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Duffield ll qldpmi_15_feb2012_final


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The importance of lessons learned in the initiation phase. Presentation for PMI Queensland 15 February 2012.

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Duffield ll qldpmi_15_feb2012_final

  1. 1. ...the importance of lessons learned in the initiation phase. Stephen Duffield Master PM Research (USQ).... PhD planning in work Chair of the ‘QLD Government Public Sector Risk Management Network Collaboration Group’ Committee Member RMIA Queensland Member of the AIPM Queensland judging panel 2010 & 2011 for Project Management Achievement Awards Member of AIPM / AIPM Certified Practising Project Director (CPPD) Member of PMI Dept Transport and Main Roads - Assistant Director (Risk Management) 1.8 yrs Board of Director 6 yrs+ (non-profit Board) Boeing Company 14 yrs+ (Program and Project Management experience) Senior Manager – ERP Oracle Implementation Senior Manager – Program Management (130 PMs) Site Manager – Amberley (980staff) PM various programs 10yrs+ Business Development Manager 3yrs Systems & Software Engineering British Aerospace / AWA 7 yrs (Systems & Software Engineering) Royal Australian Air Force 10 yrs (Engineering Aerospace) 15February2012 Initiating Projects- 1 lessons learned with Stephen Duffield
  2. 2. Speed Learning on ‘PM Lessons Learned in the Initiation phase’ On Lessons Learned - ...there are few signs that any lessons have been learnt - Victorian Ombudsman ...there is difficulty in capturing and implementing learnings - Victorian Ombudsman practice lessons learned rarely happens and doesnt work well ...a small % follow the process - Williams Why? ...we have a serious cultural problem – Wideman • People / Culture PMBOK - • Source is Lesson Learned Knowledge Base (?) • ...can influence...Project Charter, PMP, Scope, WBS, Time, Cost, Quality, Communications and Risk ...missing HR PRINCE2 – • Starting a Project: Previous lessons learned reports > Capture Previous lessons > Create Lessons Log (?) • Starting a Project: Lessons Log can influence > Team, Business Case, Project Brief > Plan the initiation stage • Initiating a Project: Lessons Log > Risk, Quality, Configuration, Communications, Project Controls, Project Plan Milton • Learning before...knowledge of what needs to be done...knowledge of how to do it • Project knowledge management plan & knowledge needs register Krammer • Knowledge Identification ...Technical / Organisational / Human • Knowledge Cluster Map (pm, customer and product)...Knowledge Map / Knowledge Acquisition (known and missing knowledge) My experiences In-effective lessons learned systems in place ...not used...It is broken...How do you know you have learnt a lesson? Risk Management outputs from previous projects ...if you can find them Previous projects Critical Success Factors ...Networks (Greybeards story telling, active online groups – LinkedIn, Google Scholar / Journals etc ...public available lessons learned databases ie NASA) ...PM Best Practices ? Your experiences & Questions ... ThankyouPMIQ 15February2012 Initiating Projects- lessons learned with Stephen Duffield 2
  3. 3. On Lessons Learned . What we learn from lessons learned is that we dont learn from lessons learned. T. BlockA recent report (2011) from the Victorian Ombudsman, finds that despite all the research, previous Ombudsman and Auditor-General reports,‘...there are few signs that any lessons have been learnt in the public sector.’ ‘...A new and moredisciplined approach is required if the government is to avoid being faced with continuing cost overruns and failures to deliver.’ The reporthighlights the difficulties and inconsistencies in ICT procurement with the Victorian Government Solicitor’s Office stating ‘...Governmentagencies tend to operate independently and there is difficulty in capturing and implementing learnings from ICT projects.’...What we see here is not un-common across the public and private sectors; it is just that the reporting of the public sector problems is open tothe general public via government reports.In practice lessons learned rarely happens and doesnt work well (Atkinson, Crawford & Ward 2006; Keegan & Turner 2001; Kerzner 2009;Milton 2010; Schindler & Eppler 2003; Williams 2008; Wysocki 2004, 2009).Milton (2010) has found that 80 per cent of 74 organisations that attempt lessons learned, 60 per cent are dissatisfied. Williams (2007) PMIsponsored study found that 62.4 per cent of 522 project practitioner responses had a process for learning lessons and of those only11.7 per cent followed the process. Why?The project management PM World Today recently posted an editorial on Lessons Learned but Knowledge Lost (Pells 2011). In responseWideman (2011, p.1) a recognised project management global expert stated: ‘ spite of all the technology that is available to us today, wehave not yet found a presentation format that captures the essence of this wisdom in a way that is relevant to future usage, readily searchableand easy to store. ...we have a serious cultural problem. ...we are probably condemned to continue to throw away the valuable resources.’This open discussion again highlights the significance of project management, knowledge management and the lessons learned process andthe impact that technology, learning, process and people factors have on the problem.So is the PM Lessons Learned process broken?PMIQ 15February2012 Initiating Projects- 3 lessons learned with Stephen Duffield
