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  1. 1. Application of a Systemic Lessons Learned Knowledge model for organisational learning through projects 1 Stephen Duffield Confirmed PhD Candidate USQ @invictaprojects #SYLLK Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed by Stephen Duffield in this presentation are his alone, and do not reflect the views, opinions and position of any organisation with which Stephen may be otherwise affiliated.
  2. 2. @invictaprojects #SYLLK 2
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  4. 4. PM lessons learned journey 4 (ISSEC August 2011 John Andrews) Boeing LLdb review…2003 (not effective)…2007 (not effective), Boeing 2010 (a different approach - look at other mechanisms - repeat findings – culture) Master of Project Management - Research Risk Management @invictaprojects #SYLLK
  5. 5. 80% of 74 attempt LL 60% are dissatisfied LL fails to deliver 62% of 522 have a LL process Only 11.7 % used it Why? 5@invictaprojects #SYLLK
  6. 6. @invictaprojects #SYLLK 6 The ‘Swiss Cheese’ model of defences Source: Reason, J., 1990. Human error. Cambridge University Press Reason, J., 1997. Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Ashgate The term ‘Swiss cheese’ was labelled by Dr Rob Lee, then the Director of Bureau of Air Safety Investigation, Canberra (Reason, J., 2013. A Life in Error. Ashgate.)
  7. 7. Source: < 7@invictaprojects #SYLLK The Deepwater Horizon Accident – Lessons for NASA … lessons from this tragedy are potent reminders of the pitfalls that can plague complex programs and projects in any industry…even those with long track records of success. …government oversight, disregard for data, testing, changes to processes and procedures, safety culture, communications and lessons learned
  8. 8. @invictaprojects #SYLLK 8 Reason’s Swiss cheese model as a concept and structure to enhance learning … HRO’s use the Swiss cheese model to provide a basis for trend analysis and learning from incidents (Hayes 2009). Safety culture Informed culture Reporting culture Just culture Flexible culture Learning culture Some organisations already enhance their capacity to adapt and learn …
  9. 9. 500+ Reason (1990, 1997) O’Dell et al. (1998) Busby (1999) Williams (1999, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2012) Keegan and Turner (2001) Disterer (2002) Von Zedtwitz (2002) Bresnen et al. (2003) Fernie et al. (2003) Fong (2003) Harkema (2003) Liebowitz and Megbolugbe (2003) Schindler and Eppler (2003) Strang (2003) Maqsood et al. (2004) Liebowitz (2005) Milton (2005, 2010) Atkinson et al. (2006) Maqsood (2006) Boh (2007) Eskerod and Skriver (2007) Sense (2007) Ajmal and Koskinen (2008) Anbari et al. (2008) Duhon and Elias (2008) Julian (2008) Hanisc et al. (2009) Whitty (2009, 2012) Ajmal et al. (2009, 2010) Krammer (2010) Bakker et al. (2011) Gasik (2011) Lindner and Wald (2011) O’Dell and Hubert (2011) Thomas (2012) Pemsel and Wiewiora (2013) Knowledge Lessons learned Organisational learning Organisational knowledge People (culture, social) Lesson learned process Technology and Infrastructure Networks (complex adaptive systems) Literature 9@invictaprojects #SYLLK
  10. 10. LL models...the journey Application Dissemination Culture (justculture) Projectn (LessonLearned) OrganisationKnowledge Projectn (LessonIdentified) 10@invictaprojects #SYLLK
  11. 11. Syllk model 11@invictaprojects #SYLLK
  12. 12. Research Methodology 12@invictaprojects #SYLLK Action Research Problem Solving Interest Research Interest Source: Adapted from Zubert-Skerritt in Altrichter et al.(2002), McKay and Marshall (2001), McNiff and Whitehead (2002)
  13. 13. Focus Groups Facilitators Barriers Right skilled people Takes too much time; time pressures Right people to hand Memories fade Training (effective) Lessons wont apply to my project Learning from experience De-motivated (failures, challenges, difficulties and success) Lets learn from our failure – witch hunt... Staff with a high level of knowledge / qualifications People learn differently Willingness/passion to share knowledge People do not learn and continue to make the same mistakes Understand that people learn differently Difficult to teach practitioners in other parts of the organisation (Training sessions; Technical notes; Technical forums) Different levels of knowledge and understanding Education, training and staff development practices Technical arrogance (credibility) Reflection Protecting ones sphere of knowledge Poor training practices Facilitators Barriers Tone at the top Anonymous reports Routine practices Blame Supportive practices / supporting culture Don't have time Help needed (help me to help you) Rapid change of staff – redeployment Just Culture (Safety culture, learning culture, reporting culture) Internal politics (credibility) Group (work) support in development of learning's To use lessons would reflect badly on my reputation Understand that knowledge is power but even more so when it is shared Lack of incentives, buy-in Develop individual