SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Pipeline Column
Due July 25, 2016
CIL - Internet @ Schools - CIL Sept/Oct 2016 Issue
Political Literacy Can Be Learned!
By Stephen Abram
Political literacy is a set of abilities considered necessary for citizens to
participate in a society's government. It includes an understanding of how
government works and of the important issues facing society, as well as
the critical thinking skills to evaluate different points of view.
Political literacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_literacy
In today’s political environment there is a fog of information. It tests everyone –
adult and young adult alike - and our critical thinking skills. Separating fact from
opinion is hard enough. Combine that with public opinion polls, massive quoting
of ‘statistics’, personal stories that elucidate and obfuscate and everyone is
overwhelmed by data and information and spin doctoring run amuck.
Librarians care about information literacy. We care about using facts to support
arguments, points of view and debates. In fact, we’re critical pieces of the
educational infrastructure and train or mediate these issues. Librarians:
 Select quality resources
 Curate collections that support good research
 Acquire the ‘best’ reference sources
 And mediate the world of the web by curating website collections and
recommendations as well as providing the metadata and search systems
that assist in the alleviation of these issues.
 We train! Ourselves and our users
That noted, most searching happens outside of our libraries. Most information
flow is gate-kept by sometimes biased or selective media organizations in
television, cable, or news (print and online). Social networks share ‘facts’
through everything from memes, infographics, stories, videos, and just plain
posts. Add to that that your filter bubble (more on this later) is rarely ‘pure’ and
it’s influenced by your own social networks, search behaviours, beliefs,
background, education and worldview.
The role of authority and brand has been wholly disrupted. There is good and
bad and sometimes just incomplete data, facts and information out there. There
are quality new ‘brands’ out there as well as struggling older brands that
occasionally get caught up in the hunt for ratings and eyeballs. Whom can we
trust?
It’s a dog’s breakfast out there!
Can we come to the rescue? Information literacy isn’t a simple construct. It
encompasses so much and I thought this column, coming out at the end of a very
long U.S. presidential campaign, might be timely.
Make no mistake, I have my preferences in politics and my own beliefs and
worldviews. That’s not the point. As a librarian, my core belief is that information
matters, truth and facts matter. That said, Stephen Colbert noted that “Facts
have a well-known liberal bias.” He has also noted the new amorphous trend
towards ‘truthiness’ over the last decade. Wikipedia defines “truthiness as a
quality characterizing a "truth" that a person making an argument or assertion
claims to know intuitively "from the gut" or because it "feels right" without regard
to evidence, logic, intellectual examination, or facts.” For example perhaps we
feel the murder rate has done nothing if not gone up because we watch a lot of
crime shows or our local situation is different, when the facts are the opposite. A
colder than normal winter may prove to some that global warming is not true.
This column is about the core sources that form a digital citizenry’s corpus of
tools that assist the enquiring mind. When we hear or read a ‘claim’, where so
we go get the real dope? Whom do we trust? Who has the authority,
independence, and resources to investigate claims and see the facts to form an
information opinion? Although some librarians see ‘information’, the noun as the
core of our profession, I see the verb as the core – ‘to inform and be informed.’
So this challenge is not just for school librarians to prepare the next generation to
be informed but for all librarians to assist the whole population – student and
adults alike – to evolve in a quickly changing political environment. Every tire
needs re-treading occasionally.
The Google (and other search engines)
I recently did over two dozen public focus groups with regular folks – teens,
adults, seniors. One of the questions I asked them was how the search results on
Google were ranked? The winning answer by far was ‘popularity.’ Most (not all)
search engines do not rank solely on popularity. We need to train people beyond
this assumption because it affects their credulity about the results that they get
online. Key messages and learning could include:
 How are search engine results ranked?
 What is the role of advertising?
 What is the role of search engine optimization (SEO)?
 What is the role of localization and GIS in search?
 Can ‘bad’ people push content into my results? Who has an interest in my
results?
Librarians know the answers to these questions. We need to share.
Two key issues to know:
At present Google and search engines in general are having a banner (profit)
year. In the U.S. both mainstream parties have huge teams of librarians and
search engine optimizers ensuring that their candidates and their policies are
hitting the top of the results. People need to know the role of GIS in targeting
SEO in the search engine’s algorithm. The GIS data is usable to a very fine
granular level. You can target different results at the state level for Senate
campaign or the district level for congressional campaigns. Fine. Beyond that you
can use census data to tune the messaging for Latino vs. Cuban
neighbourhoods, high income vs. low income neighbourhoods, white vs. black
neighbourhoods and more. What one person sees on the results may differ
widely to another person’s results blocks away. You can also target by certain
types of areas – you can acquire targeting zones to cover just university and
college campuses, for example. There are white-hat and black-hat optimizers in
the wild west of the WWW.
Combine the above with the more recent targeting tools for mobile and social
networks (social media optimization SMO) and you see extremely sophisticated
ads and results used on Facebook, Pinterest, LinkedIn, Instagram, Tumblr,
Twitter and more. Indeed, the DNC launched their Pokémon GO presence and
targeting as the July convention commenced. The RNC has been a huge user of
Twitter at every level, famously right to the top. YouTube, Vine and Periscope are
also channels of information in video format that have social components.
Much ado is made about ‘facts’ that come out of these sources alone. I try to
check the facts but even I can be subject to confirmation bias! We all need to
build political literacy skills.
Starting Out:
Do you look for information that confirms you point of view or biases and beliefs?
Or do you look for information that challenges what you hear and know? It’s not
so black and white and we all are more likely somewhere on a spectrum of
choices.
When we challenge a ‘fact’ or point of view and need to know if it’s ‘true’ or can
be substantiated we must first be aware of the issues and challenges associated
with what we receive through search engines and social media.
We also must be aware of our own ‘filter bubble.’ “A filter bubble is a result of a
personalized search in which a website algorithm selectively guesses what
information a user would like to see based on information about the user (such
as location, past click behavior, user profile, and search history) and, as a result,
users become separated from information that disagrees with their viewpoints,
effectively isolating them in their own cultural or ideological bubbles. Prime
examples are Google Personalized Search results and Facebook’s personalized