  4. 4. The PM Lessons Learned blog supports a Masters of Project Management research project. Final project/thesis ‘Exploring factors that impact knowledge management dissemination of project management lessons learned’.Model derived and based on the reverse relationships of Reason(1997, 2000) swiss cheese model (layers of defence)People:• Just Culture (Reason 1997)• PM Culture• Culture barriers Source: Mike Licht, PMIQ 15February2012 Initiating Projects- 4 lessons learned with Stephen Duffield
  5. 5. PMBOK identifies the importance in collecting and documenting lessons learned, and implementing process improvements.Lesson Learned (LL). ‘The learning gained from the process of performing the project. Lessons may be identified at any point. Also considereda project record, to be included in the lessons learned knowledge base’.Lesson Learned Knowledge Base (LLKB). ‘A store of historical information and lessons learned about both the outcomes of previous projectselection decisions and previous project performance’.Reich and Wee (2006) report anextensive review of how knowledgemanagement practices areembedded within the 3rd editionPMBOK.Table 1 highlights the changes overthe last 14 years of how the termlessons learned has been referencedand used with all versions (up to 4thedition) of the PMBOK Guide. Source : www.pmlessonslearned.info2.4.3 Organizational Process Assets ...lessons learned and historical information3.3 Initiating Process Group ?3.7 Closing Process Group ...Document lessons learned4.1.1.5 / Project Integration Management ... Organizational Process Assets ...lessons learned and historical information ...can influence development of a project charter and project management plan5.2.1.4 Define Scope ...lessons learned can influence define scope process5.3.1.4 Create WBS ...lessons learned can influence create WBS process6.1.1.3 / Time ...lessons learned knowledge base can influence activities list and estimate durations7.1.1.6 Cost ...lessons learned can influence the estimate costs process8.1.1.7 Quality ...lessons learned can influence the plan quality process10.1.1.4 / / Communications ...lessons learned can influence the identify stakeholder process (ex-PMs, SMEs, Industry groups ,consultants, professional and technical associations...) and communications plan ..lessons learned provide insights on decisions in previous similarprojects. Lessons learned can influence distribution of information process. Risk ...lessons learned can influence the risk management process . Risk identification checklist...risk management organizational assets.PMIQ 15February2012 Initiating Projects- 5 lessons learned with Stephen Duffield
  6. 6. PRINCE2Starting a Project:Previous lessons learned reports > Capture Previous lessons > Create Lessons Log ? Source: OGC 2009, Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2, TSO, London (p. 124)Capture Previous lessonsLessons may have been learned by other projects...The design of the Project team, Business Case , Project Brief and Initiation stage can be influenced by lessons learnedHold a workshop to capture relevant lessons...may be helpful to include consult external people who have relevant experienceStarting a Project:Lessons Log > design and appoint the project management teamLessons Log > prepare the outline Business CaseLessons Log > select the project approach and assemble the Project BriefLessons Log > Plan the initiation stageInitiating a Project:Lessons Log > Risk, Quality, Configuration, Communications, Project Controls, Project PlanPMIQ 15February2012 Initiating Projects- 6 lessons learned with Stephen Duffield
  7. 7. Milton Learning before: • identify the knowledge that will be useful to the project team • identify the sources of knowledge (both explicit and tacit) • doing something to bring knowledge into the team • ...knowledge of what needs to be done • ...knowledge of how to do it Source: Milton, N 2005, Knowledge Management For Teams and Projects, Chandos Publishing, Oxford. (p. 42) Scoping > knowledge of what needs to be done ‘knowledge about’ Scoping meetings...customers...Involve contractors, external expertise Concept select/design stage > knowledge on how to do it Peer Assist – meeting of project team with people who have relevant knowledge and experience Optioneering – brainstorming options against the project objectives with external help Business-driven action learning – collective knowledge gathering to address the issues of the project with external help A key tool in learning before project is the project knowledge management plan. This provides a focus on the critical knowledge for the project, and then addresses how the knowledge will be accessed, who will find it, how and when, and how new knowledge will be created and stored. You can think of knowledge as flowing into a project at the start, and out of the project at the end, and this flow of knowledge needs to be managed. The KM plan is the tool that manages this flow. The plan is created at the planning workshop involving all the project team, and one of the key outputs from this workshop will be the knowledge needs register. Read more: Knoco stories: Knowledge Management in projects projects.html#ixzz1m9aksOgh ? Learning before never occurs. All projects start from a knowledge base restricted to the tacit knowledge of the participants. ? Learning before is a rarity. Most projects have no pre-learning.PMIQ 15February2012 Initiating Projects- 7 lessons learned with Stephen Duffield
