THE MODERNIZATION PERSPECTIVEModernization School as a product of threecrucial events in the post world war II era.1st: Rise of United States as a super power.2nd: Spread of a united world communistmovement.3rd: Disintegration of European colonial empiresgiving birth to many new nation- states in theThird World.
EVOLUTIONARY THEORYIndustrial Revolution - with science andtechnology, productivity rose and there was aconquest of the world market.French Revolution - created new political orderbased on equality, liberty, freedom, andparliamentary democracy.
EVOLUTIONARY THEORYFeatures of Classical Evolutionary Theory •Assumed that social change is unidirectional •Imposed a value judgment on evolutionary process •Assumed that the rate of social change is slow, gradual and piecemeal
FUNCTIONALIST THEORY1st: Institutions in a society are closely related toone another.2nd: Each institution performs a certain function.3rd: Institutions are in harmony and not inconflict with one another.4th: There’s pattern variables to distinguishtraditional from modern societies.
FUNCTIONALIST THEORY5 Sets of Pattern Variables• Affective vs. Affective- Neutral Relationship• Particularistic vs. Universalistic Relationship• Collective Orientation vs. Self Orientation• Ascription vs. Achievement• Functionality Diffused vs. Functionally Specific Relationship
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH: LEVY’S RELATIVELY MODERNIZED SOCIETIESModernization is defined by the extent to whichtools and inanimate sources of power are utilized.Modernization occurs because of contact betweenrelatively modernized societies and relatively non-modernized societies.
How do relatively modernized societies differ from relatively non-modernized societies? Relatively Nonmodernized Relatively Modernized Societies SocietiesSpecialization of Low compartmentalization of highOrganization lifeInterdependency of Low (high level of highorganization Self suffiency)Relationship emphasis Tradition, particularism, Rationality, universalism, Functional diffuseness Functional specificityDegree of low highcentralizationGeneralized media of Less emphasis More emphasisExchange and marketBureaucracy and family Precedence of family norm Insulate bureaucracy fromconsideration (nepotism as a virtue) The contactsTown- village One- way flow of goods and Mutual flow of goods andinterdependence services from rural to urban services between towns and contexts villages.
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH: LEVY’S RELATIVELY MODERNIZED SOCIETIESWhat are the prospects for the Third World latecomers in their modernization efforts? •To borrow initial expertise in planning •Capital accumulation •Skills •Patterns of organization without the cost of invention •Skipping nonessential stages
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH: SMELSER’S STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATIONModernization involves structural differentiationbecause, though the modernization process, acomplicated structure that performed multiplefunctions is divided into many specialized structuresthat perform just one function each.
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH: SMELSER’S STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATIONThe classic example is the family institution.In the past, the traditional family had acomplicated structure: - large and multigenerational - multifunctional (reproduction and emotional support, production, education, welfare and religion.
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH: SMELSER’S STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATIONIn modern society, it has undergone structuraldifferentiation, with a simpler structure – small andnuclear.Modern society is more productive, children arebetter educated, and the needy receive morewelfare than before.
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH: SMELSER’S STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATIONWhat happens after a complicated institutionhas differentiated into many simpler ones?Smelser argues that although structuraldifferentiation has increased the functionalcapacity of institutions, it has also created theproblem of integration.
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH: SMELSER’S STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATIONAccording to Smelser, new institutions and roleshave to be created to coordinate the newlydifferentiated structures.In order to protect employees from the abuse ofemployers, new orgs such as labor unions andthe Department of Labor have been created toperform the protection function.
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH: SMELSER’S STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATIONThe problem of integration may still not havebeen solved satisfactorily. First, there is the issue of values conflict. Second, there is the issue of unevendevelopment.
SOCIOLOGICAL APPROACH: SMELSER’S STRUCTURAL DIFFERENTIATIONAccording to Smelser, social disturbances arethe result of lack of integration amongdifferentiated structures.This framework of structural differentiation servesto draw attention to the examination of theproblems of integration and social disturbancesthat are so common in Third World countries.
ECONOMIC APPROACH:Rostow’s Stages of Economic Growth
THE ECONOMIC APPROACH: ROSTOW’S STAGES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH“The Take-Off into Self-Sustained Growth” (1964) - a representative chapter in Rostow’s written classic work - states that there are five major stages of economic development
THE ECONOMIC APPROACH: ROSTOW’S STAGES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH1. The Third World country is at the traditional stage.2. Then the rise of new entrepreneurs, the expansion of markets, the development of new industries, and so on, begins. This stage is called “precondition for takeoff growth”.
THE ECONOMIC APPROACH: ROSTOW’S STAGES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH• Stimulus – needed in order to propel the Third World countries beyond the precondition stage (e.g. political revolutions, technological innovation, international environment)
THE ECONOMIC APPROACH: ROSTOW’S STAGES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH3. After moving beyond the precondition stage,a country that wants to have self-sustainedeconomic growth must have the capital andresources for takeoff.