news stream. The term was coined by internet activist Eli Pariser in his book by
the same name; according to Pariser, users get less exposure to conflicting
viewpoints and are isolated intellectually in their own informational bubble.
Pariser related an example in which one user searched Google for "BP" and got
investment news about British Petroleum while another searcher got information
about the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and that the two search results pages were
"strikingly different". The bubble effect may have negative implications for civic
discourse, according to Pariser, but there are contrasting views suggesting the
effect is minimal and addressable.” (Wikipedia:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filter_bubble)
Here are some readings that provide useful overviews and insights into the world
of fact checking. I’ve tried to include sites beyond the US – including Canada, the
UK and Europe. Heaven knows that the summer Brexit vote created new flows
of fact fog.
Resources
UK
Teaching political literacy. [UK] Citizenship Foundation
http://www.citizenshipfoundation.org.uk/main/page.php?68
Full Fact, Full Fact is the UK's independent fact checking organization
https://fullfact.org/
US
PolitiFact. Tampa Bay Times
http://www.politifact.com/
FactCheck.org A Project of the Annenberg Public Policy Center
http://www.factcheck.org/
FlackCheck.org is the political literacy companion site to the award-
winning FactCheck.org. It provides resources to help students recognize
flaws in arguments.
http://www.flackcheck.org/
The Washington Post’s Fact Checker.
https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/
The Duke Reporters’ Lab maintains a database of global fact-checking
sites.
http://reporterslab.org/fact-checking/
The Duke Reporters’ Lab maintains a database of global fact-checking
sites.
http://reporterslab.org/fact-checking/
Pew Research Center: Journalism and Media Project
http://www.journalism.org/
Poynter: A Global Leader in Journalism
http://www.poynter.org/
United States National Literacy Policies EDCI 874 National Literacy
Policy Analysis > Political Literacy
https://sites.google.com/site/nationliteracypoliciesedci874/home/political-
literacy
Canada
FactsCan Canada Canada's political fact-checker.
Independent. Transparent. Non-partisan. http://factscan.ca/
Understanding Polls
538 Blog FiveThirtyEight http://fivethirtyeight.com/
Nate Silver's FiveThirtyEight uses statistical analysis — hard numbers —
to tell compelling stories about elections, politics, sports, science,
economics and culture.
Thinking About Fact-Checking
“The rise — and limits — of political fact-checking”
https://www.minnpost.com/media/2016/07/rise-and-limits-political-fact-
checking
“The Limits of Fact-Checking”
http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/12/the-limits-of-the-fact-
checker-213461
Harry G. Frankfurt’s famous essay “On Bullshit.”
http://www.csudh.edu/ccauthen/576f12/frankfurt__harry_-_on_bullshit.pdf
Why We’re Post-Fact by Peter Pomerantsev, Granta
http://granta.com/why-were-post-fact/
So here are some sites that can be added to people’s personal learning as
personal kits. Many people know the top ones like PolitiFact and Snopes.
There’s more!
Fact Check Websites for Getting Political Facts:
FactCheck.org
“FactCheck.org is a nonpartisan, nonprofit “consumer advocate” for voters
that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in U.S. politics.
They monitor the factual accuracy of what is said by major U.S. political
players in the form of TV ads, debates, speeches, interviews and news
releases. Their goal is to apply the best practices of both journalism and
scholarship, and to increase public knowledge and understanding.”
PolitiFact.com
“PolitiFact is run by the Tampa Bay Times. PolitiFact is an independent
fact-checking website that aims to help people find "truth in politics" by
monitoring statements from U.S. politician and advocacy groups. PolitiFact
won a Pulitzer Prize in 2009 for its coverage of the 2008 Presidential
election.”
OpenSecrets.com
“OpenSecrets.org is your nonpartisan guide to money’s influence on U.S.
elections and public policy. Whether you’re a voter, journalist, activist,
student or interested citizen, use this free site to shine light on the
government. Count cash and make change.”
MediaMatters.org
“Media Matters is a Liberal swaying fact check source. According to their
website, they are "dedicated to comprehensively monitoring, analyzing,
and correcting conservative misinformation in the U.S. Media." They
define "Conservative misinformation" as "news or commentary that is not
accurate, reliable, or credible that forwards the conservative agenda."”
NewsBusters.org
“News Busters is a Conservative swaying fact check source. It is a project
of the Media Research Center, which labels itself as an "American Media
Watchdog." According to their website, they aim to "expose and combat
the Liberal Media bias."”
Project Vote Smart
“Project Vote Smart, also called Vote Smart, is a non-profit, non-partisan
research organization that collects and distributes information on
candidates for public office in the United States. It covers candidates and
elected officials in six basic areas: background information, issue positions
(via the Political Courage Test), voting records, campaign finances,
interest group ratings, and speeches and public statements.”
Washington Post Fact Checker
“The Washington Post Fact Checker's purpose "is to “truth squad” the
statements of political figures regarding issues of great importance, be
they national, international or local." They "seek to explain difficult issues,
provide missing context and provide analysis and explanation of various
“code words” used by politicians, diplomats and others to obscure or
shade the truth."”
ABC News Fact Check
“ABC Fact Check determines the accuracy of claims by politicians, public
figures, advocacy groups and institutions engaged in the public debate. All
verdicts fall into three color-based categories: In The Red, In The Green or
In Between - red being a negative ruling, and green being a positive.”
Smart Voter
“Smart Voter provides voters with comprehensive nonpartisan information
about the contests on their ballot in an easy-to-use presentation. Smart
Voter also provides a means for candidates to publish information about
themselves and their candidacy directly to voters. This service is made
possible through partnerships with the League of Women Voters and
election officials of various states and local communities around the U.S.”
Lastly we need to consider some of the rumors that are just too crazy to be true.
Then again, you can fool some of the people, some of the time.
Fact Check Websites for Religion, Email Scams and Hoaxes:
Top 11 sites to debunk urban legends
1. Snopes
2. About Urban Legends
3. Break The Chain
4. Hoaxbusters
5. Sophos
6. F-Secure
7. VMyths
8. Symantec
9. Trend Micro
10. Virus Busters
11. TruthOrFiction.com
So, there you have it, the makings of a short 20-30 minute classroom session
and handout on the ways to test what you hear and see – socially, on the web, in
print, or on TV.
Librarians are, by definition and values, non-partisan. That said, we are no
unbiased. We are biased towards quality and fact-based, research based,
informed opinion.
Be careful out there!
Stephen Abram, MLS is managing principal of Lighthouse Consulting Inc. He
has held executive roles in information and software vendors as well as
management roles in libraries. He is a Past President of SLA, the Ontario Library
Association and the Canadian Library Association. He is an international
speaker, author of ALA Edition’s Out Front with Stephen Abram and Stephen’s
Lighthouse Blog. Stephen would love to hear from you at
stephen.abram@gmail.com.

