Personas are understood through discovery by: Gathering data to identify possible “anchors” Observing behavior Pattern emergence in narrative
General rules Never ask a direct question Simulate real or “imagined” experience Ritualize anecdote capture The anecdote circle Common experience Stimulate “ditting” Can be virtual or physical
A combination of archetypes, values and themes that represents a market expectation of a product or service.
Persona Elements Demographics Typical Day Information interests Information seeking behavior Ultimate goal Frustrations Work activities Computer skills, knowledge, abilities Technology attributes Communicating Market size, influence
BASICS • Understand the clear difference between database search and federated discovery • Know Your algorithm – commercial algorithms versus proprietary algorithms • Know SEO, SMO, tuned search • Usability versus User Experience • Title Counts versus Workflow orientation • Transactions versus Transformations • Outcomes and impact measurements versus Statistics • Local versus Global metadata (OCLC WorldShare, DPLA, Cloud, etc.)2
Carl Grant’s Differentiators• Access to the library collections and services from any device, at any time from anywhere. (mobile)• Massive aggregates of information that have been selected for inclusion because of their quality by either: a) librarians, or b) filtered by communities of users through ranking systems and ultimately reviewed and signed-off by librarians for final inclusion in those aggregates. (cloud computing)• Discovery workbenches or platforms that allow the users to discover existing knowledge and build new knowledge in highly personalized manners. (discovery products with new extensions)• Easy access and integration of the full range of library services into other products they use frequently, such as course or learning management systems, social networking, discussion forums, etc. (rich APIs, extensive support of Apps and standards to support other extensions) [Linked Data]• Contextual support, i.e. the ability for librarianship to help members understand the environment in which a particular piece of work was generated (for instance, Mark Twains writings, or scientific research-is this a peer reviewed publication? (new products needed)• Unbiased information. (start conveying the distinction, a huge differentiator)• Pro-active services. Get out in front. Someone up for tenure? Go to their office. Find out what they need and get it to them. (analytic tools, coupled with massive aggregates of data)
Stephen Abram’s Key DifferentiatorsSustainability versus digital evolution• Our people are our brand – not information, databases, technology or books. Staff deliverthe service. A service devoid of staff promotion is a recipe for failure or outsourcing.• Question improvement• Predictive service through excellent contextual relationships• Copyright knowledge and compliance• Service, professional service not good and efficient step&fetchit servitude• Information fluency professional development – not mere training, literacy, …• Special and unique collections curated in context and pruned as needed• Curriculum, discovery, teaching and research alignment• Visibility where the users are, not a destination strategy• eLearning development teams, MOOCs, eTextbooks, eReserves, eServices, etc.• Developing rubrics, measurements and proofs of impact
Project ObjectiveTo understand and meet the expectations of public library users for services, content, and virtual interaction. 10
Personas DefinedPersonas are hypothetical representations of a natural grouping of users that drive decision-making for development projects. They are not real people, but they represent real people. They are defined by goals. They focus on what is valuable to the user and subsequently on how he or she behaves. 11
Personas Goals: Help team build the base infrastructure for .NET products. Construct the base set of services that ship with the product and compose the core of a distributed framework for hosting distributed services. Add queuing semantics and associated locking, classification and routing of messages, subscriptions, efficient filtering, fan-out, etc., to the server. Integrate new distributed communication semantics to the existing SQL Server programming model. Demonstrate ability to communicate and work well with other teams. Usage Scenario: Henry has been around long enough to build a solid network of resources to call when he has specific questions about products or programs. He often learns about new technologies or processes through casual conversation with his friends and coworkers in the hallway. He uses Yahoo! for general information gathering because he likes the simplicity of the site design and the breadth of information available. The Portal is not his start page—he usually just types in the URL directly. He rarely reads the content on theHenry first page because he doesnt want to know whats going on with general companywide PR information. Hes somewhat cynical about "companywide" internal releases and dislikes company politics. However, on a41 Years Old, personal level, he does want to know about the schedules that the