knowledge sharing plans Knowledge is power Networking encouraged and supported Shoot the messenger Action on positive feedback Communication gap / miss-understandings Positive leadership Delivery culture not learning culture Respect Complex organisations; Operational silos No senior sponsorship Anxiety about changes Poor leadership practices Lack of adaptability or resilience WIIFM (What is in it for me) Fast moving workforce Social behaviours Old way the only way Personal goals different to organisational goals Low performance results focus culture Financial pressures Facilitators Barriers Custom built teams Same old team Operate as a team Not invented here Custom build the approach (Not one size fits all) Unwillingness to share /less valuable Keep trying different approaches Don't want to appear vulnerable and stupid by admitting mistakes Do not personalise Teams wont share mistakes and dirty laundry - reputation Interact with as many people as possible to capture information Resistance to change (must have credibility) Not my problem Teamwork approach Too stubborn Honesty and Integrity Cynical Provide time for unstructured interaction Politics Generally want to improve Don't understand what it is like to work in other parts of the organisation Good enterprise social business Poor communication - anti social behaviour - social interactions Productive culture Personality traits Blame environment Competitive environment Perceived credibility and approachability Social polices Shame personally exposed Lack of trust Poor coordination Facilitators Barriers Intranets Hard to find / locate lessons e-libraries No way to classify lesson for easy retrieval Wikis Not trained in use of tools Multiple channels of information in use Poor (lack of) ICT systems and processes Distribution of links to all targeted stakeholders Done in inconsistent ways Ease of access through different IT solutions Too many initiatives Systems respected and need to be part of your everyday job Restrictive audience Poor Search facility SharePoint 2010 governance and funding issues Not everyone uses social media Lack of money / funding / expensive Too complex Set and forget systems Too many systems Systems are not part of your every day job Inappropriate focus on technology Not being able to find what you need when you need it Collection of data just for the sake of it Too structured Facilitators Barriers Debriefing Willingness to conduct the process Reviews Tick the box process / compliance Brain Storming Procedures not being followed, don't exist, are not updated Case Studies / Tell a story / Keep it 2 pages - simple Post-Implementation reviews not done Dissemination (Training, Education) Takes too much time Mentoring Lack of time to mentor Staff Transfer Lack of enforcement Functional management enforcement No metrics Alignment to Risk Management Lack of formalising the process and incorporating new work Senior management commitment Lack of consistency in following the process Credibility - endorsement of systems in place - Imprimatur WIIFM (What is in it for me) Simplification Lack of understanding and commitment Capability in methodology Complacency Contextualised Don't bother not my problem Language (taxonomy) Don't exist / fragmented Lack of flexibility in approach (no complex adaption) Read the process but don't understand the process Process/manuals are owned by another organisation Processes don't match with IT systems Facilitators Barriers Physical space Legal constraints Training facilities Governance Senior management commitment Poor facilitation Good user interface/useability/search Time poor Lack of financial/funding support Language (taxonomy) / poor search Don't have access to emerging technology Remote sites have limited infrastructure (Don't assume everyone has what you may have) Systems-Process Systems-Infrastructure Positive openings (facilitators) and negative impediments (barriers) within each lessons learned element/variable: People-Social People-Learning People-Culture Systems-Technology One Project Manager stated that “we were getting lots of push from our KM team to get lessons learned going and get it implemented to meet deliverables, had we had the model we would have been able to present to the Directors to show them what needs to be invested in to do it properly, as it is not just about doing a process.” How can the Syllk model help? “helps with the change management process” “can represent knowledge storage and found some alignment with a complex organisational brain” “hard to get a lesson learned through, so it is not just about having a database, it is not just about one thing it is about a series of things ... I like the way it kind of stacks it up and shows it working” BarriersFacilitators 13@invictaprojects #SYLLK