More Related Content

What's hot

Fake News, Real Concerns: Developing Information-Literate Students (December ...
Fake News, Real Concerns: Developing Information-Literate Students (December ...Fake News, Real Concerns: Developing Information-Literate Students (December ...
Fake News, Real Concerns: Developing Information-Literate Students (December ...ALATechSource
 
2013 ifla satellite zarndt et al [crowdsourcing the world's cultural heritage...
2013 ifla satellite zarndt et al [crowdsourcing the world's cultural heritage...2013 ifla satellite zarndt et al [crowdsourcing the world's cultural heritage...
2013 ifla satellite zarndt et al [crowdsourcing the world's cultural heritage...Frederick Zarndt
 
Branches of opportunity
Branches of opportunityBranches of opportunity
Branches of opportunitykerpil
 
L'Heureux Lewis-McCoy on how suburban spaces, sexism, and COVID effect the Bl...
L'Heureux Lewis-McCoy on how suburban spaces, sexism, and COVID effect the Bl...L'Heureux Lewis-McCoy on how suburban spaces, sexism, and COVID effect the Bl...
L'Heureux Lewis-McCoy on how suburban spaces, sexism, and COVID effect the Bl...YHRUploads
 
The Dictionary Project - Introduction
The Dictionary Project - IntroductionThe Dictionary Project - Introduction
The Dictionary Project - IntroductionDictionary Project
 
“It [library tour] wasn’t what do you do when you need to make a literature r...
“It [library tour] wasn’t what do you do when you need to make a literature r...“It [library tour] wasn’t what do you do when you need to make a literature r...
“It [library tour] wasn’t what do you do when you need to make a literature r...Lynn Connaway
 
Giving is Caring: Understanding Donation Behavior through Email
Giving is Caring: Understanding Donation Behavior through EmailGiving is Caring: Understanding Donation Behavior through Email
Giving is Caring: Understanding Donation Behavior through EmailYelena Mejova
 
Social media for the scared february 2013
Social media for the scared february 2013Social media for the scared february 2013
Social media for the scared february 2013Bex Lewis
 
Students are the Story: Using Personalization to Create Shareable Content
Students are the Story: Using Personalization to Create Shareable ContentStudents are the Story: Using Personalization to Create Shareable Content
Students are the Story: Using Personalization to Create Shareable ContentMerit Pages
 
Spring 2013 Issue of "Florida Libraries"
Spring 2013 Issue of "Florida Libraries" Spring 2013 Issue of "Florida Libraries"
Spring 2013 Issue of "Florida Libraries" Maria Gebhardt
 
Start here bklyn public library stategic plan
Start here bklyn public library stategic planStart here bklyn public library stategic plan
Start here bklyn public library stategic plankerpil
 
Context workshop
Context workshopContext workshop
Context workshopdachterman
 
Planning a Warrant article nhlta 2014
Planning a Warrant article   nhlta 2014Planning a Warrant article   nhlta 2014
Planning a Warrant article nhlta 2014EveryLibrary
 
What do we do and why do we do it?
What do we do and why do we do it?What do we do and why do we do it?
What do we do and why do we do it?Emily Ford
 

What's hot (20)

Fake News, Real Concerns: Developing Information-Literate Students (December ...
Fake News, Real Concerns: Developing Information-Literate Students (December ...Fake News, Real Concerns: Developing Information-Literate Students (December ...
Fake News, Real Concerns: Developing Information-Literate Students (December ...
 
Shared Voices: Communicating in Anti-racist Ways
Shared Voices: Communicating in Anti-racist WaysShared Voices: Communicating in Anti-racist Ways
Shared Voices: Communicating in Anti-racist Ways
 
2013 ifla satellite zarndt et al [crowdsourcing the world's cultural heritage...
2013 ifla satellite zarndt et al [crowdsourcing the world's cultural heritage...2013 ifla satellite zarndt et al [crowdsourcing the world's cultural heritage...
2013 ifla satellite zarndt et al [crowdsourcing the world's cultural heritage...
 
Branches of opportunity
Branches of opportunityBranches of opportunity
Branches of opportunity
 
L'Heureux Lewis-McCoy on how suburban spaces, sexism, and COVID effect the Bl...
L'Heureux Lewis-McCoy on how suburban spaces, sexism, and COVID effect the Bl...L'Heureux Lewis-McCoy on how suburban spaces, sexism, and COVID effect the Bl...
L'Heureux Lewis-McCoy on how suburban spaces, sexism, and COVID effect the Bl...
 
The Dictionary Project - Introduction
The Dictionary Project - IntroductionThe Dictionary Project - Introduction
The Dictionary Project - Introduction
 
“It [library tour] wasn’t what do you do when you need to make a literature r...
“It [library tour] wasn’t what do you do when you need to make a literature r...“It [library tour] wasn’t what do you do when you need to make a literature r...
“It [library tour] wasn’t what do you do when you need to make a literature r...
 
The Dictionary Project
The Dictionary ProjectThe Dictionary Project
The Dictionary Project
 
Giving is Caring: Understanding Donation Behavior through Email
Giving is Caring: Understanding Donation Behavior through EmailGiving is Caring: Understanding Donation Behavior through Email
Giving is Caring: Understanding Donation Behavior through Email
 
Social media for the scared february 2013
Social media for the scared february 2013Social media for the scared february 2013
Social media for the scared february 2013
 
Students are the Story: Using Personalization to Create Shareable Content
Students are the Story: Using Personalization to Create Shareable ContentStudents are the Story: Using Personalization to Create Shareable Content
Students are the Story: Using Personalization to Create Shareable Content
 
Spring 2013 Issue of "Florida Libraries"
Spring 2013 Issue of "Florida Libraries" Spring 2013 Issue of "Florida Libraries"
Spring 2013 Issue of "Florida Libraries"
 
Start here bklyn public library stategic plan
Start here bklyn public library stategic planStart here bklyn public library stategic plan
Start here bklyn public library stategic plan
 
Vouchers
VouchersVouchers
Vouchers
 
Context workshop
Context workshopContext workshop
Context workshop
 
paper
paperpaper
paper
 
Planning a Warrant article nhlta 2014
Planning a Warrant article   nhlta 2014Planning a Warrant article   nhlta 2014
Planning a Warrant article nhlta 2014
 
Libraries + teens
Libraries + teensLibraries + teens
Libraries + teens
 
Curation Reflection
Curation ReflectionCuration Reflection
Curation Reflection
 
What do we do and why do we do it?
What do we do and why do we do it?What do we do and why do we do it?
What do we do and why do we do it?
 