applications are on so he can plan. HesSoftware Design Engineer frustrated that theres no place you can go to find product information all in one spot.U.S. Info-Seeking Behavior: When Henry needs specific information, he generally e-mails or phones12 Years at the company. a friend. He is a member of about 15 different DLs that used to be manageable, but now he finds it increasingly difficult to keep up.Single,MS Comput.Sci He typically uses the Portal to search for internal information across the companywide intranet or to find other internal sites. He comes to the portal about four-five times a week by typing in the URL and stays for less than 15 minutes at a time. He rarely, if ever, goes to there to find general information about the company or the industry as a whole. He uses internal databases to find internal information on products or code. If hes frustrated by something, hell go there and find solutions rather than go outside to support or to a dot-com. "You used to have to drill down pretty deep to find personalized information, but now its easier." He tends to bookmark pages in the portal because he hates having to go 5 levels down. Hell use that bookmark until it breaks, then he has to research it again. He would like to have favorites on the portal. . . . 12
Our ApproachNarrative capture and identification of characters, issues and problems, behaviors and actions.Narrative pattern review of content, service and product needsIdentification of priority requirements for specific market identities i.e. personas 13
Why Narrative Capture?Knowledge can only be volunteered it cannot be conscriptedI only know what I know when I need to know itI always know more than I can say and I will always say more than I can write down 15
Anecdote Circles The five (5) workshops held in Starter Statements April-May 2005 • Describe a day that involved coming to the library. • Describe a day that you wanted to come to the library but couldn’t. Bergen County Public Library • Give us an example of when you learned Buffalo Erie Public Library something from others at the library. • Give us an example of when you tried to learn Cleveland Public Library something from others at the library but didn’t. Hamilton Public Library • Give us an example from the past when you have used a computer to find information and S.A.I.L.S. Middleboro, MA were surprised about what you found. • Give us an example from the past when you decided you wouldn’t be able to find the information through the computer – why?16
Archetypes: Characters Archetype Summary 12 Good Citizenship Number of Archetypes 10 8 Patrons 6 Library Staff 4 2 Money 0 Library Services Archetype Names and Facilities
Good Citizenship Archetypes Well-Rounded Citizen (13 attributes) Collaborate Community brings people together Cozy Diverse activities Encourage creativity Good use of our money Human contact Bergen Intellectual County opportunities Kids feel safe Nurturing Opportunities – social Security Willing to chat when time permits
Good Citizenship Archetypes Strong Community Leader (6 attributes) Community builder Connected Connecting with community SAILS Gives people mission Networking Pulls community together
Patron Archetypes Frustrated Patron (12 attributes) Annoying Books out of print Disruption Indifference Lack of wireless No tape player Online services unavailable Cleveland Out of date Physical pain Ripped/missing pieces, out of date magazine Wasted resources Wasted space
Patron Archetypes Inquisitive Power User (12 attributes) After hours usage Broader search results Computer use Introduction to new things Lots of preferences No online access Cleveland outside of library Not a free service Open to public Outside sources Search method Universal access Ways to get information
Patron Archetypes Disengaged Seeker (9 attributes) Can’t get book you want (timely) Don’t listen to reviews/bad reviews (NPR Reviews) Embarrassing Fear of puppets Cleveland Forgot card/license Head aches Injuries Some people consider a waste of money/space (crafts) Too long
Library Staff Archetypes Ultimate Tour Guide (7 attributes) Advance reserve on new materials Abundance of items One-stop shopping Video/DVD lost in drop box Buffalo-Erie Access to materials never afford Up to date, current materials Diversity of materials
Library Services Archetypes Out-of-Date IT (6 attributes) Access to PC’s Message is too long (automated computer system) Hamilton Not enough computers Public Slow re-boot Strong database Technical-media options
Library Services Archetypes “Something for Everyone” Resources (4 attributes) Can’t remove reference material Extensive collection Library for books, not Hamilton movie rentals Public Library for education films, not Hollywood movies
Themes: Issues and Problems Themes 20 Number of Themes 15 Interaction Technology 10 Efficiency Money 5 Other 0 Theme Names
Values: Behaviors and Actions Values 10 9 8 Community Number of Values 7 Learning 6 Quality 5 Efficiency 4 Money/Risk 3 Other 2 1 0 Value Grouping
