PM L e sson s L earned ...                                Stephen Duffield                                           PhD C...
PM lessons learned journey                                                                                                ...
62% of 522 have a LL process                                 Only 11.7 % used it Why?                                     ...
link   RandLhttp://www.ombudsman.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/Investigation_into_ICT_enabled_projects_Nov_2011.pdf      ...
<http://www.slideshare.net/duckcy04/deep-water-horizon-accident-investigation-lessons-learned              The ‘Swiss Chee...
Challenges...On Lessons Learned What we learn from lessons learned is that we dont learn from lessons learned. T. Block   ...
500+Literature                                                                                                            ...
Research Methodology          Positive openings (facilitators) and negative impediments (barriers) within each lessons lea...
LL models...the journey                                               Project n                                           ...
Systemic lessons learned and captured knowledge                                                     (SLLCK) model         ...
Focus Groups                                                                                Positive openings (facilitator...
Discussion...organisational learning is a complexprocess and it is clear that organisationsneed to enable the facilitators...
Refined SLLCK model                                                                                                       ...
Future ResearchCase studies and action research...More consideration should be given to thealignment, interaction and comp...
Future Research cont.PM World Today (August 2011) editorial post on ‘Lessons Learned but Knowledge Lost’.                 ...
ConclusionThe study suggests that by reconceptualisinglessons learned, the SLLCK model caninfluence the dissemination and ...
Contact Stephen for further information:http://www.pmlessonslearned.infostephen@pmlessonslearned.info  #pmoz @invictaproje...
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Presentation PMOz2012 A systemic lessons learned and captured knowledge (SLLCK) model for project organizations.

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A significant challenge for government and business project organisations is to ensure that lessons are learned and that mistakes of the past are not repeated. Both the knowledge and project management literature suggests that the lessons learned process in practice rarely happens, and when it does it fails to deliver the intended results. This paper proposes a conceptual systemic project management lessons learned and captured knowledge model derived from the Swiss cheese model for safety and systemic failures, where captured knowledge from lesson learned is distributed and applied across a network of variables such as individual learning, culture, social, technology, process and infrastructure.

Keywords: Project Knowledge Management, Lessons Learned, Learning, Culture

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Presentation PMOz2012 A systemic lessons learned and captured knowledge (SLLCK) model for project organizations.

  1. 1. PM L e sson s L earned ... Stephen Duffield PhD Candidate USQHow do we learn lessons so we dont repeat the mistakes of the past? Literature suggests that the lessons learned process in practice rarely happens... and when it does it fails to deliver the intended results.Master of Project Management - Research Project(Supervisor: Dr Jon Whitty USQ) Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed by Stephen Duffield in this presentation are his alone, and donot reflect the views, opinions and position of any organisation with which Stephen may be otherwise affiliated. 1
  2. 2. PM lessons learned journey (ISSEC August 2011 John Andrews)Boeing LLdb review…2003 (not effective)…2007 (not effective), Boeing 2010 (a different approach - look at other mechanisms - repeat findings – culture) Risk Management Master of Project Management - Research 2
  3. 3. 62% of 522 have a LL process Only 11.7 % used it Why? LL fails to deliver80% of 74 attempt LL60% are dissatisfied http://astore.amazon.com/pmlesleablo-20 3
  4. 4. link RandLhttp://www.ombudsman.vic.gov.au/resources/documents/Investigation_into_ICT_enabled_projects_Nov_2011.pdf Mars Polar Lander 4