Similar to Mmis 61 so2016

How To Write An Effective Conclusion For The Research Paper ...
How To Write An Effective Conclusion For The Research Paper ...How To Write An Effective Conclusion For The Research Paper ...
How To Write An Effective Conclusion For The Research Paper ...Denise Lopez
 
Fake news presentation lirt summit 2018
Fake news presentation lirt summit 2018Fake news presentation lirt summit 2018
Fake news presentation lirt summit 2018PamelaPfeiffer1
 
Consumerism & Democracy
Consumerism & DemocracyConsumerism & Democracy
Consumerism & Democracyjohnnygags
 
Essay On Literacy Campaign
Essay On Literacy CampaignEssay On Literacy Campaign
Essay On Literacy CampaignAlyssa Ingoldsby
 
Extended Essay Turkish
Extended Essay TurkishExtended Essay Turkish
Extended Essay TurkishAmy Bryant
 
Introduction Essay Help
Introduction Essay HelpIntroduction Essay Help
Introduction Essay HelpSandy Grasso
 
Guerrero, manuel public-connection-civic-deliberation-salzburg-2015
Guerrero, manuel   public-connection-civic-deliberation-salzburg-2015Guerrero, manuel   public-connection-civic-deliberation-salzburg-2015
Guerrero, manuel public-connection-civic-deliberation-salzburg-2015Salzburg Global Seminar
 
World IA Day Edmonton 2019 Presentation
World IA Day Edmonton 2019 PresentationWorld IA Day Edmonton 2019 Presentation
World IA Day Edmonton 2019 PresentationJason Buzzell
 
Ielts Essay On Financial Education
Ielts Essay On Financial EducationIelts Essay On Financial Education
Ielts Essay On Financial EducationTrina Locklear
 
Esse For You Visual Rhetorical
Esse For You Visual RhetoricalEsse For You Visual Rhetorical
Esse For You Visual RhetoricalKatie Fernandez
 
You are Political
You are PoliticalYou are Political
You are PoliticalMr. Finnie
 
Rubrics For English - Google Search Writing Rubric, Creative Writing
Rubrics For English - Google Search Writing Rubric, Creative WritingRubrics For English - Google Search Writing Rubric, Creative Writing
Rubrics For English - Google Search Writing Rubric, Creative WritingCarol
 
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare 1233613242878686 1
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare 1233613242878686 1Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare 1233613242878686 1
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare 1233613242878686 1dcigroups
 
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know SlideshareTen Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know SlideshareTWhalley
 
James Joyce Dubliners Essay Topics
James Joyce Dubliners Essay TopicsJames Joyce Dubliners Essay Topics
James Joyce Dubliners Essay TopicsAngel Morris
 
Long, J. & Hicks, J. Think Before you Link, a Fake News Redux: Identifying bi...
Long, J. & Hicks, J. Think Before you Link, a Fake News Redux: Identifying bi...Long, J. & Hicks, J. Think Before you Link, a Fake News Redux: Identifying bi...
Long, J. & Hicks, J. Think Before you Link, a Fake News Redux: Identifying bi...IL Group (CILIP Information Literacy Group)
 
Uva 2023 Supplemental Essays 2023 Calendar
Uva 2023 Supplemental Essays 2023 CalendarUva 2023 Supplemental Essays 2023 Calendar
Uva 2023 Supplemental Essays 2023 CalendarYasmine Anino
 

Similar to Mmis 61 so2016 (20)

How To Write An Effective Conclusion For The Research Paper ...
How To Write An Effective Conclusion For The Research Paper ...How To Write An Effective Conclusion For The Research Paper ...
How To Write An Effective Conclusion For The Research Paper ...
 
Fake news presentation lirt summit 2018
Fake news presentation lirt summit 2018Fake news presentation lirt summit 2018
Fake news presentation lirt summit 2018
 
Consumerism & Democracy
Consumerism & DemocracyConsumerism & Democracy
Consumerism & Democracy
 
Essay On Literacy Campaign
Essay On Literacy CampaignEssay On Literacy Campaign
Essay On Literacy Campaign
 
Extended Essay Turkish
Extended Essay TurkishExtended Essay Turkish
Extended Essay Turkish
 
Introduction Essay Help
Introduction Essay HelpIntroduction Essay Help
Introduction Essay Help
 
Guerrero, manuel public-connection-civic-deliberation-salzburg-2015
Guerrero, manuel   public-connection-civic-deliberation-salzburg-2015Guerrero, manuel   public-connection-civic-deliberation-salzburg-2015
Guerrero, manuel public-connection-civic-deliberation-salzburg-2015
 
World IA Day Edmonton 2019 Presentation
World IA Day Edmonton 2019 PresentationWorld IA Day Edmonton 2019 Presentation
World IA Day Edmonton 2019 Presentation
 
Ielts Essay On Financial Education
Ielts Essay On Financial EducationIelts Essay On Financial Education
Ielts Essay On Financial Education
 
Esse For You Visual Rhetorical
Esse For You Visual RhetoricalEsse For You Visual Rhetorical
Esse For You Visual Rhetorical
 
You are Political
You are PoliticalYou are Political
You are Political
 
Rubrics For English - Google Search Writing Rubric, Creative Writing
Rubrics For English - Google Search Writing Rubric, Creative WritingRubrics For English - Google Search Writing Rubric, Creative Writing
Rubrics For English - Google Search Writing Rubric, Creative Writing
 
Day 3-EWRT 2
Day 3-EWRT 2Day 3-EWRT 2
Day 3-EWRT 2
 
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare 1233613242878686 1
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare 1233613242878686 1Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare 1233613242878686 1
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare 1233613242878686 1
 
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know SlideshareTen Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare
Ten Things About Social Media You Should Know Slideshare
 
Essay Crowdfunding
Essay CrowdfundingEssay Crowdfunding
Essay Crowdfunding
 
James Joyce Dubliners Essay Topics
James Joyce Dubliners Essay TopicsJames Joyce Dubliners Essay Topics
James Joyce Dubliners Essay Topics
 
Long, J. & Hicks, J. Think Before you Link, a Fake News Redux: Identifying bi...
Long, J. & Hicks, J. Think Before you Link, a Fake News Redux: Identifying bi...Long, J. & Hicks, J. Think Before you Link, a Fake News Redux: Identifying bi...
Long, J. & Hicks, J. Think Before you Link, a Fake News Redux: Identifying bi...
 
