verb formAll persons Had Been Present in INGUniversal AuxiliariesAll persons had kept - do – Had been getting/ use only the verbs Becoming USED TO shown in bold.Here are some examples: 1. What had our principal been planning about the sports programme? 2. He had been planning it on a grand scale. 3. The children had been driving the parents crazy actually. 4. He hadn’t been distributing these notices to all studentsWith Universal Auxiliaries: 1. Your wards had kept guessing about their future, hadn’t they? 2. They had kept driving you mad surely during holidays. 3. Had you been getting used to the rowdy students in this school? 4. Some of us hadn’t been becoming used to their hostile attitude. 21
  22. 22. Future TenseWe use future tense to talk about an action we propose to do in some futuretime. The ‘action’ is only in your mind as an intention. This action will takeshape only at a later time. Thus, in a future tense sentence, we cannot see anyaction whatever though it uses auxiliaries and verbs separately.We make a future tense statement only in present time.RulesSubject Auxiliary Verb formAll persons will, shall Present formUniversal AuxiliariesAll persons could present form Would Might Will/shall/might/would/could Use only get/ GET/BECOME/BE USED TO become/be as verbs.I am going to Present formWe, You, They are going toHe, she, it is going to7 Auxiliaries/ Auxiliary sets are used in this tense.Here are some examples: 1. I will go by walk to college tomorrow. 2. I shall stay at home 3. He shall go with you to the play ground 4. Raphel shan’t go with you to the play groundHere are some examples using Universal Auxiliaries: 1. When could you meet me in my house? 2. I could meet you any time before your dinner time , sir. 3. I could come on time, sir. 4. I shall be used to tea very shortly. 22
  23. 23. Future Continuous TenseWe use this for an action we propose to do sometime in the future. Thisdefinition is the same as for the ‘Future Tense’. Thus, the continuous tense isinterchangeable with the future tense. But when we want to give importance forthe duration of the intended action we choose the continuous tense in preferenceto the Future tense.RulesSubject Auxiliary verb formAll Persons Will be Present form + ING Shall beUniversal AuxiliariesAll Persons could be Present form + ING would be Might be Shall/will/could/would/ might KEEP Will be/shall be/could be/ Would be/ might be getting/ Becoming USED TO use only the verbs Getting and BecomingThis tense uses 7 Auxiliary sets.Be is an Auxiliary here. Do recall that BE is a 3-in-1 word. We have used it as averb already.Here are some examples: 1. She will be seeing you at 3 p.m. 2. Shall we be meeting our parents this Saturday? 3. We shall be meeting them certainly this Saturday 4. I will be changing trains at Delhi, won’t you?Sentences with Universal auxiliaries: 1. When might you be taking leave for your sister’s wedding? 23
  24. 24. 2. I could be taking part in it. 3. You won’t be becoming used to modern dancing, will you? 4. You could be getting used to a new coach, couldn’t you? Future Perfect TenseWe use the future perfect tense to indicate the completion/termination of anactivity by a specified time in the future time period. (What about the actionitself? It could be in progress at the time of talking and positively continuinginto the future period or the activity could start at some time in the future periodbut well before the completion time. Thus, this tense could link up all the threetime periods.)If the time of termination of the activity is not shown, it will not be a futureperfect tense at all but some other.RulesSubject Auxiliary Verb formAll persons will have P.P form Shall haveUniversal AuxiliaryAll persons will/shall have got/ use only the P.P Become/been USED TO verbs shown in bold.Here are some examples: 1. When will you have obtained your science degree? 2. I will have obtained my degree in the year 2005 3. We shall have reached Frankfurt positively by 6 p.m. local time. 4. He will have obtained it by May next year.Here are some examples with USED TO: 1. How will you have become used to a new country within 2 days? 2. Will you have got used to your lady lecturer by next week? 3. My baby sometimes will cry continuously for some 10 minutes before I fetch the milk for her. (A complex sentence) 4. When will you invite me for a game of bridge in your house? 24
