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Lean Manufacturing And Its Production

Stephanie King
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Lean Manufacturing And Its Production
Lean Manufacturing
Most people wouldn't know what Lean Manufacturing was if they hadn't either learned about it or
use it at work. Lean manufacturing is a way to eliminate waste and maximize customer value.
Delivering the right product, in the right quantity, with the right quantity, at the exact time the
customer needs it and at the lowest cost possible is the main goal of lean manufacturing. With lean
manufacturing you can have benefits such as reduced lead times, improved quality, improved on–
time deliveries, less inventory, less space, less human effort, lower costs, and increased profitability.
The concept of lean manufacturing was introduced in Japan, and Toyota Production System was the
first company to use it. Lean manufacturing simply follows the notion that the customer will pay for
the value of services they receive and they will not pay for the mistakes. It was stated in Challenges
in the transformation to lean production from different manufacturing process choice that for Toyota
the focal point is not to make money but to generate value for the customers; money follows
automatically if the customers are satisfied.
The lean production philosophy is currently widely applied globally in industries such as the process
industry, aerospace industry, furniture manufacturing, the textile industry, hospitals, government
agencies, and the service industries. But, there are some principles that need to be followed in order
for companies to become lean. There are
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Lean Manufacturing And Its Production
Lean Manufacturing And Its Production
Lean Manufacturing And Its Production
Lean Manufacturing And The Production System
Definition
Lean manufacturing is the process of eliminating waste in every area such as production, supply
chain, maintenance, quality control and factory management.
The ultimate goal of lean manufacturing is to decrease the human effort, inventory and time to meet
the customer demand in the most efficient and possible economical manner.
Lean manufacturing is referred to the methods of manufacturing that gives maximum value and
minimum waste in the process that is followed. Lean manufacturing is also used to focus on the
resources to maximize the value added features and eliminate the non–value added features.
There were different names for Lean over the years which was primarily developed from the Toyota
Production System (TPS) it has ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ...
In Ohno's book 'TPS – beyond large scale production' Ohno described how TPS evolved out of
need, as the market place in post war Japan required small quantities of cars to be produced in many
varieties. This became very different ot the Ford principle of mass–production.
Although TPS began in 1950, Japanese firms noticed only in the 1973 where oil crisis took place.
Since then the system has been studied, copied and implemented across many industries.
Womack, Jones and Roos (1990) coined the phrase "Lean Manufacturing" in the MIT five–year
study into the automotive industry that led to the book "The Machine That Changed the World".
This gives a pretty good insight into The History of Lean Manufacturing
Even with the massive amount of research that has taken place into the Toyota Production System,
fifty one years after it was born, Slack et al still refer to Lean Manufacturing as a 'radical departure
from traditional operations practice'.
The Timeline of Lean Manufacturing:
1926 – Sakichi Toyoda sells foreign rights to loom and Sakichi Toyoda patents Toyoda Automatic
Loom with Non–Stop Shuttle–change motion
1936 – Kiichiro Toyoda (Sakichi's son) starts Toyota (then called
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Lean Manufacturing And Its Production
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Lean Manufacturing And Its Production

  • 1. Lean Manufacturing And Its Production Lean Manufacturing Most people wouldn't know what Lean Manufacturing was if they hadn't either learned about it or use it at work. Lean manufacturing is a way to eliminate waste and maximize customer value. Delivering the right product, in the right quantity, with the right quantity, at the exact time the customer needs it and at the lowest cost possible is the main goal of lean manufacturing. With lean manufacturing you can have benefits such as reduced lead times, improved quality, improved on– time deliveries, less inventory, less space, less human effort, lower costs, and increased profitability. The concept of lean manufacturing was introduced in Japan, and Toyota Production System was the first company to use it. Lean manufacturing simply follows the notion that the customer will pay for the value of services they receive and they will not pay for the mistakes. It was stated in Challenges in the transformation to lean production from different manufacturing process choice that for Toyota the focal point is not to make money but to generate value for the customers; money follows automatically if the customers are satisfied. The lean production philosophy is currently widely applied globally in industries such as the process industry, aerospace industry, furniture manufacturing, the textile industry, hospitals, government agencies, and the service industries. But, there are some principles that need to be followed in order for companies to become lean. There are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 5. Lean Manufacturing And The Production System Definition Lean manufacturing is the process of eliminating waste in every area such as production, supply chain, maintenance, quality control and factory management. The ultimate goal of lean manufacturing is to decrease the human effort, inventory and time to meet the customer demand in the most efficient and possible economical manner. Lean manufacturing is referred to the methods of manufacturing that gives maximum value and minimum waste in the process that is followed. Lean manufacturing is also used to focus on the resources to maximize the value added features and eliminate the non–value added features. There were different names for Lean over the years which was primarily developed from the Toyota Production System (TPS) it has ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In Ohno's book 'TPS – beyond large scale production' Ohno described how TPS evolved out of need, as the market place in post war Japan required small quantities of cars to be produced in many varieties. This became very different ot the Ford principle of mass–production. Although TPS began in 1950, Japanese firms noticed only in the 1973 where oil crisis took place. Since then the system has been studied, copied and implemented across many industries. Womack, Jones and Roos (1990) coined the phrase "Lean Manufacturing" in the MIT five–year study into the automotive industry that led to the book "The Machine That Changed the World". This gives a pretty good insight into The History of Lean Manufacturing Even with the massive amount of research that has taken place into the Toyota Production System, fifty one years after it was born, Slack et al still refer to Lean Manufacturing as a 'radical departure from traditional operations practice'. The Timeline of Lean Manufacturing: 1926 – Sakichi Toyoda sells foreign rights to loom and Sakichi Toyoda patents Toyoda Automatic Loom with Non–Stop Shuttle–change motion 1936 – Kiichiro Toyoda (Sakichi's son) starts Toyota (then called ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 9. Supply Chain Management and Lean Production Abstract The system of interconnected businesses used to push a product from supplier to consumer is