Eactivism - How to Reach People about your cause on and offline
Eactivism - How to Reach People about your cause on and offlineEactivism - How to Reach People about your cause on and offline
Eactivism - How to Reach People about your cause on and offline
 
Uva 2023 Supplemental Essays 2023 Calendar
Uva 2023 Supplemental Essays 2023 CalendarUva 2023 Supplemental Essays 2023 Calendar
Uva 2023 Supplemental Essays 2023 Calendar
 

More from Stephen Abram

Hub Design Inspiration Graphics May 24 2024.pdf
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics May 24 2024.pdfHub Design Inspiration Graphics May 24 2024.pdf
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics May 24 2024.pdfStephen Abram
 
Honeycomb for The Hive Design Inspirations
Honeycomb for The Hive Design InspirationsHoneycomb for The Hive Design Inspirations
Honeycomb for The Hive Design InspirationsStephen Abram
 
CrossWalksInspirations for Brockville***
CrossWalksInspirations for Brockville***CrossWalksInspirations for Brockville***
CrossWalksInspirations for Brockville***Stephen Abram
 
Hub Design Inspirations for B-Hive Zone
Hub Design Inspirations for B-Hive  ZoneHub Design Inspirations for B-Hive  Zone
Hub Design Inspirations for B-Hive ZoneStephen Abram
 
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptxPassive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptxStephen Abram
 
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for inspiration
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for inspirationHub Design Inspiration Graphics for inspiration
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for inspirationStephen Abram
 
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Community Hubs
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Community HubsHub Design Inspiration Graphics for Community Hubs
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Community HubsStephen Abram
 
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptxPassive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptxStephen Abram
 
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Brockville Hub
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Brockville HubHub Design Inspiration Graphics for Brockville Hub
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Brockville HubStephen Abram
 
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics second draft
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics second draftHub Design Inspiration Graphics second draft
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics second draftStephen Abram
 
Brockville-Active-Transportation-Full-Plan.pdf
Brockville-Active-Transportation-Full-Plan.pdfBrockville-Active-Transportation-Full-Plan.pdf
Brockville-Active-Transportation-Full-Plan.pdfStephen Abram
 
Draft Employment Lands 140530 L&G Front Cover.pdf
Draft Employment Lands 140530 L&G Front Cover.pdfDraft Employment Lands 140530 L&G Front Cover.pdf
Draft Employment Lands 140530 L&G Front Cover.pdfStephen Abram
 
BrockvilleHubDesignInspirationGraphics.pptx
BrockvilleHubDesignInspirationGraphics.pptxBrockvilleHubDesignInspirationGraphics.pptx
BrockvilleHubDesignInspirationGraphics.pptxStephen Abram
 
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PDF.pdf
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PDF.pdfCaregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PDF.pdf
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PDF.pdfStephen Abram
 
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PPT.pptx
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PPT.pptxCaregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PPT.pptx
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PPT.pptxStephen Abram
 
CEEED May 24 2023.pdf
CEEED May 24 2023.pdfCEEED May 24 2023.pdf
CEEED May 24 2023.pdfStephen Abram
 
CEEED May 24 2023.pptx
CEEED May 24 2023.pptxCEEED May 24 2023.pptx
CEEED May 24 2023.pptxStephen Abram
 
CEED Mindfulness in a time of Turbulence.pdf
CEED Mindfulness in a time of Turbulence.pdfCEED Mindfulness in a time of Turbulence.pdf
CEED Mindfulness in a time of Turbulence.pdfStephen Abram
 
CEEED Webinar June 22.pdf
CEEED Webinar June 22.pdfCEEED Webinar June 22.pdf
CEEED Webinar June 22.pdfStephen Abram
 
CIL Stats Workshop April1 2022 Abram Silk.pdf
CIL Stats Workshop April1 2022 Abram Silk.pdfCIL Stats Workshop April1 2022 Abram Silk.pdf
CIL Stats Workshop April1 2022 Abram Silk.pdfStephen Abram
 

More from Stephen Abram (20)

Hub Design Inspiration Graphics May 24 2024.pdf
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics May 24 2024.pdfHub Design Inspiration Graphics May 24 2024.pdf
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics May 24 2024.pdf
 
Honeycomb for The Hive Design Inspirations
Honeycomb for The Hive Design InspirationsHoneycomb for The Hive Design Inspirations
Honeycomb for The Hive Design Inspirations
 
CrossWalksInspirations for Brockville***
CrossWalksInspirations for Brockville***CrossWalksInspirations for Brockville***
CrossWalksInspirations for Brockville***
 
Hub Design Inspirations for B-Hive Zone
Hub Design Inspirations for B-Hive  ZoneHub Design Inspirations for B-Hive  Zone
Hub Design Inspirations for B-Hive Zone
 
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptxPassive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
 
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for inspiration
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for inspirationHub Design Inspiration Graphics for inspiration
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for inspiration
 
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Community Hubs
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Community HubsHub Design Inspiration Graphics for Community Hubs
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Community Hubs
 
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptxPassive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
Passive Interactive Programming and Surveys 2.pptx
 
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Brockville Hub
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Brockville HubHub Design Inspiration Graphics for Brockville Hub
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics for Brockville Hub
 
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics second draft
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics second draftHub Design Inspiration Graphics second draft
Hub Design Inspiration Graphics second draft
 
Brockville-Active-Transportation-Full-Plan.pdf
Brockville-Active-Transportation-Full-Plan.pdfBrockville-Active-Transportation-Full-Plan.pdf
Brockville-Active-Transportation-Full-Plan.pdf
 
Draft Employment Lands 140530 L&G Front Cover.pdf
Draft Employment Lands 140530 L&G Front Cover.pdfDraft Employment Lands 140530 L&G Front Cover.pdf
Draft Employment Lands 140530 L&G Front Cover.pdf
 
BrockvilleHubDesignInspirationGraphics.pptx
BrockvilleHubDesignInspirationGraphics.pptxBrockvilleHubDesignInspirationGraphics.pptx
BrockvilleHubDesignInspirationGraphics.pptx
 
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PDF.pdf
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PDF.pdfCaregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PDF.pdf
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PDF.pdf
 
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PPT.pptx
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PPT.pptxCaregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PPT.pptx
Caregiver Presentation and Product Inspirations Sep 2023 PPT.pptx
 
CEEED May 24 2023.pdf
CEEED May 24 2023.pdfCEEED May 24 2023.pdf
CEEED May 24 2023.pdf
 
CEEED May 24 2023.pptx
CEEED May 24 2023.pptxCEEED May 24 2023.pptx
CEEED May 24 2023.pptx
 
CEED Mindfulness in a time of Turbulence.pdf
CEED Mindfulness in a time of Turbulence.pdfCEED Mindfulness in a time of Turbulence.pdf
CEED Mindfulness in a time of Turbulence.pdf
 
CEEED Webinar June 22.pdf
CEEED Webinar June 22.pdfCEEED Webinar June 22.pdf
CEEED Webinar June 22.pdf
 
CIL Stats Workshop April1 2022 Abram Silk.pdf
CIL Stats Workshop April1 2022 Abram Silk.pdfCIL Stats Workshop April1 2022 Abram Silk.pdf
CIL Stats Workshop April1 2022 Abram Silk.pdf
 

Recently uploaded

一比一原版(IC毕业证)帝国理工大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(IC毕业证)帝国理工大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(IC毕业证)帝国理工大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(IC毕业证)帝国理工大学毕业证成绩单exuyk
 