Example Focus Areas Content Service Functionality SMI Attributes SMI Attributes Themes Cuts Down Searching Vast Information Equal Access to Too Many Features Services Dedicated Local Library Directories Ease of Use and Archetypes Efficiency Satisfied Customer In-depth Knowledge Available Meeting Customer Needs Values Archetypes Information Access Archetypes Self-Learning Something for Frustrated Patron Everyone Resources Values Qualities Quality Librarian Library Material Types Services31
7 PL PersonasDiscovery Dan Dan represents the adult non-researcher population.Haley High School Haley represents the high school student population.Jennifer Jennifer represents the parents of teenagers.Mommy Marcie Marcie represents the parents of young children.Rick Researcher Rick represents adult researchers who own a personal computer.Senior Sally Sally represents senior citizens.Tasha Learner Tasha represents adult researchers who do not own a personal computer. 34
A typical day at the library: Stops by the library either on their way to or from work or over their lunch break. May spend time on the weekend if they have a home project. Have requested the books or DVD’s online so is either dropping them off or picking the materials up. Enjoys lectures, classes or other non-traditional activities. Appreciates connecting with the library staff during visitsInformation-seeking behavior: Usually checks online to see what has newly arrived at the library. If they have time during their stop over at the library itself, they will browse what is new in the nonfiction and music; maybe the fiction shelf as well. Uses the library to avoid the cost of buying materials. May purchase books after reviewing them in the library. Signs out DVD’s and movies for entertainment. Appreciates the book club(s), even if not an active participant. Also seeks community information (pamphlets, etc.) Reads on-line reviews of booksUltimate goal: To pick up the books, music or videos they are interested in. Or to simply discover books or other material that piques their interest to expand their mindsFrustrations: Changing library hours. Unpredictable Internet search results. Pop-ups, spam. Librarians who aren’t very good at referring them to specific sources or best sources on a given topic – could be people as often as written information. Wishes libraries would coordinate culling of collections and try to keep at least one copy of a book in one of the libraries. Needs more consumer-friendly categorization of material. Parking (downtown users) Hours need to match commute schedule. Wait-lists for books so long that they are compelled to purchase the book from Amazon. 35
Product Considerations for Haley Discovery DanNEEDS FEATURES Gaps/Opportunities 36
A typical day at the library: They are not daily users of public libraries. When they do come they focus on magazines, newspapers or quickly check their email or browse the Internet. If they don’t have a good school library they will come to the public library after conducting a web search. They may use the library computer to print out a paper, especially if the shared computer at home is inaccessible.Information-seeking behavior: Most information activity begins with a web search. They will type in their search within “ ” and start there to determine what they need. They might go to their school library or if they have a history of using public libraries, go to the public library to get help from a reference librarian. They will likely IM their friends to see what they are doing to find answers to the assignment. Public library Internet use is up among teens from 36% in 2000 to 54% in 2005. When they go online 74% do it from home, 17% from school and 9% other (community centers, churches, friend’s house and libraries). Note: Teens are just as likely as adults to get news and information about current events online. More than half report political news- seeking. (Pew – Teens and Technology)Ultimate goal: They want to complete a school projectFrustrations: The books are too advanced for a high school student. There are no public library materials available on a web search. The library is at the bottom of the list for research for some high schoolers. 37
• “Wikipedia on steroids.”Summary • “Could do a research paper with this!” • “This is mind-blowing.” (Research Help)5 MODERATED STUDIES • Lots of valuable information in a controlled environment.5 UN-MODERATED STUDIESCOLLEGE STUDENTS – UNDERGRAD AND GRAD • Right-clicking on item is valuable but users wouldn’t know it is an option. How do we make it more evident? • “Wall of text and “blocks of text can be intimidating.” • Font size is too small on some pages. Consider adding the ability to increase or decrease font size. • A few users did not like being “bombarded” with too much information when focusing on reading a textbook article.
• Numerous commentsregarding how helpfulvideos are .• Confusion as to whether auser has to complete allaspects of the tutorial(video, examples, quizzes)or can complete specificsections only.
• Most well-received page ofthe study. (portal page).• After selecting ‘want tosee more?’ on the previouspage, users expectationswere often exceeded. •Often cited as ‘what I like most about this site.’ •“Combines a lot of things into one page.” • “The fact that it is broken down by content type is better than Wikipedia.”