defined as a supply chain. Supply chain management focuses on managing the supply chain in an effort to improve the quality and time it requires to manufacture a product. In addition to implementing supply chain management, a helpful lean production practice called Just–in–time can be used to remove any waste present along the supply chain. The marriage of lean production and supply chain management creates lean supply chain management, which provides a much leaner and more economical supply chain for the product to flow through. Supply Chain Management and Lean Production Much uncertainty about what supply chain management ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Today, management of the supply chain can be completed through the use of supply chain management software, such as E2Open. Supply chain management allows a company to document and track data pertaining to the supply chain. Benefits of the supply chain management Supply chain management places importance on managing the customer relationship, as well as the supplier relationship. By effectively managing these relationships, the company can become more competitive, while increasing the quality of the product to the customer. Placing emphasis on the supplier relationship and the businesses along the supply chain increases product efficiency and quality. The importance placed on the customer relationship focuses on the demands and needs of the customer. Through effective communication within the relationships along the supply chain, a basic balance of supply and demand is established. The eight SCM processes The presence of standard processes within an organization assists in optimizing the product flow (Lambert 2008). The implementation of standard processes allows each area on the supply chain to share common knowledge and information in an effort to have the all supply chain participants strive to achieve a common goal. These processes place emphasis on the business as a whole, instead of only focusing on the end product. Lambert (2008) identifies the eight supply chain management processes as being: Customer ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 13. Boeing Le Production System BOEING LEAN: Boeing made use of lean techniques in their production system and increased its production by 50% and also reduced its floor space by 40%. Assembling a Boeing 737 is a typical job. Workers should take 367,000 parts, an same number of bolts, rivets, other equipment and 36 miles (58 kilometres) of electrical wire and then keep them all combined to make an airplane [2]. Engineers to machinists were involved in lean (reducing waste) in the factory. By creating an assembly line, aircraft will pass through the workers were they going to concentrate on assembling. Allocating all employees in the factory building and organising special teams helped a lot to solve the errors in the assembly line [2]. In the assembly line, there are eight beacon lights which reflect the production status. If everything is good it shows green colour. If an error occurs, the worker will press a button and the green light will changes to yellow and the panel board will shows the category of the problem(which category it is related to). The worker will pass on to a computer and writes about the problem in a brief manner and the problem should be assigned to special team to solve it within 30 minutes if not, the light turns to purple and the assembly line will shuts down. This moving assembly is the icon of factory's lean strategies. In case of tools handling, the tools will be send to the respective assembly stations in the form of kits and the tool which requires for a particular job will ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 17. Current Project Managementand Lean Production Delivery... 1. Executive Summary: The ultimate purpose of the report is to elaborate on the Current Project Managementand Lean Production Delivery System advantages and disadvantages. A comprehensive study of scholarly journals and books was carried out to gather information. The report begins with introducing the lean then presents the theories associated with it further elaborates on the principles, tools, processes and application. It is evident that Current Project Managementare year old practices and hence are flexible, easy to adopt whereas LPDS find its use in companies which have to handle complicated and large projects. By implementing LPDS, better production takes place where resources are properly used to it advantages to produces high quality products that focuses on the client needs. 2. Introduction EijiToyado post World War II aimed to augment Toyota worldwide. According to him the manufacturing systems in America would not satisfy his goals. He established Toyota Production System to achieve good quality, flexible output while reducing waste.In today's world Toyota Production System is known as 'Lean Production', a more improved theory and was first made known through The machine thatchanged the world (Womack et al., 1990). 'Lean projects' are project's that delivers a maximum value while creating minimum waste.Lean production includes teams of worker who are multi skilled and are present at all stages in addition use machines that are highly automated to ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 21. Lean Production Is A Benefit For Selling Products Lean Production In short, lean production is essentially about receiving more from less. The point of this idea is to lessen the amount of assets or quantity, so the main focus can be utilized as a benefit for selling products and furthering assistance to customers. All while in sync, it is about making the association of the business or supply chain more productive, vaulable and more importantly effective. Lean production can be characterized from various perspectives, however the most mainstream is the "elimination of all waste and continuous improvement of productivity." (Arnold, Chapman, 2012, p.340) Waste means something besides the base measure of hardware, parts, space, material, creation time and laborers ' time which make it completely important to increase the value of the item. Lean production is built on various effective ideas such as continuous improvement, organizing the business, and just–in–time production, which makes lean production so effective in supply chains. Lean production includes wiping out what might be wasteful and hence utilizing less energy, supplys, capacity and time. In return, this lessens costs and helps companies, such as supply chains, excel in business. The three basic values of supply chains are simplicity, consistency and responsibility. Lean production ties in quite well with these qualities. For instance, supply chain stores are basic in outline and all stores are fundamentally the same which makes them consistent, which is ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 25. Production Of Lean Manufacturing And Related Continuous... Project Report "Lean" in food industries There is a general perception that Lean Manufacturing and related continuous improvement businesses do not lend themselves to easy application in industries that have large batch processes, like the food and beverage industries. Typically these business types sell their products from large distribution or product mixing centers, and are not make to order businesses. They manufacture to a forecast, and usually the forecast lead time to production is long, resulting in large differences between the forecast that drives production levels, and actual demand. The net result of this gap is large levels of inventory holdings, typically in finished goods; however, some food products also have ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... But it does not alter the fact that Lean can still be implemented in food industries. The biggest obstacles in