THE ECONOMIC APPROACH: ROSTOW’S STAGES OF ECONOMIC GROWTHHow can a nation obtain the capital and resources for productive investment? - through confiscatory and taxation devices - from institutions such as banks, capital markets, government bonds, and stock market - through foreign trade - from direct foreign capital investment
THE ECONOMIC APPROACH: ROSTOW’S STAGES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH4. Once economic growth has become anautomatic process, the fourth stage—the driveto maturity—is reached.5. This is soon followed by growth in employmentopportunities, increase in national income, riseof consumer demands, and formation of astrong domestic market. This is the final stage:“high-mass consumption society”.
THE ECONOMIC APPROACH: ROSTOW’S STAGES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH• If the problem facing Third World countries liesin their lack of productive investment, then thesolution lies in forms of capital, technology, andexpertise.
POLITICAL APPROACH:Coleman’s Differentiation-Equality-Capacity Model
THE POLITICAL APPROACH: COLEMAN’S DIFFERENTIATION-EQUALITY- CAPACITY MODELPolitical Modernization, according to Coleman, refers to the process of:1.Differentiation of political structure, and2.Secularization of political culture, which3.Enhance the capacity of a society’s political system
THE POLITICAL APPROACH: COLEMAN’S DIFFERENTIATION-EQUALITY- CAPACITY MODELFirst, Coleman refers to differentiation as the process of progressive separation and specialization of roles and institutional spheres in the political system.Second, he argues that equality is the ethos of modernity. The politics of modernization is the quest for and the realization of equality.
THE POLITICAL APPROACH: COLEMAN’S DIFFERENTIATION-EQUALITY- CAPACITY MODEL• What then are the issues concerning equality? - distributive equality - legal equality - equality of opportunity - equality of participation
THE POLITICAL APPROACH: COLEMAN’S DIFFERENTIATION-EQUALITY- CAPACITY MODELThird, Coleman asserts that the quest for differentiation and equality may lead to growth of political capacity of the system. - Modernization is seen as the progressive acquisition of political capacity for the system.
THE POLITICAL APPROACH: COLEMAN’S DIFFERENTIATION-EQUALITY- CAPACITY MODELPolitical capacity if manifested in an increase in scope of the following political functions:• Scale of political community• Efficacy of the implementations of political decisions• Penetrative power of central governmental institutions• Comprehensiveness of the aggregation of interests by political assoc.• Institutionalization of political organization and procedure• Problem-solving capabilities• Ability to sustain new political demands and organizations
THE POLITICAL APPROACH: COLEMAN’S DIFFERENTIATION-EQUALITY- CAPACITY MODELFinally, Coleman cautions that differentiation and demands for egalitarianism may also create tension and divisiveness within the political system.
Coleman mentions the ff. six crises of modernization:1. the crisis of national identity2. the crisis of political legitimacy3. the crisis of penetration4. the crisis of participation5. the crisis of integration6. the crisis of distribution
THE POLITICAL APPROACH: COLEMAN’S DIFFERENTIATION-EQUALITY- CAPACITY MODELFor Coleman, the modernization of a political system is measured by the extent to which it has successfully developed the capacities to cope with these generic system-development problems.
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODOLODYResearchers in modernization school share two sets of assumptions and methodology in their study of Thirld World development.The first set are concepts drawn from European evolutionary theory – social change is unidirectional, progressive, and gradual.
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODOLODY(1)Modernization is a phased process.(2)Modernization is a homogenizing process.(3)Modernization is a Europeanization (or Americanization) process.(4)Modernization is an irreversible process.(5)Modernization is a progressive process.(6)Modernization is a lengthy process.
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODOLODYThe other set of assumptions shared by modernization researchers are drawn from functionalist theory – emphasizes the interdependence of social institutions, the importance of pattern variables, and the built- in process of change through homeostatic equilibrium.
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODOLODY(1)Modernization is a systematic process.(2)Modernization is a transformative process.(3)Modernization is an immanent process.
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODOLODYMembers of the modernization school also adopt a similar methodological approach for their research.First, modernization researchers tend to anchor their discussions at a highly general and abstract level.
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODOLODYSecond, modernization researchers rely upon Parsons’s ideal type construction to summarize their key arguments.Third, the indexing of the features of dichotomous ideal types becomes a major effort of students of the modernization school.
THEORETICAL ASSUMPTIONS AND METHODOLODYBasically, modernization theories are theories of transformation of nation-states.
POLICY IMPLICATIONSModernization theories were originally formulated in response to the new leadership role of the United States took on after World War II.They have important policy implications:
POLICY IMPLICATIONSFirst, modernization theories help to provide an implicit justification for the asymmetrical power relationship between “traditional” and “modern societies” (Tipps 1976).Second, modernization theories identify the threat of communism in the Third World as a modernization problem.
POLICY IMPLICATIONS• Modernization theories suggest economic development, the replacement of traditional values, and the institutionalization of democratic procedures.Third, modernization theories help to legitimate the “meliorative foreign aid policy” of the United States (Chirot 1981, Apter 1987).