Ng pawUsability TestingNovember 201226 usertesting.com studies
Summary • Lots of excitement over the product, home page40-65 YEARS OLD (10) and features.COLLEGE STUDENTS (13) • Would use and recommend to others.RANDOM (3) • Lots of name recognition and familiarity (Nat Geo). • Some re-ordering of content types necessary. • Much confusion tied to ‘Departments.’ • ‘Graphing Tool’ is not understood. • Collapse/expand and moving of content types is not clear. • Recommendations for image viewer.
• It presents a really cool repository of history over the last 125 years that areThe (Really) unavailable anywhere else on the web. Igood…. •I would use this site for research on school projects because it is easy to use, navigate, has a plethora of information and is reputable/credible with great history.INFORMATIVE Really a prime go to spot for info.CLEAN AND SIMPLE INTERFACE • Much easier than having to find the actual printed volumes and wait for them toMANY PAST OR PRESENT arrive at our library. The website archive is very simple and easy. SUBSCRIBERSLITTLE USE OF THE MAGIC WAND • It provides information on many of the aspects of this planet such as environments, animals, and culture. • National Geographic has such an iconic logo. • Expect that youre gonna be informed. • That’s a large bank of data there. • Slider draws my attention. • Simple and straight forward. • Covers look interesting. • Polished and easy to use. •I grew up on National Geographic and believe there is no other publication that comes close to it.
User Test: Rank top three content typesSurvey says…. Test #1Feature articles # 1 overall but…. Visuals are key (images often included in top three and mentioned in comments) User comments: I’m coming here to get articles. NG is known for their magazines. NG is known for their photography. I would rearrange the categories/subjects to put the most impactful ones at the top, particularly featured images. That is what people think of when they think of National Geographic. I would probably start my search browsing for images.
User Test: Image viewer navigation (Where would you turn page?/Expect to turnpage?)Survey says…. Users did see arrows to turnpage but the majority of userswould expect to turn pages onthe right hand of the page.User comments:It seems more natural to a readingflow to click on the right rather thango to the top of the page (to selectarrow).Would expect to turn page closer towhere the page number is.I would like/expect to turn the pageany time I’m close to left or right-hand side of screen.Click right and advance. USABILITY SAYS….Add arrows to the left and right and have them appear as user hovers over a certain section
Looks “modern & clean” ; “love pictures of the •Summary5 ACADEMIC SCHOLARS IN 18 TH & archives” 19TH CENTURY LIT • All testers liked the descriptive hover-over tabs JUSTIN, YALE PHD, 18TH C • All testers liked predictive search SLANEY, PURDUE PHD, 18TH C • 2/5 users expressed much interest in graphing toolTONYA, MARYMOUNT PROF., 18TH & 19TH CENTURY • Users understand the distinction between aTOM, PROF. OF LIT., U OF photographic content type and a book or manuscript BIRMINGHAM , UK, 18TH & 19TH C that merely contains photographs.SARAH, MARYMOUNT PROF., 19TH & • Although all users can make this distinction, they 20TH C. BRITISH LIT. prefer to have some type of notification on search results page that “floats” the illustration info from the document page, up to results page • Users had difficulty finding illustration information on a document page, since scrolling down is often required • On document page, show illustrations before related content
User Test: Search for Maps + ChinaUsers SearchingNCCO say….Users searched maps as a proxy forsearching photos “Drilling down” into the document to determine if it contains illustrations is cumbersome for our users. “if the data exists there, can you surface it here?” Solutions: •Users indicated that they understand that not all maps or photos will display under content types at left, but since we have the metadata, and display it on the document page, why not surface it to the search results page here (Arrow #1)
User Test: Can you find illustrations onthe document page?Users SearchingNCCO say….Users searched maps as a proxy forsearching photos When relevant pages returned, number so many as displayed here, user does not see or know to scroll down, to find illustration information that is listed below Solutions: •When more than two rows or relevant pages are returned, collapse the rest of the page numbers in an accordion or drop-down fashion, in order to display critical information to the user (Arrow #1)