  5. 5. <http://www.slideshare.net/duckcy04/deep-water-horizon-accident-investigation-lessons-learned The ‘Swiss Cheese’ model of defences Source: Reason (1997)The Deepwater Horizon Accident – Lessons for NASA…lessons from this tragedy are potent reminders of the pitfallsthat can plague complex programs and projects in anyindustry…even those with long track records of success.…government oversight, disregard for data, testing, changesto processes and procedures, safety culture, communicationsand lessons learnedhttp://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/knowledge/publications/deepwater_horizon.html 5
  6. 6. Challenges...On Lessons Learned What we learn from lessons learned is that we dont learn from lessons learned. T. Block Until we manage to do a bit more learning from our recorded lessons we should expect to see the usual suspects for some time yet - as the saying goes, those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it. Adrian http://www.apm.org.uk/content/lessons-learned 21 May 2010 ...it would be exciting to get some real example containing important “know-how” (more complex than “textbook examples”) – although I know how difficult to “give away” really important PM experience Learn your Lessons http://www.projectsatwork.com/content/Articles/273870.cfm 29 June 2012 ...I think weve already reached the turn in the road where this can all become very difficult, specifically in terms of how an organisations culture & infrastructures support projects in a wider sense. Fisher - LinkedIn Feb 2012 - Lessons learned debate turns to competitive advantage. Have your say. ...capturing lessons is the tip of the iceberg in terms of effort required to translate these into competitive advantage as a result of the organisation doing something different. ... A big challenge is helping individuals and teams learn from the experiences of others. Adrian - LinkedIn Feb 2012 - Lessons learned debate turns to competitive advantage. Have your say. On Knowledge Management If only HP knew what HP knows, we would be three times more productive. Lew Platt (Hewlett Packard CEO 1992-1999, d. 2005) 6
  7. 7. 500+Literature Reason (1997) O’Dell et al. (1998) Busby (1999) Williams (1999, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2012) Keegan and Turner (2001) Disterer (2002) Von Zedtwitz (2002) Bresnen et al. (2003) Fernie et al. (2003) Fong (2003) Harkema (2003) Liebowitz and Megbolugbe (2003) Schindler and Eppler (2003) Strang (2003) Maqsood et al. (2004) Liebowitz (2005) Milton (2005, 2010) Atkinson et al. (2006) Maqsood (2006) Boh (2007) Eskerod and Skriver (2007) Sense (2007) Ajmal and Koskinen (2008) Anbari et al. (2008) Duhon and Elias (2008) Julian (2008) Hanisc et al. (2009)Lessons learned Whitty (2009)Knowledge Ajmal et al. (2010) Krammer (2010)Networks (complexity) Bakker et al. (2011)People (culture, social) Duffield SM, Whitty S J (forthcoming 2012). A systemic lessons learned and captured Gasik (2011)Lesson learned process knowledge (SLLCK) model for project organizations. In: Proceedings of the Annual Project Management Australia Conference Incorporating the PMI Australia National Conference Lindner and Wald (2011)Technology and Infrastructure (PMOz), Melbourne, Australia, 15-16 August 2012. O’Dell and Hubert (2011) 7 Thomas (2012)
  8. 8. Research Methodology Positive openings (facilitators) and negative impediments (barriers) within each lessons learned element/variable: People-Learning Facilitators Barriers Right skilled people Takes too much time; time pressures Right people to hand Memories fade Training (effective) Lessons wont apply to my project Learning from experience De-motivated (failures, challenges, difficulties and success) Lets learn from our failure – witch hunt... Staff with a high level of knowledge / qualifications People learn differently Willingness/passion to share knowledge People do not learn and continue to make the same mistakes Understand that people learn differently Difficult to teach practitioners in other parts of the organisation (Training sessions; Technical notes; Technical forums) Different levels of knowledge and understanding Education, training and staff development practices Technical arrogance (credibility) Reflection Protecting ones sphere of knowledge Poor training practices People-Culture Facilitators Barriers Tone at the top Anonymous reports Routine practices Blame Supportive practices / supporting culture Dont have time Help needed (help me to help you) Rapid change of staff – redeployment Just Culture (Safety culture, learning culture, reporting culture) Internal politics (credibility) Group (work) support in development of learnings To use lessons would reflect badly on my reputation Understand that knowledge is power but even more so when it is shared Lack of incentives, buy-in Develop individual knowledge sharing plans