food industry remain the same as any other type of business and are generally as follows: Lack of persistent and challenging leadership. Lack of a clear vision of the future and of what is possible to be achieved. Failure to link the processes in kaizen with normal work. It is often seen as a separate program and not part of everyone 's formal work Lack of patience and follow through. Failure to perceive that lean is a viable strategy to help achieve competitive advantage. Failure to engage and involve employees at all levels in the process from an early stage. Lack of constant visibility by management on the shop floor or gemba. Holding to the presumption that lean methods cost a lot of money. This results in indecision and failure to act. Failure to see that management must use lean methods to change the culture. The usual view of lean is that it is a narrow technical means to save cost. It is a highly integrative socio/technical strategy. Failure of management to take a whole systems view of the business and to see the connections between all processes. Persistent focus only on demanding results without a balanced focus on improving the processes that achieve the results. The goal is to have a proper balance between these two facets. Perpetuating a blaming and judgmental culture. Muda that is inherent
  • 26. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 30. Boeing Company: Founded By William E. Boeing Boeing Company was founded by William E. Boeing in the year 1916. It deals in American multinational aerospace and also in Defense Corporation. The company has its headquarters in Chicago and has multiple business units including Boeing Commercial Airplanes (BCA); Boeing Defense, Space & Security (BDS); etc. It is the largest company in the arena of aerospace and also deals in manufacturing jetliners, defense, space, and security systems. The major service of the company includes weapons, satellites, launch systems, information and communication system, etc. The company employs more than 170000 people working for it from the US and 70 other countries (Boeing 2013). The company embraces diversity and engages workforce, which helps in ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The major services that are provided by the group include recruitment, wellness programs, security, fire protection, site operations, and disaster preparedness, etc. (Boeing, 2013). Lean Production Philosophy The first initiative that was taken by understanding and elaborating the concept of lean manufacturing was done by Henry Ford. He was the first to think about the use of automation in relation to mass production processes. The identification of the development of such technique forms the crux of the development of lean manufacturing. The thinking and idea given by Ford were revised and polished by Toyota Production System to maximize returns from its production process (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008). The major focus of the functioning of the lean production process relies on finding that method for manufacturing, which is efficient in nature and helps in removal of wasteful steps that do not have any contribution in the end product of the company. The concept of lean manufacturing does not mean to lower the quality of products rather the focus of the company is on finding something better for accomplishing the daily tasks of the organization, which increases its efficiency. The main focus in the process of lean manufacturing is on prioritizing the simple and routine tasks aiming at continuous improvement. The comprehensive outputs of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 34. Essay about Lean Versus Traditional Production and... How lean versus traditional production might affect a management accountant trying to calculate a company's costs. How would the information a management accountant would use to determine company costs change depending on type of production? Gaurav Agnihotri BU510 Module #2 March 8, 2013 . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTERS | | I. | Abstract............................................................ | 3 | II. | Introduction...................................................... | 4 | III. | Company cost in traditional production system ............. | 5 | IV. | Company cost in lean production system ..................... | 7 | V. | Conclusion......................................................... | 8 | REFERENCES........................................................................... | 9 | Abstract In this essay we will be looking closely on methods to calculate company cost ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In Traditional production system the total manufacturing overhead cost is usually divided by direct labor hours. This could work if company produces similar products that do not vary in process and indirect cost is a small percentage of direct cost. As manufacturing became more sophisticated the manufacturing overhead costs has usually increase while the direct labor hours or production machine hours have decreased. Hence, the direct labor or machine hours are unlikely to be the root cause of the manufacturing overhead. (Kaplan, 1984) believed that there were some faults in allocating manufacturing overheard cost. (Cooper & Kaplan, 1988) came up with activity based costing (ABC). This was new methodology. It was based on activities or processes. This methodology is more aligned towards lean manufacturing system. Company's cost in lean production system Lean production is a philosophy of manufacturing without waste (Braun, Tietz, & Harrison, 2010) . It is "pull" system. The goal of a lean production system is to eliminate the waste of time and money that accompanies large inventories. Lean companies believe in "Just–in–time" (JIT) philosophy. JIT inventory focuses on purchasing raw materials just in time for production and then
  • 35. completes finished goods just in time for delivery to customers. Companies are able to eliminate the waste of storing and un–storing raw material and finished goods. Lean ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 39. The Evolution Of Lean Production 1. Traditional Operations The evolution of Lean production which can be also called Toyota Production system (TPS), manufacturing system introduced by automaker toyota, is contributed by two significant traditional method called Scientific management ( Taylorism ) and Mass manufacturing ( Fordism). Taylorism Scientific management or Taylorism advocated by Fred W. Taylor, states that the Production efficiency can be maximised by working closely with the workers. It involves fragmenting each task into individual motions, analyse each motion and eliminate the unnecessary motions. With this best possible way to do the task created the workers with proper tool, training and incentives can follow a closely supervised routine, translating into being extremely productive. Fordism Mass production or Fordism advocated by Henry Ford, founder of Automaker Ford, introduced a philosophy that aimed to achieve higher productivity by standardizing the output using movable assembly lines (Conveyor belts) and breaking the work into small deskilled tasks. Fordism seeks to combine both machine and manpower as one unit, emphasizing on minimizing the cost of production rather maximizing the profits. The year 1913, Henry ford introduced the moving assembly line the lead time was reduced from 12.5 hours to 93 minutes. Lean production has its roots in Taylor's work, Efficient ways to satisfy task by eliminating unnecessary motions (Waste removal) and Henry Ford's invention of the conveyor belt ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 43. Persuasive Essay On Manifest Destiny America is the home of the brave and land of the free. It's the continent known for the start of new