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单aveka1
 
The MEL Toolkit Launch Webinar Presentation
The MEL Toolkit Launch Webinar PresentationThe MEL Toolkit Launch Webinar Presentation
The MEL Toolkit Launch Webinar PresentationNAP Global Network
 
Who are the Sherden Yale Historical Review
Who are the Sherden Yale Historical ReviewWho are the Sherden Yale Historical Review
Who are the Sherden Yale Historical Reviewyalehistoricalreview
 
Creating an Effective Veteran Policy in Ukraine
Creating an Effective Veteran Policy in UkraineCreating an Effective Veteran Policy in Ukraine
Creating an Effective Veteran Policy in Ukrainessuser601bbf
 
Elderly Persons Midday Meal Program kurnool
Elderly Persons Midday Meal Program kurnoolElderly Persons Midday Meal Program kurnool
Elderly Persons Midday Meal Program kurnoolSERUDS INDIA
 
Minority economic forum Executive Summary
Minority economic forum Executive SummaryMinority economic forum Executive Summary
Minority economic forum Executive SummaryRDE GROUP CORP
 
researching client.pptxffffffffffffffffffffffffff
researching client.pptxffffffffffffffffffffffffffresearching client.pptxffffffffffffffffffffffffff
researching client.pptxfffffffffffffffffffffffffflolsDocherty
 
一比一原版(ANU毕业证)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(ANU毕业证)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(ANU毕业证)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(ANU毕业证)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证成绩单enbam
 
Effective governance in the modern charity
Effective governance in the modern charityEffective governance in the modern charity
Effective governance in the modern charityFelixPerez547899
 
一比一原版(MQU毕业证)麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(MQU毕业证)麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(MQU毕业证)麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(MQU毕业证)麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单enbam
 
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 35
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 352024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 35
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 35JSchaus & Associates
 
Sponsoring a Girl Child's Education in kurnool
Sponsoring a Girl Child's Education in kurnoolSponsoring a Girl Child's Education in kurnool
Sponsoring a Girl Child's Education in kurnoolSERUDS INDIA
 
一比一原版(UoB毕业证)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(UoB毕业证)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(UoB毕业证)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(UoB毕业证)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单ygymyy
 
Inflation scarring: How has the cost-of-living crisis changed Britain?
Inflation scarring: How has the cost-of-living crisis changed Britain?Inflation scarring: How has the cost-of-living crisis changed Britain?
Inflation scarring: How has the cost-of-living crisis changed Britain?ResolutionFoundation
 
Canadian Immigration Tracker March 2024 - Key Slides
Canadian Immigration Tracker March 2024 - Key SlidesCanadian Immigration Tracker March 2024 - Key Slides
Canadian Immigration Tracker March 2024 - Key SlidesAndrew Griffith
 
Setting a new path to greater, shared prosperity
Setting a new path to greater, shared prosperitySetting a new path to greater, shared prosperity
Setting a new path to greater, shared prosperityResolutionFoundation
 
Proposed Facility Types: Chesapeake Trails and Connectivity Plan
Proposed Facility Types: Chesapeake Trails and Connectivity PlanProposed Facility Types: Chesapeake Trails and Connectivity Plan
Proposed Facility Types: Chesapeake Trails and Connectivity PlanCity of Chesapeake
 
一比一原版(UOW毕业证)伍伦贡大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(UOW毕业证)伍伦贡大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(UOW毕业证)伍伦贡大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(UOW毕业证)伍伦贡大学毕业证成绩单enbam
 
International Tea Day 2024; May 21st - United Nations.
International Tea Day 2024; May 21st - United Nations.International Tea Day 2024; May 21st - United Nations.
International Tea Day 2024; May 21st - United Nations.Christina Parmionova
 

Recently uploaded (20)

一比一原版(IC毕业证)帝国理工大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(IC毕业证)帝国理工大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(IC毕业证)帝国理工大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(IC毕业证)帝国理工大学毕业证成绩单
 
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(SUT毕业证)斯威本科技大学毕业证成绩单
 
The MEL Toolkit Launch Webinar Presentation
The MEL Toolkit Launch Webinar PresentationThe MEL Toolkit Launch Webinar Presentation
The MEL Toolkit Launch Webinar Presentation
 
Who are the Sherden Yale Historical Review
Who are the Sherden Yale Historical ReviewWho are the Sherden Yale Historical Review
Who are the Sherden Yale Historical Review
 
Creating an Effective Veteran Policy in Ukraine
Creating an Effective Veteran Policy in UkraineCreating an Effective Veteran Policy in Ukraine
Creating an Effective Veteran Policy in Ukraine
 
Elderly Persons Midday Meal Program kurnool
Elderly Persons Midday Meal Program kurnoolElderly Persons Midday Meal Program kurnool
Elderly Persons Midday Meal Program kurnool
 
Minority economic forum Executive Summary
Minority economic forum Executive SummaryMinority economic forum Executive Summary
Minority economic forum Executive Summary
 
researching client.pptxffffffffffffffffffffffffff
researching client.pptxffffffffffffffffffffffffffresearching client.pptxffffffffffffffffffffffffff
researching client.pptxffffffffffffffffffffffffff
 
一比一原版(ANU毕业证)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(ANU毕业证)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(ANU毕业证)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(ANU毕业证)澳大利亚国立大学毕业证成绩单
 
Effective governance in the modern charity
Effective governance in the modern charityEffective governance in the modern charity
Effective governance in the modern charity
 
一比一原版(MQU毕业证)麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(MQU毕业证)麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(MQU毕业证)麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(MQU毕业证)麦考瑞大学毕业证成绩单
 
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 35
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 352024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 35
2024: The FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulations, Part 35
 
Sponsoring a Girl Child's Education in kurnool
Sponsoring a Girl Child's Education in kurnoolSponsoring a Girl Child's Education in kurnool
Sponsoring a Girl Child's Education in kurnool
 
一比一原版(UoB毕业证)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(UoB毕业证)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(UoB毕业证)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(UoB毕业证)伯明翰大学毕业证成绩单
 
Inflation scarring: How has the cost-of-living crisis changed Britain?
Inflation scarring: How has the cost-of-living crisis changed Britain?Inflation scarring: How has the cost-of-living crisis changed Britain?
Inflation scarring: How has the cost-of-living crisis changed Britain?
 