Knowledge is power Networking encouraged and supported Shoot the messenger Action on positive feedback Communication gap / miss-understandings Positive leadership Delivery culture not learning culture Respect Complex organisations; Operational silos No senior sponsorship Anxiety about changes Poor leadership practices Lack of adaptability or resilience WIIFM (What is in it for me) Fast moving workforce Social behaviours Old way the only way Personal goals different to organisational goals Low performance results focus culture Financial pressures People-Social Facilitators Barriers Custom built teams Same old team Operate as a team Not invented here Custom build the approach (Not one size fits all) Unwillingness to share /less valuable Keep trying different approaches Dont want to appear vulnerable and stupid by admitting mistakes Do not personalise Teams wont share mistakes and dirty laundry - reputation Interact with as many people as possible to capture information Resistance to change (must have credibility) Not my problem Teamwork approach Too stubborn Honesty and Integrity Cynical Provide time for unstructured interaction Politics Generally want to improve Dont understand what it is like to work in other parts of the organisation Good enterprise social business Poor communication - anti social behaviour - social interactions Productive culture Personality traits Blame environment Competitive environment Perceived credibility and approachability Social polices Shame personally exposed Lack of trust Poor coordination Systems-Technology Facilitators Barriers Intranets Hard to find / locate lessons e-libraries No way to classify lesson for easy retrieval Wikis Not trained in use of tools Multiple channels of information in use Poor (lack of) ICT systems and processes Distribution of links to all targeted stakeholders Done in inconsistent ways Ease of access through different IT solutions Too many initiatives Systems respected and need to be part of your everyday job Restrictive audience Poor Search facility SharePoint 2010 governance and funding issues Not everyone uses social media Lack of money / funding / expensive Too complex Set and forget systems Too many systems Systems are not part of your every day job Inappropriate focus on technology Not being able to find what you need when you need it Collection of data just for the sake of it Too structured Systems-Process Facilitators Barriers Debriefing Willingness to conduct the process Reviews Tick the box process / compliance Brain Storming Procedures not being followed, dont exist, are not updated Case Studies / Tell a story / Keep it 2 pages - simple Post-Implementation reviews not done Dissemination (Training, Education) Takes too much time Mentoring Lack of time to mentor Staff Transfer Lack of enforcement Functional management enforcement No metrics Alignment to Risk Management Lack of formalising the process and incorporating new work Senior management commitment Lack of consistency in following the process Credibility - endorsement of systems in place - Imprimatur WIIFM (What is in it for me) Simplification Lack of understanding and commitment Capability in methodology Complacency Contextualised Dont bother not my problem Language (taxonomy) Dont exist / fragmented Lack of flexibility in approach (no complex adaption) Read the process but dont understand the process Process/manuals are owned by another organisation Processes dont match with IT systems Systems-Infrastructure Facilitators Barriers Physical space Legal constraints Training facilities Governance Senior management commitment Poor facilitation Good user interface/useability/search Time poor Lack of financial/funding support Language (taxonomy) / poor search Dont have access to emerging technology Remote sites have limited infrastructure (Dont assume everyone has what you may have) 8
  9. 9. LL models...the journey Project n (Lesson Learned) Application Organisation Knowledge Dissemination Culture (just culture) Project n (Lesson Identified) 9
  10. 10. Systemic lessons learned and captured knowledge (SLLCK) model Dissemination of Lessons Learned People SystemsProject n Organisation Infrastructure Application of Technology Lessons Learned Learning Process Culture Social Duffield SM, Whitty S J (forthcoming 2012). A systemic lessons learned and captured knowledge (SLLCK) model for project organizations. In: Proceedings of the Annual Project Management Australia Conference Incorporating the PMI Australia National Conference (PMOz), Melbourne, Australia, 15-16 August 2012. 10