beginnings, and renewal of life. You are free to believe what you want, love who you wish, and be you think you are designed to be. Although America may have many benefits that most countries and continents don't, it came at a price. America had to fight her way to the top, and every constitutional right was earned by the endurance and victories it took to make them possible.From a fledgling nation that didn't have much hope to one that had the courage to proclaim Manifest Destiny America definitely earned everything it has to offer. From the beginning America has been a sort of safe haven. From when the pilgrims first decided to cross the Atlantic, due to the dysfunctions of England. At the time England was very unfair to most of its people. By not letting one rank up higher if the where at a lower class, or only letting the eldest of the family inherit any land that the parents owned, leaving nothing to offer their other children. But the biggest reason was that the Church of England wouldn't allow its people to worship God the way the people felt was correct. So therefore they made the decision to cross over to America where they would be free to start over again and worship God freely and how they felt was the accurate and correct way to do so. Although crossing over to America was the only option the pilgrims had if they wished to start anew there would be risks that came with it. The risk of leaving their homes behind knowing that returning wasn't exactly an option. Along with the fact that they didn't have an exact idea of where they were going or where they would end up. They basically risked their lives just to be able to worship God freely and for their families to not have to dwell under England's unfair rulings. After crossing the relentless Atlantic with the tragic fact that some of their people were lost along the way, they officially made it to America. They arrived in the land that was going to be the start of their new lives, but it resulted in more than half of their population dead within the first few weeks of winter. Even though they faced many difficulties they still ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 47. Taylorism And Business Prepare Reengineering And Lean... Since the late nineteenth hundred, we have seen five separate movements in the way organizations participate in competition. The first was doing function admirably. This was the primary frame reason for shaping enterprises to help the creating of items and administrations with minimal measure of sat idle, materials, and work. The endeavor to transform business into an investigation of doing function admirably, likewise experienced as taylorism denoted the high purpose of this unified endeavor to complete something. Many organizations still partake in rivalry along these lines and there go ahead to be operators coming after to taylorism including business prepare reengineering and Lean production. The second joined endeavor to complete ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Quality is free turned into an adage with extraordinary forces. Furthermore, forms like Six sigma quality control turned out to be incredibly satisfying to all after Ge 2 openly took up the concept. Today quality, doing function admirably, and scale perspective one next to the other as methods for making an endeavor to be put over others. For each wall–bazaar and Ford that makes an endeavor to be set over others for the most part on cost, there is a Nordstrom and BMW that makes an endeavor to be set over others for the most part on quality. A few organizations united Six sigma and Lean creating into Lean Six sigma as a method for participating in rivalry with both lower costs and higher quality. But after the go higher of Japan turned out to be an odd occasion toward the end, and with the go higher of the net, another, fourth boss division of music was Born in the 1990s: the system 3 method for making an endeavor to be set over others. set up of getting clients in light of cost or quality (or the 2), organizations started to participate in rivalry in view of what number of individuals (or organizations) utilize them. Microsoft was most likely one of the soonest to see the estimation of along these lines of participating in rivalry when it got more noteworthy, more grounded, more total its working framework to have the capacity to exist together for pretty much any make of individual learning preparing ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 51. Lean Production Practices For Efficiency Kocakulah This written review details the two articles chosen for week 8 topic, lean manufacturing. The first article, titled Lean Production Practices for Efficiency Kocakülâh, M. C., Austill, A. D., & Schenk, D. E, published in Cost Management 2011, details the multiple elements that make up lean programs. The second article, titled Manufacturing's Oversized Claims McCullough, M, published in Canadian Business 2011, details some of the pitfalls and down side to Toyota Production System lean elements. Lean is the elimination of waste. Customers do not want to pay for waste they want to a good product at a reasonable cost. Waste is waiting, waiting for paint to dry, waiting for material to get from one process to another. With the elimination of waiting, more time is focused on the production process. It is also inefficient transporting of material to and from the production facility. It is in shipping trucks half full or calling the truck back because of missed or delayed shipments. The third is over production. Overproduction generally occurs when yields are poor and if the customers' needs are to be met, more material than what is required to fill the order is processed. Over production can also occur when the forecast is inaccurate or, constantly changing. Forth is the production of defects or, continuing to making errors and mistakes. Customers do not want to pay for mistakes and it leads to over production and poor customer service. Next is unnecessary movement or motion. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 55. Ten Rules Of Lean Production Lean production is an assembly–line methodology developed originally for Toyota and the manufacturing of automobiles. It is also known as the Toyota Production System or just–in–time production. Lean production principles are also referred to as lean management or lean thinking. There are two major pillars of lean production system. One is Just–in–Time system and other is Kaizen. Just–in–Time System was developed as a result of adoption and adaptation of Mass Production Techniques. Kaizen is a lean manufacturing tool that improves quality, productivity, safety, and workplace culture. Kaizen focuses on applying small, daily changes that result in major improvements over time. The ten rules of lean production can be summarized: 1. Eliminate waste 2. Minimize inventory ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... His philosophy, which focused on eliminating waste and empowering workers, reduced inventory and improved productivity. Instead of maintaining resources in anticipation of what might be required for future manufacturing, as Henry Ford did with his production line, the management team at Toyota built partnerships with suppliers. In effect, under the direction of Engineer Ohno, Toyota automobiles became made–to–order. By maximizing the use of multiskilled employees, the company was able to flatten their management structure and focus resources in a flexible manner. Because the company was able make changes quickly, they were often able to respond faster to market demands than their competitors could. 