LEAKAGE= C NON-RENEWABLES: e.g. Fossil energyAbundant and should berecycled Can be recycled but in short supplye.g. Nitrogen e.g. Phosphorus N P
MONEY LEAKS OUT TOO $$ $ Fossil fuel import: 13,000,000 m3 Costs: climate changeNitrogen import 160 000 tonCosts: water purification and Import of Phosphorus 18,400 ton $Baltic sea clean-up Costs: water purification and Baltic sea clean-up N P$Swedish agricultural land had an annual net import of about 10,600 tonnes of phosphorus corresponding to 3.2 kg phosphorous per hectare Linderholm, Kersti and Mattsson, Jan Erik (2013). Analys av fosforflöden i Sverige. Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet: rapportserie ; 2013:5 $
P&N: per kilo20kr import*200kr water works**Baltic Sea clean-up 3200 kr Sources*IVL **Sarah Säll, doktorand i miljöekonomi vid SLU
Stopping the leakage of money and resources from the nationand the national economy, is good business and in effect grows the economy as the money recirculates
CONTROL ENGINEERINGthe engineering discipline that designssystems to produce desired behaviors.Typical for control engineeredenvironments:• sensors measure the behaviour of theobject being controlled• feedback to• actuators that can make correctionstoward desired performance.
SYSTEM: The commericial and social system’s use of polluting substancesBEHAVIOUR DESIRED: That market forces act to transition technical infrastructure, management and praxis so emissions reach a reasonable, acceptable level. SENSORS: Economic indicators of sales of clean tech, sales of pollutant-bearing substances, financial indicators of e.g. futures contracts and technilca indicators on emissions. FEEDBACK: Figures are collated and fed to expert committee. ACTUATORS: The regular import/extraction fee that is adjusted to ensure behaviour of system.
Flexible emission control fees are tariffs imposed by authoritieson the import or extraction of specific substances.The purpose of the mechanism is to control the rate of phaseout to keep both socio-economic and ecological stress to theminimum necessary.The level of fee imposed is flexible, i.e. adjusted regularly,based on information from a monitoring function ofmarket behavior including the rate of abatement compared tophase-out goals and other factors.The mechanism includes economic feedback, returning feescollected to the economy via dividends or other routes.The adjustments, together with the dividend comprisea control mechanism that ensures the transition to aneconomic and safe use of the substance in the societal system.
FLEXIBLE EMISSION FEES MEASURE purchase Technology Consumers Service production Clean Tech providersFEEDBACK substance Dividend CORRECT- IONS Rate FINANCE Authority sets limits Import/production Futures markets and phase out rates Fee actors Investors etc MEASURE FEEDBACK MEASURE
changes too slow:raise the fee. too fast: lower it.
THE PHOSMARK PROJECT• Gotland as Sweden inminiature• Investigates the circularP and N economy• Conference 2015
Maybe some government support will be needed in the beginning of introduction of dynamic controlThe Swedish Sustainable Economy Foundation – tssef.se