  25. 25. Future Perfect Continuous TenseWe us the future perfect continuous tense to indicate an activity as being inprogress over a period of time and will end by a particular time in the futuretime period.Thus, for the concerned situation we may use either the future perfect or futureperfect continuous tense but the latter will give prominence for the duration ofthe activity.RulesSubject Auxiliary Verb formAll persons will have been Present form + ING Shall have beenUniversal AuxiliariesAll persons will/shall have KEPT Present form + ING Will/shall have been getting/ Use only the verbs Becoming USED TO shown in Bold.Here are some examples: 1. He will have been living in the official residence for 4 years. 2. They will have been fighting their property case for 3 years. 3. Will these three sisters have been fighting their property case for 3 years by next February? 4. Peter will have been changing room three times by next year, won’t he?Here are some examples with universal auxiliaries: 1. We shall have kept visiting him till the end of this college studies. 2. You shall have been getting used to this tennis court by end of next month. 3. Will you have been becoming used to your new moped by next week? 4. They would/might be used to jogging in this college. Exercises for GrammarFill in the blanks with the appropriate preposition: 1. Isn’t your small child hiding ……………………….. the door? 25
  26. 26. 2. My deskmate quarreled …………… me ………….. a small point. 3. We should be always loyal ……….. our country. 4. A circle may not be equivalent ……… a rectangle; it all depends ……the area. 5. May I go out ………. My raincoat since the rain has stopped.Fill in the Blanks with the suitable simple conjunctions: 1. I came running ………………. I couldn’t catch the last city bus for Tambaram. 2. ……………….. you work hard, you will not succeed in life. 3. Take a lamp with you ………….. it is dark outside. 4. Some students had already left ……………….. we arrived at the gate. 5. I am positive ……………. he said so.Fill up the blanks with a suitable Article: 1. Copper is…………useful metal. 2. He is not…………honorable man 3. You are………..fool to say that. 4. French is………..easy language. 5. Sanskrit is………difficult language. 6. He returned after……..hour. 7. …………reindeer is a native of Norway. 8. Do you see………blue sky? 9. Benares is……….holy city. 10.John got………best present.Fill up the blank with a suitable Auxiliary Verb: 1. ………………… I your brother’s friend? 2. …………….we good neighbours? 3. We ……………no friends in this area. We………….. a lot of friends in our own colony. 4. These street children ……………….. any decent dress at all. 5. My friend …………… not all that clever. 6. How many night dresses …………….. there in the cupboard? 7. Where ………………your shoulder bag? 8. Your college ………..very big. 9. …………….you any bread for sale now? 10. We…………..used to heavy rains in our city during summer months. 26
  27. 27. Correct the mistake in the following statements: 1. This girl aren’t in her room now. 2. Susan have only two sisters. 3. Where is all your classmates? 4. They aren’t a good volley ball players 5. Women and children is not welcome in this meeting. 6. Clever children, not necessarily, has clever parents. 7. I am not revise my lessons now 8. I am feel like a little frog from this morning 9. Mohanrao isn’t a good monitor, are he? 10.I am sitting here till the professor’s arrival. Is you satisfied? 11.Mohan do not talk to you 12.The sun do rise in the east. 13.Meena and Mumtaz does love us very much. 14.How were the breakfast? 15.Johnny and I was good friends. 16.Whose bicycle were this? 17.The football coach was explain the tactics very well. 18.Wasn’t it rain very heavily last night? 19.Where did the police caught up with the fleeing thieves? 20.You forget his name, didn’t you? 21.When did your small brother joined this school? 22.All my classmates will never oppose this idea, won’t he? 23.Will you go to the toilet straightway? 24.They shan’t traveling together on the same train 25.I shan’t walking on the sand.Fill up the blanks with a suitable word: 1. …………..all college students above the age of 17? 2. Suresh Koshi……………attending hockey coaching class these days. 3. Pratap’s sister……………quite tall, isn’t she? 4. …………not the carpenter repariring the chairs now? 5. What………you purchasing from this shop? 6. Meenakshi and Kalyani…………..fighting for 10 minutes yesterday. 7. I……concentrating on something. 8. Our guests………………..arrived by 10 p.m. tonight. 9. Some of my classmates…………….going for a long car drive next week 10.Two and Five…………….make Eight. 27

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