1 Ford Motor Company produced "A–Bomber an Hour" at Willow Run Plan during WWII for USAF using mass production methods 2 Henry Ford introduced the concept of standardized interchangeable components in auto assembly process When it comes to waste, the lean philosophy has a very broad definition that includes anything that doesn't add value to the product. A lean product development team should focus on learning ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 59. The Effect Of Lean Production On A Process Plant Essay REVIEW OF "THE USE OF LEAN PRODUCTION IN A PROCESS PLANT" HARRY DEBOLE Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD4222, Australia This paper presents a review of the use of Lean Production in a process plant. It defines lean production as a process putting into consideration the history and the reason it was formulated. It also considers the application, benefits and the barriers to the effective maximization of the process. Keywords: Lean Production, Process plant, Definition, Applications, Benefits, Conclusion 1. Definition Any activity in a process, which does not add value to the customer, is called 'waste'. Sometimes the waste is a necessary part of the process and adds value to the company and this cannot be eliminated, e.g., financial controls. Lean production is based on the principles and working processes of the Toyota Production System (TPS), and has been defined as doing more with less. In its simplest terms, lean production can be described as the elimination of waste. It has been most prominent in discrete, repetitive assembly– type operations. Liker suggests that the goals of lean production are highest quality, lowest cost, and shortest lead–time. Lean production can be considered as a philosophy and as a set of tools and practices for the continuous improvement of operations. 2. Brief History of Lean Production In order to understand lean production system, it is important to understand it in its historical perspective first. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 63. Toyota Competitive Strategy The diversification of customer needs results in the competition more and more intense. Thus, both competitive advantage and core competency are the effective weapons to come after competitors in a globalized market. A lot of well–known companies rely on a resource–based strategy to develop through technologic assets and intellectual properties like Google, IBM, and Apple. However, such strategy is not good enough to deal with challenges through remaining competitive strategy in changing business environment. There are two reasons that cause business environment changing fast that are the inner expansion of the organization and replication of competitors such as Xiao MI. Therefore, Strategic management gives play to an important function incorporating ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Noteworthy, LSS Define–Measure–Analyze–Improve–Control because would not change any attitude for production and servicing. Toyota (Camry) had an excellent manufacturing system that contains high production standard that is Single Piece Flow, which was defined as a process in which all works on a single product (the Camry) is completed before moving onto the next unit (Mazanec, 2016). However, the traditional manufacturer still used batch & queue production such as The Swiss Army alarm clock, hence entire processes cause the costs of time, labor and resource increasing (Lutz, 2011). The key goal of lean transformation is to optimize a self–regulated improving production system depended on how the company uses lean tools that interact with TPS (Womack's Lean Enterprise Institute, 2016). The third part of DC is to continue renewal the company which means to transform based on continuous perfecting program as similar as goals of lean management (Lvey, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 67. Supply Chain Management and Lean Production Through-Out... Supply Chain Management and Lean Production Through–out the World The system of interconnected businesses used to push a product from supplier to consumer is defined as a supply chain. Supply chain management focuses on managing the supply chain in an effort to improve the quality and time it requires to manufacture a product. To implementing supply chain management, a helpful lean production practice called Just–in–time can be used to remove any waste present along the supply chain. The marriage of lean production and supply chain management creates lean supply chain management, which provides a much leaner and more economical supply chain for the product to flow through. Much uncertainty about what supply chain management entails is ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... "China, in short, has evolved economically at a time when the global automobile industry has never needed it more. China is both an attractive market for automobiles, and an attractive supplier of parts, subassemblies and, soon, completely–assembled automobiles and other vehicles. From 1977, when China lacked even the vocabulary to negotiate joint venture agreements, to today, when every major automobile manufacturer in the world is working alongside Chinese companies, China's bargaining power with and expectations of joint venture partners has increased exponentially. "Since automobile parts are integrally tied in to the automobile industry, their evolution, joint– venture participation and growing role connected to joint ventures. More importantly, most of the profits generated in today's global automobile business are being made in the parts industry, rather than final assembly. Parts companies' progress in consolidation, in R&D and emerging brand strength make them highly sought–after as joint venture partners in China and elsewhere in the world." The greater choice of suppliers in international markets makes it possible to reduce costs and improve the quality of procured materials. In relation to production, the generation of economies of scale can be realized either through the concentration of all production activities or through the construction of a number of plants according to the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 71. The Elements Of Lean Production THE ELEMENTS OF LEAN PRODUCTION In this part, the authors write about the steps of developing lean production by pointing out the assembly plants, the differences between "lean" and Ford's point of view, production procedures, the supply chain, the scheme of selling automobiles, and what "lean" needs to be perfect. Running the Factory. This chapter is written according to an investigation at IMVP World Assembly Plant. It is true that the car assembly workshops require a significantly large space with massive storage areas and railway systems. Besides, thousands of labors will work in a big and chaotic building with many noisy machines; consequently, this is such a significant problem for all automobile companies. The writers use the case of the IMVP World Assembly Plant to emphasize the three factors that persuaded them that assembly was the most essential part in the automobile manufacturing process. The first thing is that assembly is involved in most of the work in car industry. The next reason is all of the cars and light trucks today are manufactured in the same technique so that the assembly factories in the world almost do the similar work. Lastly, Toyota, in order of spreading the lean production, had built lots of assembly factory in both North America and Europe. Furthermore, a typical example of mass production at General Motor workshop in Massachusetts is used in order to illustrate the need of lean production in the Midwest of America. Subsequently, the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 75. Lean Production : Toyota's Secret Weapon Book Summary The Story of Lean Production – Toyota's Secret Weapon in the Global Car Wars That is Revolutionizing World Industry In the beginning of the book, the authors generally introduce three kinds of the worldwide industry in its production system's