Canadian Immigration Tracker March 2024 - Key Slides
Canadian Immigration Tracker March 2024 - Key SlidesCanadian Immigration Tracker March 2024 - Key Slides
Canadian Immigration Tracker March 2024 - Key Slides
 
Setting a new path to greater, shared prosperity
Setting a new path to greater, shared prosperitySetting a new path to greater, shared prosperity
Setting a new path to greater, shared prosperity
 
Proposed Facility Types: Chesapeake Trails and Connectivity Plan
Proposed Facility Types: Chesapeake Trails and Connectivity PlanProposed Facility Types: Chesapeake Trails and Connectivity Plan
Proposed Facility Types: Chesapeake Trails and Connectivity Plan
 
一比一原版(UOW毕业证)伍伦贡大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(UOW毕业证)伍伦贡大学毕业证成绩单一比一原版(UOW毕业证)伍伦贡大学毕业证成绩单
一比一原版(UOW毕业证)伍伦贡大学毕业证成绩单
 
International Tea Day 2024; May 21st - United Nations.
International Tea Day 2024; May 21st - United Nations.International Tea Day 2024; May 21st - United Nations.
International Tea Day 2024; May 21st - United Nations.
 

Mmis 61 so2016

  • 1. Pipeline Column Due July 25, 2016 CIL - Internet @ Schools - CIL Sept/Oct 2016 Issue Political Literacy Can Be Learned! By Stephen Abram Political literacy is a set of abilities considered necessary for citizens to participate in a society's government. It includes an understanding of how government works and of the important issues facing society, as well as the critical thinking skills to evaluate different points of view. Political literacy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_literacy In today’s political environment there is a fog of information. It tests everyone – adult and young adult alike - and our critical thinking skills. Separating fact from opinion is hard enough. Combine that with public opinion polls, massive quoting of ‘statistics’, personal stories that elucidate and obfuscate and everyone is overwhelmed by data and information and spin doctoring run amuck. Librarians care about information literacy. We care about using facts to support arguments, points of view and debates. In fact, we’re critical pieces of the educational infrastructure and train or mediate these issues. Librarians:  Select quality resources  Curate collections that support good research  Acquire the ‘best’ reference sources  And mediate the world of the web by curating website collections and recommendations as well as providing the metadata and search systems that assist in the alleviation of these issues.  We train! Ourselves and our users That noted, most searching happens outside of our libraries. Most information flow is gate-kept by sometimes biased or selective media organizations in television, cable, or news (print and online). Social networks share ‘facts’ through everything from memes, infographics, stories, videos, and just plain posts. Add to that that your filter bubble (more on this later) is rarely ‘pure’ and it’s influenced by your own social networks, search behaviours, beliefs, background, education and worldview. The role of authority and brand has been wholly disrupted. There is good and bad and sometimes just incomplete data, facts and information out there. There are quality new ‘brands’ out there as well as struggling older brands that occasionally get caught up in the hunt for ratings and eyeballs. Whom can we trust?
  • 2. It’s a dog’s breakfast out there! Can we come to the rescue? Information literacy isn’t a simple construct. It encompasses so much and I thought this column, coming out at the end of a very long U.S. presidential campaign, might be timely. Make no mistake, I have my preferences in politics and my own beliefs and worldviews. That’s not the point. As a librarian, my core belief is that information matters, truth and facts matter. That said, Stephen Colbert noted that “Facts have a well-known liberal bias.” He has also noted the new amorphous trend towards ‘truthiness’ over the last decade. Wikipedia defines “truthiness as a quality characterizing a "truth" that a person making an argument or assertion claims to know intuitively "from the gut" or because it "feels right" without regard to evidence, logic, intellectual examination, or facts.” For example perhaps we feel the murder rate has done nothing if not gone up because we watch a lot of crime shows or our local situation is different, when the facts are the opposite. A colder than normal winter may prove to some that global warming is not true. This column is about the core sources that form a digital citizenry’s corpus of tools that assist the enquiring mind. When we hear or read a ‘claim’, where so we go get the real dope? Whom do we trust? Who has the authority, independence, and resources to investigate claims and see the facts to form an information opinion? Although some librarians see ‘information’, the noun as the core of our profession, I see the verb as the core – ‘to inform and be informed.’ So this challenge is not just for school librarians to prepare the next generation to be informed but for all librarians to assist the whole population – student and adults alike – to evolve in a quickly changing political environment. Every tire needs re-treading occasionally. The Google (and other search engines) I recently did over two dozen public focus groups with regular folks – teens, adults, seniors. One of the questions I asked them was how the search results on Google were ranked? The winning answer by far was ‘popularity.’ Most (not all) search engines do not rank solely on popularity. We need to train people beyond this assumption because it affects their credulity about the results that they get online. Key messages and learning could include:  How are search engine results ranked?  What is the role of advertising?  What is the role of search engine optimization (SEO)?  What is the role of localization and GIS in search?  Can ‘bad’ people push content into my results? Who has an interest in my results?
  • 3. Librarians know the answers to these questions. We need to share. Two key issues to know: At present Google and search engines in general are having a banner (profit) year. In the U.S. both mainstream parties have huge teams of librarians and search engine optimizers ensuring that their candidates and their policies are hitting the top of the results. People need to know the role of GIS in targeting SEO in the search engine’s algorithm. The GIS data is usable to a very fine granular level. You can target different results at the state level for Senate campaign or the district level for congressional campaigns. Fine. Beyond that you can use census data to tune the messaging for Latino vs. Cuban neighbourhoods, high income vs. low income neighbourhoods, white vs. black neighbourhoods and more. What one person sees on the results may differ widely to another person’s results blocks away. You can also target by certain types of areas – you can acquire targeting zones to cover just university and college campuses, for example. There are white-hat and black-hat optimizers in the wild west of the WWW. Combine the above with the more recent targeting tools for mobile and social networks (social media optimization SMO) and you see extremely sophisticated ads and results used on Facebook, Pinterest, LinkedIn, Instagram, Tumblr, Twitter and more. Indeed, the DNC launched their Pokémon GO presence and targeting as the July convention commenced. The RNC has been a huge user of Twitter at every level, famously right to the top. YouTube, Vine and Periscope are also channels of information in video format that have social components. Much ado is made about ‘facts’ that come out of these sources alone. I try to check the facts but even I can be subject to confirmation bias! We all need to build political literacy skills. Starting Out: Do you look for information that confirms you point of view or biases and beliefs? Or do you look for information that challenges what you hear and know? It’s not so black and white and we all are more likely somewhere on a spectrum of choices. When we challenge a ‘fact’ or point of view and need to know if it’s ‘true’ or can be substantiated we must first be aware of the issues and challenges associated with what we receive through search engines and social media. We also must be aware of our own ‘filter bubble.’ “A filter bubble is a result of a personalized search in which a website algorithm selectively guesses what information a user would like to see based on information about the user (such as location, past click behavior, user profile, and search history) and, as a result,
