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Internal Social Marketing

Social marketing (the marketing of social change) has four decades of experience in bringing about systematic and systemic change in the broader society. Marketing’s role as a means for understanding the individual, their needs, world views and barriers to change can be used equally effectively within the organisation (as well as without an organisation). This paper overviews a set of the key models for managing the social change process from the macro-level through to understanding and addressing the individual’s needs for during periods of change.

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Internal Social Marketing

  1. 1. Marketing internal change Dr Stephen Dann School of Management, Marketing & International Business, Australian National University December 8, 2009
  2. 2. And that’s the last neat picture
  3. 3. Marketing <ul><li>marketing is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably </li></ul><ul><li>Chartered Institute of Marketing (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipate </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfy </li></ul>
  4. 4. Internal Marketing <ul><li>Internal Marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal marketing uses a marketing perspective for managing an organization’s human resources (George and Grönroos 1991). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal Market Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IMO involves the generation and dissemination of intelligence pertaining to the wants and needs of employees, and the design and implementation of appropriate responses to meet these wants and needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lings, I and Greenley, Measuring Internal Market Orientation, Journal of Service Research, Vol. 7, No. 3, 290-305 (2005), </li></ul><ul><li>QUT e-print - </li></ul>
  5. 5. The definition <ul><li>“ the adaptation and adoption of commercial marketing activities, institutions and processes as a means to induce behavioral change in a targeted audience on a temporary or permanent basis to achieve a social goal” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dann, S “Redefining Social Marketing: Adapting and adopting contemporary commercial marketing thinking into the social marketing discipline”, Journal of Business Research , doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.02.013 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Why use Social marketing? <ul><li>philosophy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all strategies begin with the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on individual behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interventions involve the 4 Ps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>market research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>segmentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>competition </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Interventions involve the 4 Ps <ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Price </li></ul><ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><li>Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul>The elements of the change What you tell people about the change What it costs the person to change Where the change will happen
  8. 8. The product Product Idea Belief Attitude Value One off Ongoing Objects Behavior Physical Object Software / System Large amount of nothing
  9. 9. Implementing change
  10. 10. Step 1 <ul><li>Talk to the intended audience. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seriously, just talk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask the audience about what they currently do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get them to describe it to you </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do they like about the current behavior? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If they’re wanting to change, talk about the barriers they feel get in their way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What’s good about it? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why do they do it? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Step 2 <ul><li>Get ready to make them an offer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social marketing is a deal making technique </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offer them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a solution to the problem (if they’ve said there’s a problem) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a better deal (if they’re enjoying what they’re doing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>something to think about (if they’re unaware) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When you make the offer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be direct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be obvious </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Step 2.5: Stages of Change <ul><li>Pre-contemplation Not thinking about the change or its relevance (awareness) </li></ul><ul><li>Contemplation </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking about and evaluating the options (education) </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Gathering resources for the change (training, upskilling) </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Trying out the new approach (help desk) </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>continued attempts or commitment to the new process </li></ul>DiClemenet, C.C., & Prochaska, J.O. (1982). Self change and therapy change of smoking behavior: A comparison of processes of change in cessation and maintenance. Addictive Behavior. &: 133-142 Transtheoretical Model
  13. 13. Stages of behaviour change Reinforce social norms Individual responsibility Termination Ongoing rewards Individual responsibility Maintenance Support and facilitation, group activities Individual responsibility Action Place based initiatives/ programs, competitions Facilitated action Promised reward Preparation Train facilitators, engage community organisations Information and education Contemplation Engage media, role models Mass communication Precontemplation Upstream Downstream Stage
  14. 14. Step 3 <ul><li>Go back to the people from Step 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make them the offer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See how they react to the offer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be ready to change the offer, scrap the offer or upgrade and supersize their social change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build a relationship based on being honest, trustworthy and holding up your end of the deal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t cheat </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. The people in the change
  16. 16. Adopter Categories <ul><li>Innovators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Believes in the cause / identifies the solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Adopters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong advocate for the cause </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Majority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informed choice and calculated behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late Majority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will try it once, but need to see real results </li></ul></ul>Innovators. 5% 13% Early adopter Early majority 30% 35-40% 12% Late Majority Laggard
  17. 17. Laggards <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set in the ways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t want the offer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic Know-Nothings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There’s an offer? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grudging Acceptor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t have a choice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conscious Rejecters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Well informed, well educated, aware of the benefits and costs of the activity, and have declined your offer anyway. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cautious Super Adopters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waits for the market to calm down, then picks up the most recent, newest and most stable version </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. They know what to do, so why won’t they do it? <ul><li>They don’t actually know what to do </li></ul><ul><ul><li>we just think/assume they do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They know what to do but not how to do it </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t believe the “evidence” </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t care – it’s someone else’s problem </li></ul><ul><li>They can’t – the barriers to change are too high </li></ul><ul><li>They don’t want to change. </li></ul>
  19. 19. (Reducing) Barriers to Adoption <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>How long will this take? </li></ul><ul><li>Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Energy in, Garbage Out </li></ul><ul><li>Workstyle </li></ul><ul><li>What does this do to the daily work routine? </li></ul><ul><li>Psyche </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of competence </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived risk </li></ul><ul><li>psychological risk </li></ul><ul><li>social risk </li></ul><ul><li>usage risk </li></ul><ul><li>physical risk </li></ul>
  20. 20. Conclusion <ul><li>Marketing is one means, not the means for change. </li></ul><ul><li>Use market research to avoid assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify barriers and ways to reduce them. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept rejection as a valid and considered response. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The (Bonus) Tool Kit Services Gap Model
  22. 22. Gaps Model of Service Quality <ul><li>Customer Gap: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>difference between customer expectations and perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provider Gap 1 (The Knowledge Gap): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not knowing what customers expect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provider Gap 2 (The Service Design & Standards Gap): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not having the right service designs and standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provider Gap 3 (The Service Performance Gap): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not delivering to service standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provider Gap 4 (The Communication Gap): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not matching performance to promises </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Gaps Model of Service Quality Zeithaml, M, Bitner, M J, Gremler D, (2008) Services Marketing, McGraw Hill Perceived Service Expected Service CUSTOMER COMPANY Customer Gap Gap 1 Gap 2 Gap 3 External Communications to Customers Gap 4 Service Delivery Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards Company Perceptions of Consumer Expectations
  24. 24. Customer Gap Customer Expectations Customer Perceptions Customer Gap
  25. 25. Provider Gap 1 Customer Expectations Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations Gap 1
  26. 26. Provider Gap 2 Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards Management Perceptions of Customer Expectations Gap 2
  27. 27. Provider Gap 3 Service Delivery Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards Gap 3
  28. 28. Provider Gap 4 Service Delivery External Communications to Customers Gap 4
  29. 29. <ul><li>This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.5 Australia License. To view a copy of this license, visit </li></ul>Dr Stephen Dann School of Management, Marketing & International Business Australian National University @stephendann [email_address]