development from the very first one to the newest approach, which are craft production, mass production, and lean production respectively. The Industry of Industries in Transition. they look through the history of the automobile manufacturing by spelling out Henry Ford and Alfred Sloan, who left behind the old–fashioned type of production, craft production, and began a new age of the world manufacture with mass production. Also, they mention about Eiji Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno, who initially started the conception, "lean production", which, nowadays, has been seeking by manufacturers of all kind of industries on over the world. In addition, the writers provide a quick view in the comparison among craft production, mass production, and lean production in which they point out the drawbacks of craft production, the obstacles of mass production, and the advantages of lean production. The author emphasize that no lean manufacturer has ever reached the ideal target of lean production, but they will continuously attempt to gain the perfections of lean production. This section, additionally, represents the impact of lean production on the professional careers and the working condition of employees these days. In the end of this ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 79. A Comparative Study of Lean and Mass Production System:... SUB: LEAN MANAGEMENT AND TOTAL PRODUCTIVE MAINTENANCE TERM PAPER TOPIC: – A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LEAN AND MASS PRODUCTION SYSTEM: TOYOTAAND FORD Date of Submission: 13th Sep'10 By GROUP–11 Yashraj D. Pawar –09258 Chaintanya Sharavanth C. – 09211 Harshita M. – 09217 Batch – XVII VIGNANA JYOTHI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT Bachupally, Hyderabad, A.P – 500072, India SUMMARY: This paper deals with the production systems of two major leaders in the automobile market. Mass production is briefly touched up on and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Lean production is the emerging trend, which talks about minimizing waste and increasing production. We have also thrown light on when to use lean and mass ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The probability of human error and variation is also reduced, as tasks are predominantly carried out by machinery. A reduction in labor costs, as well as an increased rate of production, enables a company to produce a larger quantity of one product at a lower cost than using traditional, non–linear methods. Little skill is usually required by operators at the production line, hence training simple, short and inexpensive. Less space is occupied by work in transit and for temporary storage. 2.4 DISADVANTAGES Mass production is inflexible because it is difficult to alter a design or production process after a
  • 80. production line is implemented. Also, all products produced on one production line will be identical or very similar, and introducing variety to satisfy individual tastes is not easy. However, some variety can be achieved by applying different finishes and decorations at the end of the production line if necessary. A breakdown of one machine may lead to a complete stoppage of the line that follows the machine. Hence, maintenance and repair is a challenging job. Supervision is general rather than specialized, as the supervisor of a line is looking after diverse machine on a line. Generally, high investments are required owing to the specialised nature of the machines and their possible duplication in the line. 2.5 HOW DID MASS ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 84. Analysis Of Lean Production Delivery System Executive summary The aim of this report is to carry out the in depth analysis of Lean production delivery system. Firstly the history of LPDS is discussed followed by its principles, theory, processes and tools. The differences and similarities between current project management systems and LPDS are observed. Observations are also made on the strengths and weaknesses of both the systems. How both the systems provide an end value to the customers is also explained. Introduction to Lean Production Delivery System Initially the manufacturing companies around the world focused on the output and carried out the production process where everyone worked on a single product and then moved to the other product which was time consuming. The manufacturing companies could not meet the demands as time taken to produce is high. Henry Ford of the Ford car manufacturing company introduced assembly line system and mass produced cars as the demand for cars at that point of time was high. This drastically reduced time to produce them. He hired people and trained them to specialize in a single field. Thus different people worked on different fields according to their specializations which improved the efficiency and speed of production. In the early 1900's Toyota Production System (TPS) of Japan tried to use the same method but was not successful as the market demands were different. It then introduced Lean production system which focuses solely in providing greater value to the customers and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 88. Cost Accounting and the Lean Production Philosophy Cost accounting and the lean production philosophy By Tyrone Williams AIU Online September1, 2012 Abstract As Dr. Stephanie White prepares to cope with the a steep reduction in the budgetary allocation to the Uptown Clinic she must carefully determine which areas to cut while striving to maintain current levels of service. This essay will offer advice Dr. White on preparing for budget cuts. It will also discuss the lean production philosophy and how this compares with typical production. This essay will also describe the differences between managerial accounting and cost accounting. There are many strategies that Dr. White could employed to adequately mitigate the negative impact of reduced budgetary allocations to ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... This philosophy is now generally accepted as the ideal business model of the 21st century and replaces the mass production philosophy of the previous century. On the website www.1000advices.com Mr. Vadim Kotelnikov, Inventor of inspirational Business e–Coaching states that the lean production philosophy "is about doing more with less: less time, inventory, space, labor, and money. "Lean manufacturing", a shorthand for a commitment to eliminating waste, simplifying procedures and speeding up production (www.1000advices.com). At its very core, this philosophy employs a systematic approach to the elimination of waste in seven key areas. These areas could be summarized as eliminating overproduction and producing only what customers' need; eliminating unnecessary delay, down or idle time; streamlining inventory processes to eliminate unnecessary purchasing and storing of raw materials; prevent over–processing by removing any unnecessary steps in processes or procedures; streamlining the motion/movement of people and equipment; eliminating transportation delays and unnecessary material handling and reducing defective products and the cost to repair/replace them (www.1000advices.com). As is obvious by now, there are clear differences between typical production process and the lean production model. Suited for the mass production strategy of the last century, the manufacturing cycle of the typical production process primarily engages in cost accounting whether periodic or