  • 4. users become separated from information that disagrees with their viewpoints, effectively isolating them in their own cultural or ideological bubbles. Prime examples are Google Personalized Search results and Facebook’s personalized news stream. The term was coined by internet activist Eli Pariser in his book by the same name; according to Pariser, users get less exposure to conflicting viewpoints and are isolated intellectually in their own informational bubble. Pariser related an example in which one user searched Google for "BP" and got investment news about British Petroleum while another searcher got information about the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and that the two search results pages were "strikingly different". The bubble effect may have negative implications for civic discourse, according to Pariser, but there are contrasting views suggesting the effect is minimal and addressable.” (Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filter_bubble) Here are some readings that provide useful overviews and insights into the world of fact checking. I’ve tried to include sites beyond the US – including Canada, the UK and Europe. Heaven knows that the summer Brexit vote created new flows of fact fog. Resources UK Teaching political literacy. [UK] Citizenship Foundation http://www.citizenshipfoundation.org.uk/main/page.php?68 Full Fact, Full Fact is the UK's independent fact checking organization https://fullfact.org/ US PolitiFact. Tampa Bay Times http://www.politifact.com/ FactCheck.org A Project of the Annenberg Public Policy Center http://www.factcheck.org/ FlackCheck.org is the political literacy companion site to the award- winning FactCheck.org. It provides resources to help students recognize flaws in arguments. http://www.flackcheck.org/ The Washington Post’s Fact Checker. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/fact-checker/ The Duke Reporters’ Lab maintains a database of global fact-checking sites.
  • 5. http://reporterslab.org/fact-checking/ The Duke Reporters’ Lab maintains a database of global fact-checking sites. http://reporterslab.org/fact-checking/ Pew Research Center: Journalism and Media Project http://www.journalism.org/ Poynter: A Global Leader in Journalism http://www.poynter.org/ United States National Literacy Policies EDCI 874 National Literacy Policy Analysis > Political Literacy https://sites.google.com/site/nationliteracypoliciesedci874/home/political- literacy Canada FactsCan Canada Canada's political fact-checker. Independent. Transparent. Non-partisan. http://factscan.ca/ Understanding Polls 538 Blog FiveThirtyEight http://fivethirtyeight.com/ Nate Silver's FiveThirtyEight uses statistical analysis — hard numbers — to tell compelling stories about elections, politics, sports, science, economics and culture. Thinking About Fact-Checking “The rise — and limits — of political fact-checking” https://www.minnpost.com/media/2016/07/rise-and-limits-political-fact- checking “The Limits of Fact-Checking” http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/12/the-limits-of-the-fact- checker-213461 Harry G. Frankfurt’s famous essay “On Bullshit.” http://www.csudh.edu/ccauthen/576f12/frankfurt__harry_-_on_bullshit.pdf Why We’re Post-Fact by Peter Pomerantsev, Granta http://granta.com/why-were-post-fact/
  • 6. So here are some sites that can be added to people’s personal learning as personal kits. Many people know the top ones like PolitiFact and Snopes. There’s more! Fact Check Websites for Getting Political Facts: FactCheck.org “FactCheck.org is a nonpartisan, nonprofit “consumer advocate” for voters that aims to reduce the level of deception and confusion in U.S. politics. They monitor the factual accuracy of what is said by major U.S. political players in the form of TV ads, debates, speeches, interviews and news releases. Their goal is to apply the best practices of both journalism and scholarship, and to increase public knowledge and understanding.” PolitiFact.com “PolitiFact is run by the Tampa Bay Times. PolitiFact is an independent fact-checking website that aims to help people find "truth in politics" by monitoring statements from U.S. politician and advocacy groups. PolitiFact won a Pulitzer Prize in 2009 for its coverage of the 2008 Presidential election.” OpenSecrets.com “OpenSecrets.org is your nonpartisan guide to money’s influence on U.S. elections and public policy. Whether you’re a voter, journalist, activist, student or interested citizen, use this free site to shine light on the government. Count cash and make change.” MediaMatters.org “Media Matters is a Liberal swaying fact check source. According to their website, they are "dedicated to comprehensively monitoring, analyzing, and correcting conservative misinformation in the U.S. Media." They define "Conservative misinformation" as "news or commentary that is not accurate, reliable, or credible that forwards the conservative agenda."” NewsBusters.org “News Busters is a Conservative swaying fact check source. It is a project of the Media Research Center, which labels itself as an "American Media Watchdog." According to their website, they aim to "expose and combat the Liberal Media bias."”
  • 7. Project Vote Smart “Project Vote Smart, also called Vote Smart, is a non-profit, non-partisan research organization that collects and distributes information on candidates for public office in the United States. It covers candidates and elected officials in six basic areas: background information, issue positions (via the Political Courage Test), voting records, campaign finances, interest group ratings, and speeches and public statements.” Washington Post Fact Checker “The Washington Post Fact Checker's purpose "is to “truth squad” the statements of political figures regarding issues of great importance, be they national, international or local." They "seek to explain difficult issues, provide missing context and provide analysis and explanation of various “code words” used by politicians, diplomats and others to obscure or shade the truth."” ABC News Fact Check “ABC Fact Check determines the accuracy of claims by politicians, public figures, advocacy groups and institutions engaged in the public debate. All verdicts fall into three color-based categories: In The Red, In The Green or In Between - red being a negative ruling, and green being a positive.” Smart Voter “Smart Voter provides voters with comprehensive nonpartisan information about the contests on their ballot in an easy-to-use presentation. Smart Voter also provides a means for candidates to publish information about themselves and their candidacy directly to voters. This service is made possible through partnerships with the League of Women Voters and election officials of various states and local communities around the U.S.” Lastly we need to consider some of the rumors that are just too crazy to be true. Then again, you can fool some of the people, some of the time. Fact Check Websites for Religion, Email Scams and Hoaxes: Top 11 sites to debunk urban legends 1. Snopes 2. About Urban Legends
  • 8. 3. Break The Chain 4. Hoaxbusters 5. Sophos 6. F-Secure 7. VMyths 8. Symantec 9. Trend Micro 10. Virus Busters 11. TruthOrFiction.com So, there you have it, the makings of a short 20-30 minute classroom session and handout on the ways to test what you hear and see – socially, on the web, in print, or on TV. Librarians are, by definition and values, non-partisan. That said, we are no unbiased. We are biased towards quality and fact-based, research based, informed opinion. Be careful out there! Stephen Abram, MLS is managing principal of Lighthouse Consulting Inc. He has held executive roles in information and software vendors as well as management roles in libraries. He is a Past President of SLA, the Ontario Library Association and the Canadian Library Association. He is an international speaker, author of ALA Edition’s Out Front with Stephen Abram and Stephen’s Lighthouse Blog. Stephen would love to hear from you at stephen.abram@gmail.com.