User Test: What would you change ?Users SearchingNCCO say….Users searched maps as a proxy forsearching photos Users can accept that not all maps or photos merit inclusion in the map or photo content type bucket, but still want to see these ‘lesser’ illustrations made more visible on the document pages, and floated to results page too. Solutions: •Collapse long lists of page numbers (Arrow #1) • Push ‘Related Volumes’ down the page, since users care more about finding contents and illustrations on this page (Arrow #2) •Highlight Illustrations and float them to search results page (Arrow #3)
The Value of Libraries Soundbite The Value of Public Libraries http://stephenslighthouse.com/2010/04/06/the-value-of-public-libraries/ The Value of School Libraries http://stephenslighthouse.com/2010/04/06/the-value-of-school-libraries/ The Value of Academic and College Libraries http://stephenslighthouse.com/2010/04/07/value-of-academic-and- college-libraries/http://stephenslighthouse.com/2010/11/01/the-value-of-academic-libraries- redux-acrl/ The Value of Special Libraries http://stephenslighthouse.com/2010/04/07/value-of-special-libraries/ Library Advocacy: Save the Library Campaigns http://stephenslighthouse.com/2010/04/01/save-the-library-campaigns/ Storytelling…
The Value of Libraries Soundbite The Value of Academic and College Libraries http://stephenslighthouse.com/2010/04/07/value-of-academic-and- college-libraries/ ACRL The Value of Academic Librarieshttp://stephenslighthouse.com/2010/11/01/the-value-of-academic- libraries-redux-acrl/ VALUE OF ACADEMIC LIBRARIES TOOLKIThttp://www.ala.org/acrl/issues/value/valueofacademiclibrariestoolkit• Working Together: Evolving Value for Academic Librarieshttp://libraryvalue.wordpress.com/report/
Positioning the Library in The Right Minds Reading not Books Librarians not Libraries Questions not Answers Knowledge not Information Community and Learning not Warehouses Measurements not Statistics Members or Students or Faculty not Users Full Intellectual Access not Physical Access Professional Consultative Service not Servant or mere efficient and effective service63
So what is the answer?Where are the real pain points?
Let’s thinkThink: Are you thinking food, courses,days, weekly plan, or nutrition overall?What is a meal in library end-user community or research, education andlearning terms?
The newbibliography and collection development KNOWLEDGE PORTALS KNOWLEDGE, LEARNING, INFORMATION & RESEARCH COMMONS
What are the real issues?Craft versus Industrial Strength - ScalabilityPilot, Project, Initiative versus Portfolio StrategyHand knitted prototypes versus Productione.g. Information Literacy initiatives Discovery versus Search versus Deep Search eLearning unitsStrategic Analytics Value measures Behaviours
What We Never Really Knew Before 27% of our users are under 18. 59% are female. 29% are college students. We often believe a 5% are professors and 6% are teachers. lot that On any given day, 35% of our users are true. for the very isn’t there first time! Only 29% found the databases via the library website. 59% found what they were looking for on their first search. 72% trusted our content more than Google. But, 81% still use Google.
2010 Eduventures Research on Investments 58% of instructors believe that technology in courses positively impacts student engagement. 71% of instructors that rated student engagement levels as “high” as a result of using technology in courses. 71% of students who are employed full-time and 77% of students who are employed part-time prefer more technology- based tools in the classroom. 79% of instructors and 86 percent of students have seen the average level of engagement improve over the last year as they have increased their use of digital educational tools. 87% of students believe online libraries and databases have had the most significant impact on their overall learning. 62% identify blogs, wikis, and other online authoring tools while 59% identify YouTube and recorded lectures. E-books and e-textbooks impact overall learning among 50% of students surveyed, while 42% of students identify online portals. 44% of instructors believe that online libraries and databases will have the greatest impact on student engagement. 32% of instructors identify e-textbooks and 30% identify interactive homework solutions as having the potential to improve engagement and learning outcomes. (e-readers was 11%) 49% of students believe that online libraries and databases will have the greatest impact on student engagement. Students are more optimistic about the potential for technology.
What we know is POWERFUL! Facts + Stories Via Stephen’s Lighthouse Blog “Curb Your Librarian Frustration in 8 Easy Steps” New York State 2012 Summary of School Library Research Ken Haycock OLA Summary of School Library Impact Studies Advance: McKinley HS Study by Project Tomorrow Project Tomorrow reports to Congress Alison Head and Information Fluency research Foresee Data and Overall Usage Data Pew Internet & American Life reports Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation studies IMLS, NCES, ARL, ACRL, ALA, LJ, etc.77