  11. 11. Focus Groups Positive openings (facilitators) and negative impediments (barriers) within each lessons learned element/variable: People-Learning Facilitators Barriers Right skilled people Takes too much time; time pressures Right people to hand Memories fade Training (effective) Lessons wont apply to my project Learning from experience De-motivated (failures, challenges, difficulties and success) Lets learn from our failure – witch hunt... Staff with a high level of knowledge / qualifications People learn differently Willingness/passion to share knowledge People do not learn and continue to make the same mistakes Understand that people learn differently Difficult to teach practitioners in other parts of the organisation (Training sessions; Technical notes; Technical forums) Different levels of knowledge and understandingHow the SLLCK model help? Education, training and staff development practices Technical arrogance (credibility) Reflection Protecting ones sphere of knowledge Poor training practices People-Culture Facilitators Barriers Tone at the top Anonymous reports Routine practices Blame Supportive practices / supporting culture Dont have time Help needed (help me to help you) Rapid change of staff – redeployment Just Culture (Safety culture, learning culture, reporting culture) Internal politics (credibility)“helps with the change management process” Group (work) support in development of learnings To use lessons would reflect badly on my reputation Understand that knowledge is power but even more so when it is shared Lack of incentives, buy-in Develop individual knowledge sharing plans Knowledge is power Networking encouraged and supported Shoot the messenger Action on positive feedback Communication gap / miss-understandings Positive leadership Delivery culture not learning culture Respect Complex organisations; Operational silos No senior sponsorship Anxiety about changes Poor leadership practices Lack of adaptability or resilience“can represent knowledge storage and found some alignment Facilitators WIIFM (What is in it for me) Fast moving workforce Social behaviours Old way the only way Barriers Personal goals different to organisational goals Low performance results focus culturewith a complex organisational brain” Financial pressures People-Social Facilitators Barriers Custom built teams Same old team Operate as a team Not invented here Custom build the approach (Not one size fits all) Unwillingness to share /less valuable Keep trying different approaches Dont want to appear vulnerable and stupid by admitting mistakes Do not personalise Teams wont share mistakes and dirty laundry - reputation Interact with as many people as possible to capture information Resistance to change (must have credibility) Not my problem“hard to get a lesson learned through, so it is not just about Teamwork approach Too stubborn Honesty and Integrity Cynical Provide time for unstructured interaction Politics Generally want to improve Dont understand what it is like to work in other parts of the organisation Good enterprise social business Poor communication - anti social behaviour - social interactions Productive culture Personality traits Blame environmenthaving a database, it is not just about one thing it is about a Competitive environment Perceived credibility and approachability Social polices Shame personally exposed Lack of trustseries of things...I like the way it kind of stacks it up and shows it Poor coordination Systems-Technology Facilitators Barriers Intranets Hard to find / locate lessonsworking” e-libraries No way to classify lesson for easy retrieval Wikis Not trained in use of tools Multiple channels of information in use Poor (lack of) ICT systems and processes Distribution of links to all targeted stakeholders Done in inconsistent ways Ease of access through different IT solutions Too many initiatives Systems respected and need to be part of your everyday job Restrictive audience Poor Search facility SharePoint 2010 governance and funding issues Not everyone uses social media Lack of money / funding / expensive Too complex Set and forget systems Too many systems Systems are not part of your every day job Inappropriate focus on technology Not being able to find what you need when you need it Collection of data just for the sake of it Too structured Systems-ProcessOne Project Manager stated that “we were getting lots of push Debriefing Reviews Brain Storming Facilitators Case Studies / Tell a story / Keep it 2 pages - simple Willingness to conduct the process Tick the box process / compliance Barriers Procedures not being followed, dont exist, are not updated Post-Implementation reviews not donefrom our KM team to get lessons learned going and get it Dissemination (Training, Education) Takes too much time Mentoring