  • 89. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 93. The Conception Of Lean Production Essay 1.1 Lean The conception of lean can be traced back to late 1980s, which was used to talk about Toyota production system. Through using lean management, Henry Ford create a high production and low stock, and fulfilled manufacture in a short period of time in the late 1910s (Arnheiter & Maleyeff, 2005). The original principle of lean production is to identify and eliminate 'muda'. The term of muda is a Japanese word, which means waste. Then such principle was regarded as lean. The theory of lean is considered that after eliminating waste, there is an improvement in quality and reduction of time and cost (Gershon & Rajashekharaiah, 2011). After that, lean is used to manufacturing, and adding value and fulfilling the satisfaction of customers with less waste become the core idea of lean. According to Ferguson (2006), a successful implement of lean is to lead the whole organization to enhance the value stream. There are several tools for lean manufacturing, such as 5S, Just–In–Time (JIT), Kaizen, total productive maintenance (TPM) and value stream mapping (leanproduction).  5S: Sort (to remove the things which are unnecessary needed), Set in order (to arrange the things which are remained), Shine (clean and check the work space), Standardize (establish metric for the things above) and Sustain (employ the metric regularly). Through using 5S, the waste can be reduced in the workplace where is poorly organized (leanproduction).  JIT: It is used to make the products fulfil the ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 97. How Lean Manufacturing And How It Can Be Applied Within A... LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction This literature review aims to achieve insight into lean manufacturing and how it can be applied within a production environment. In today's global market, it is important for maker withstand to remain competitive in their market and to understand the principles of lean manufacturing and the step tp implement them to ensure that they are on the leading edge of manufacturing. This literature review describes the lean concepts that are used in this project. Lean Manufacturing In the spring of 1950, a young Japanese engineer named Eiji Toyoda visited Ford's huge plant in Detroit (Dennis,2002). He studied every corner of that Rouge, the world's largest and most efficient manufacturing complex plant. Upon his return to Japan, Eiji and his production genius, Taiichi Ohno, determined that the same mass production system would not work in japan. Taiichi Ohno already knew that workers were his most valuable resource. In the years to come, Ohno and his team developed activities to fully involve team members in enhancement an utterly novel idea. The Toyota production System, or Lean production, was the ultimate solution to Toyota's problems (Dennis,2007). Over next 30 years, Taiichi Ohno solved numerous problems related to lean production in order to push his system through Toyota. Nowadays, the Toyota Production System (TPS) is used in accordance with "lean manufacturing" across the world (Tapping,2007). But today we face the same intimidating ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 101. Lean Production Of Lean Manufacturing 2.3.1) Lean Manufacturing Review Lean originally comes from the thought of scarce resources. The Japanese automotive manufacturer called Toyota was the one who introduced this method with innovations such as JIT, and so forth [14; 44; 28]. Lean operations were used as a different method for capital–intensive mass manufacture in order to help firm use resources more effectively and efficiently. As a result, the firm will be able to reduce muda activity and non–value adding tasks. The procedure of lean implementation and research had been widely used by many organizations across the world. Conglomerates found out that the manufacturing process need not only improvement in performance, but also the development must be extended and ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The main role of "lean" supply is to strengthen the relationship and collaboration between suppliers– customers. According to Ellram [10], the author has defined the concept of lean as the continuous bond between the organizations which concerns to the contract and commitment in the long term relationship and a shared advantages and risks. Additionally, there are also some other features after the relationship and commitment between suppliers until customers. Those features are the trade of concepts (communication), data, and advantages such as merge inR&D, long–term relationship, and so forth [38; 40; 9]. The concept of lean supply also is being as the start of the enhancement in system in terms of taking the proactive role in improving the usual technique for similar advantages throughout the supply chain. As from the authors, the suppliers will work on working with manufacturer and ongoing collaborate until customers in both direct and indirect ways [13]. Occasionally, the managers will face with the situation where wastes cannot be found and discovered all. The various tools are then introduced for finding those wastes throughout the area by observing in products and circumstance's information. Six of the noticeable tools are stated. The first tool is called "Process activity mapping". The very noticeable role of this tool is the function as the identifiers of lead–time for both merchandise ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 105. Lean Manufacturing Concept Of Production Lean Manufacturing Concept Background Along with the change in times and technological and diversification enterprises flourishing, Enterprises face the low cost production in developing countries and globalization competition, to consolidate market position and sustainable operation and development, the enterprises and manufacturer must have to strengthen the production management and production technology system, otherwise it is difficult to profit for enterprises and manufacturer to foothold in the market. No matter manufacturer, service industry, to deal with these situations and improve market competitiveness, they need to break the traditional production way. In recent years, the enterprises and manufacturer toward to adapt lean ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Useless manpower, less equipment and less time to generate more value is what lean manufacturing pursuit for (Stenzel, 2007). Toyota way Toyota develops four main principles to implement Toyota production system (Krijnen,2007), including: 1. Long–term philosophy: Management decisions must be based on long–term philosophy, even if it must sacrifice short–term financial goals expense. 2. The right produce process will produce the right results: Create a continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface, use visual control so no problems are hidden, and the standardization of work duties is to empower the employees and continuous improvement. 3. Add Value to the Organization by Developing Your People: Cultivate the employee who thoroughly understand and embrace the concept of the company to be leaders, that they can teach what they learn to their subordinates, and respect the company 's business partner and supplier networks, challenge them and help them improve. 