  14. 14. Cycle 1 IKnow(Branch) Status Cycle 2 (sub-Branch)CK Status Cycle 3 (sub-Branch)CK Status Best Practice Directory PI Best Practice Directory [Capital Infrastructure Requirements] I Best Practice Directory [Capital Infrastructure Requirements] I Lessons Learned PI Lessons Learned [Project Reviews, Building Performance Evaluations] I Lessons Learned [Project Reviews, Building Performance Evaluations] I Story telling TI Stories [Storytelling part of (sub-Branch)CK-CoP] PI Stories [Storytelling part of (sub-Branch)CK-CoP, lunch box talks] I Questions and Answers NI Questions and Answers [Social Media] TI Questions and Answers [Social Media] PI Communities of Practice I Communities of Practice I Communities of Practice [(sub-Branch)CK CoP, Interface meetings] I Special Interest Groups TI (sub- Branch)CK [Special Interest Groups/Social Media sub-groups] TI (sub-Branch)CK [Special Interest Groups/Social Media sub-groups] PI Portal TI Portal [Social Media - (sub-Branch)CK] TI Portal [Social Media [Yammer] - (sub-Branch)CK] PI Yellow Pages NI (sub-Branch)CK Connect [Social Media] TI (sub-Branch)CK Connect [Social Media [Yammer]] PI Knowledge Audit TI (sub-Branch)CK Knowledge Audit PI E-learning NI Mentoring / buddying NI Performance appraisals TI Implemented I Part implemented PI Tried to implement TI No implementation NI @invictaprojects #SYLLK 14 Research Projects Project A Project B Project C Best Practice Directory Lessons Learned Story telling Story telling Questions and Answers Communities of Practice Communities of Practice Special Interest Groups (Special Interest Groups) Portal Portal Portal Knowledge Audit Yellow Pages E-learning Mentoring / buddying Performance appraisals
  15. 15. @invictaprojects #SYLLK 15 Syllk elements Facilitators Barriers People Learning Listening skills Comfortable and personal medium Motivational stories, Identify goals, goals driven Open to learning Any story is a good story Growing organisation learns Emotional moment Aha moment Easy to remember Training different needs for different people Get to the emotional connection Adapt stories for Department Not in general / usual format Too outside the box Can’t find the story link to add the value, intent, and change (Can’t find the Aha) They want to know but won’t ask Fear (unknown and being wrong) Shared understanding in the team about purpose and focus on stories Sick of learning and changing Agenda People Culture Growing organisation learns Developing organisation (supportive, drive and resourcing) Strong leadership Champions of change The need to change to survive Comfortable with problem issues / stories (positive and negative stories) Public Service values Division Commitment, values and behaviours Short term culture 1-5 years Challenging external and internal environments We always do it this way UGRs (unwritten ground rules) Resistance to change; losing people / skills / knowledge, Change Management ineffective Long term culture (will the change last) Fear of being wrong, Lack of risk taking Most staff will be in the middle (safe) Competing work load / no time / busy doing job Sanitised stories / risk / newspaper test / Agenda’s / Senior Management test Only big outcome stories valued, perfect stories Staff have no connection head office Systems Technology Intranet Email, newsletters on line End to end digital story recording + editing equipment that can be used by team and others – democratic story gathering (use of iPhone / iPad technology) Real time information sharing Visual stories Mobile technology Technology supporting disabilities Access to communications team Intranet – Approval to change edit / publishing process Latest technology (i.e. windows etc) Many different versions of systems Technology doesn’t fit stories and audience e.g. written stories, digital etc Not all have access Lack of training Not all have access to Intranet etc, Bandwidth Systems Infrastructure New ICT technologies Open minds Assistance from experts (e.g. communications team) Story telling courses, toolbox Resources (large division/department) Environment of change Competing work load Access to communications team ICT resourcing / priority Silos of operations Organisation structure Workloads (Day to day, lack of resources, no help)
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  19. 19. 19@invictaprojects #SYLLK Duffield, S., Whitty, S.J., 2015. Developing a systemic lessons learned knowledge model for organisational learning through projects. International journal of project management, 33, 311-324. Duffield, Stephen and Whitty, Jonathan (2012) A systemic lessons learned and captured knowledge (SLLCK) model for project organizations. In: 9th Annual Project Management Australia Conference (PMOz 2012), 15-16 Aug 2012, Melbourne, Australia doi:10.1016/j.ijproman.2014.07.004 blog/?page_id=967 blog/?page_id=447
  20. 20. Contact Stephen for further information: Stephen Duffield MPM CPPD @invictaprojects Contact Jon for further information: Dr S. Jonathan Whitty BEng(Hons) PhD Senior Lecturer in Project Management Program Coordinator - Master of Project Management @jon_whitty 20@invictaprojects #SYLLK
  21. 21. @invictaprojects #SYLLK 21 A World Café and Barriers to KM Day 2 @ 2:15pm
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