Lack of time to mentor Staff Transfer Lack of enforcement Functional management enforcement No metrics Alignment to Risk Management Lack of formalising the process and incorporating new work Senior management commitment Lack of consistency in following the processimplemented to meet deliverables, had we had the model we Credibility - endorsement of systems in place - Imprimatur Simplification Capability in methodology Contextualised WIIFM (What is in it for me) Lack of understanding and commitment Complacency Dont bother not my problem Language (taxonomy) Dont exist / fragmentedwould have been able to present to the Directors to show them Lack of flexibility in approach (no complex adaption) Read the process but dont understand the process Process/manuals are owned by another organisation Processes dont match with IT systems Systems-Infrastructurewhat needs to be invested in to do it properly, as it is not just Physical space Training facilities Senior management commitment Facilitators Legal constraints Governance Poor facilitation Barriersabout doing a process.” Good user interface/useability/search Time poor Lack of financial/funding support Language (taxonomy) / poor search Dont have access to emerging technology Remote sites have limited infrastructure (Dont assume everyone has what you may have) 11
  12. 12. Discussion...organisational learning is a complexprocess and it is clear that organisationsneed to enable the facilitators and removethe barriers and encourage, through theirpractices and processes, positive cultural,social and learning environments. Lessons Learned Lessons Identified Lessons Disseminated Lessons Application Graphic sourced from: Anumba, CJ, Egbu, CO & Carrillo, PM 2005, Knowledge 12 management in construction, Blackwell Pub., Oxford ; Malden, MA.
  13. 13. Refined SLLCK model Dissemination of Lessons Learned People SystemsProject n Organisation Infrastructure Application of Lessons Technology Learning Learned Culture Process Social Ho w th ey Wh at they relate to do each o th er Pro vide eq uipment an d d ata to h elp th em In structions to fo llow wh en th ey d o wh at th ey d o Supportive elements Duffield SM, Whitty S J (forthcoming 2012). A systemic lessons learned and captured knowledge (SLLCK) model for project organizations. In: Proceedings of the Annual Project Management Australia Conference Incorporating the PMI Australia National Conference (PMOz), Melbourne, Australia, 15-16 August 2012. 13
  14. 14. Future ResearchCase studies and action research...More consideration should be given to thealignment, interaction and complexity issues ofthe people and systems elements within the People Systemslessons learned organisational environment. Complexity ...focus on how best project management lessons learned is represented to the practitioner community and their organisations, in a way that can be captured in project management reference books, methodologies and bodies of knowledge.Mike Licht, NotionsCapital.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/notionscapital/3082592630/ 14
  15. 15. Future Research cont.PM World Today (August 2011) editorial post on ‘Lessons Learned but Knowledge Lost’. http://www.pmworldtoday.net/editorials/2011/aug/David-Pells.htmlIn response... Max Wideman a recognised project management global expert stated: ...in spite of all the technology that is available to us today, we have not yet found a presentation format that captures the essence of this wisdom in a way that is relevant to future usage, readily searchable and easy to store. ...we have a serious cultural problem. ...we are probably condemned to continue to throw away the valuable resources. http://www.pmworldtoday.net/letters/2011/sep/LETTER-Wideman.html 15
  16. 16. ConclusionThe study suggests that by reconceptualisinglessons learned, the SLLCK model caninfluence the dissemination and applicationof project management lessons learned...established the alignment of people andsystem elements could positively influencethe success of an organisation’s lessonslearned processes...found that the people element and culturefactor may well be the most likely tonegatively influence lessons learned inorganisations...established that several variables of themodel and their elements need to align toensure organisational lessons are learned bymeans of projects 16
  17. 17. Contact Stephen for further information:http://www.pmlessonslearned.infostephen@pmlessonslearned.info #pmoz @invictaprojectsContact Jon for further information:http://www.usq.edu.au/users/whitty/jon.whitty@usq.edu.au #pmoz @jon_whitty Thank you... Over to Questions 17

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