  8. 8. KrammerProject Start-up: Knowledge IdentificationTechnical / Organisational / HumanKnowledge Cluster Map..based around project management, customer and the product...picture of the knowledge required for the project, the skillsavailable within the project team, expertise from externalsKnowledge Map / Knowledge Acquisition..identifies the location of known and missing knowledgeKnowledge Generation and Transfer Source: Krammer, C 2010, Knowledge Management in Project Management, VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co. KG (pp. 38-45) PMIQ 15February2012 Initiating Projects- 8 lessons learned with Stephen Duffield
  9. 9. My Experiences:In-effective lessons learned systems in place... ‘Lesson Learned Knowledge Base’... not used ..its broken... how do you know you have learnt a lesson?Key source of lessons learned...Risk Management outputs of previous projects ...if you can find them...Previous projects Critical Success Factors (what worked and didnt work)...Networks.....Greybeards story telling.....Google Scholar / Journals etc..... active online groups ie LinkedIn.....public available lessons learned databases ie NASA...PM Best Practices ? In NASA, we never punish error. We only punish the concealment of error. Al Siepert (b. 1915), Deputy Director of NASA Kennedy Space CenterPMIQ 15February2012 Initiating Projects- 9 lessons learned with Stephen Duffield
  10. 10. References:Atkinson, R, Crawford, L & Ward, S 2006, ‘Fundamental uncertainties in projects and the scope of project management’, International journal of projectmanagement, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 687-98.Brouwer, G 2011, Own motion investigation into ICT-enabled projects, Victorian Ombudsman, Victorian Government Printer, Melbourne,, A & Turner, JR 2001, ‘Quantity versus Quality in Project-Based Learning Practices’, Management Learning, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 77-98.Keen, P & Tan, M 2007, ‘Knowledge fusion: A framework for extending the rigor and relevance of knowledge management’, International Journal of KnowledgeManagement, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1-17.Kerzner, H 2009, Project management : a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling, 10th edn, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, N.J.Koners, U 2005, ‘Learning from research and development projects/the role of post-project reviews’, Cranfield University.Krammer, C 2010, Knowledge Management in Project Management, VDM Verlag Dr. Muller GmbH & Co. KG.Milton, N 2005, Knowledge Management For Teams and Projects, Chandos Publishing, Oxford.Milton, N 2010, The Lessons Learned Handbook: Practical approaches to learning from experience, Chandos Publishing, Oxford, UK.OGC 2009, Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2, TSO, London.Pells, D 2011, Lessons Learned but Knowledge Lost!, August 2011 edn, 5 September 2011, PMForum, Inc,<>.Project Management Institute 2004, A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), 3rd edn, Project Management Institute Inc., NewtownSquare, Pa.—- 2008a, A guide to the project management body of knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), 4th edn, Project Management Institute Inc., Newtown Square, Pa.Reason, J 1997, Managing the risks of organizational accidents, Ashgate, Aldershot, Hants, England ; Brookfield, Vt., USA.—- 2000, ‘Human error: models and management’, British Medical Journal, vol. 320, no. 7237, p. 768.Reich & Wee 2006, ‘Searching for knowledge in the PMBOK guide’, Project Management Journal, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 11-26.Rocketdyne, 2004, Linking Risk Management to Other Program Management Processes – Risk or Opportunity?, 5th National Risk Management Symposium,California & Eppler. 2003, ‘Harvesting project knowledge: a review of project learning methods and success factors’, International journal of project management,vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 219-28.Wideman ,2011, On the August PMWT Editorial on Lessons Learned by Knowledge Lost, PMForum, Inc, 5 September 2011,<>.Williams, T 2007, Post-Project Reviews to Gain Effective Lessons Learned, Project Management Institute, Newtown Square, USA, Date Accessed: 17 July 2011,<>.—- 2008, ‘How do organisations learn lessons from projects–and do they?’, IEEE Transactions in Engineering Management, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 248-66.Wysocki, RK 2004, Project management process improvement, Artech House effective project management series, Artech House, Boston.—- 2009, Effective project management traditional, agile, extreme, 5th edn, Wiley Pub., Indianapolis, IN, Accessed 2 May 2011, 9780470500422 (electronic bk.).Contact Details : 0421 052 135PMIQ 15February2012 Initiating Projects- 10 lessons learned with Stephen Duffield