4. Continuously Solving Root Problems Drives Organizational Learning: Do not make the decisions hasty, considering all possible options to reach the consensus then execution fast. Furthermore, through constant reflection and continuously improvement to become a learning organization. Though these principles Toyota constantly makes the low waste and high–quality products, that many industries followed it. Lean manufacturing Lean manufacturing is the use ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 109. The Production Of Lean Manufacture And How It Can Be... Literature Review Introduction The purpose of this literary review is to achieve insight into lean manufacture and how it can be applied within a manufacturing environment. With global contention, it is important for maker to remain competitive in their respective marketplace and to understand the principles of lean manufacturing and the step to implement them to ensure that they are on the leading edge of manufacturing. This literary review describes the below mention principles. Birth place of lean and Origins of mass production Fred Winslow Taylor, a foundry manager from Philadelphia, lay the foundation for mass yield (Dennis, 2002). He was the first to systematically apply scientific principles to manufacturing. His many innovations involved: Standardized work classifying the finest and easiest way to do the business; Reduced cycle meter the time it takes for a given process; Time and question study – a peter for developing standardized work; Measure and analysis to continually improve the process. The Francis Scott Key to mass production was not the assembly credit line (Dennis, 2002). Rather, it was the thorough interchangeability of region and ease of assembly. These innovations, in bout, make the assembly line possible. Henry Fords ' conveyor system at the Ford plant, allowed for mass production (Tapping,2007). The moving assembly line brought the car past the stationary worker. (Dennis, 2002) The assembly line decreases walk time, and most prominently, linked ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 113. Is The Lean Production Or Just? Time? Essay Just–In Time or Lean Production The market is very competitive. Competition amongst businesses is not limited locally but globally as well. Companies are employing strategies to reduce costs and simultaneously increase their market share and bottom line. For example, Yahoo and Google are known to be competitors in the internet industry globally. However, these two companies formed an alliance explicitly for the Japanese market only. Likewise, Suzuki and Volkswagen entered into an agreement to advance their businesses cooperatively in the emerging markets of India and China (Yu, Subramaniam & Cannella, 2013). These examples are testament that in order for a business to thrive, it is essential that company managers are able to find ways and strategies to allocate and manage costs effectively while increasing their operating profit. Additionally, they must also be able to ascertain how to maximize any constraint resources they may have. The aim of this paper is to examine the Lean Production or Just–In–Time approach, one of the most popular approach of reducing costs employed by companies in varying industries. History of Lean Production or Just– In–Time One of the most well–known method of reducing costs is the Lean Production Approach or Just–In–Time which was popularized by Toyota Corporation. This system was set in motion by Sakichi Toyoda, Kiichiro Toyoda, Eijii Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno after World War II when the market share of Japanese auto makers was ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 117. Lean Production Lean production is widely understood to be production based upon a range of waste saving measures inspired by Japanese manufacturing companies, particularly the Kaizen and Just in time techniques. Metov's plastics have taken the decision upon themselves to incorporate some of the characteristics of lean production namely time management and critical path analysis into their manufacturing process and I will examine these. One method used by Metov's is critical path analysis (CPA). CPA is the process of planning the sequence of activities in a project in order to discover the most efficient and quickest way of completing it. Metov's have recently been able to incorporate this technique due to recent advancement in the companies ICT system ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... The marketing budget was expanded by Pavlo so more research could be undertaken compared to smaller companies. This led to a series of highly successful advertising campaigns which produced major increases in sales revenue, and as the business expanded Metov's was able to afford to use a wider range of media that enabled more customers to be reached in a more persuasive way. This led to an increase in the effectiveness of advertising and reduced its effect upon unit cost. As research and development spending was increased Metov's were also able to benefit from research and development economies of scale. By increasing spending in this area a number of new products were patented by Metov's, in addition to increasing sales volume, having patents upon its products gave them a USP and competitive advantage so a higher profit margin was able to be obtained, whilst also leading to increased sales. Similarly Metov's also upgraded their ICT system so more advanced software could be utilised. This enabled the company to plan projects more affectively using network analysis and also went some way to improving communication in the business. In conclusion I believe that the only true measure of whether or not the economies of scale outweighed the diseconomies of scale would be profit, and as that figure is not given I am not able to reach a judgement. If Metov's were more profitable because the increased their levels of production ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 121. Lean Manufacturing Is Not Just A Production Method Introduction Lean manufacturing is not just a production method. It is a way of life. One could say that it is simply a way of providing customers what they want, at a price they can afford, when they want it (Leaning Forward). However, it is much more than just satisfying the customer's needs. Lean manufacturing originated after WWII in Japan to help revitalize their manufacturing industry. The industry was booming in the United States because of the revolutionary invention of Henry Ford's Model T and the creation of the flow production, but the lack of variety created demand and Toyota answered that demand (Lean). Kiichiro Toyoda and his team at Toyota realized by modifying the system they could make the process have less wait periods ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Pull Flow is the concept of a continuous flow of production and enables operators to identify and pull defective products from the production line. Kaizen is the approach used by employees to implement continuous improvements to a manufacturing process (Gembutsu). Muda is the concept of wasting resources to create something with no value. The types of wasted include over production time, inventory, transportation, process inefficiency, defects, and unnecessary motion (Vorne Industries). Jidoka is the process of identifying a defect before getting to the finished product and is accomplished by automation. It is carried out by the automation knowing what a product defect is and alerting an operator (Gembutsu). Takt is the method used to align the customers demand with the production and is paced by using Takt Time. Takt Time is the pace of production and is calculated by dividing production time by customer demand (Gembutsu). Procedures The Spartan Assembly Line involved several processes. To start the assembly process the orders or the colors of the cars were called out to the paint process. After the paint was applied to the car, the body went to glass and then onto accessories, where the parts like the front grill were added. While these processes were going on, two other processes were also going on. When the orders or paint colors were called out, the chassis ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 125. Lean Production Delivery System Essay The term 'lean production' came about to describe the Toyota production system in the late 1980's. This came to pass through a research group from MIT who over five years analysed the automotive industry in fourteen countries. It was called 'lean manufacturing' rather than the Toyota production system to make it easier for competitors and organizations to adopt this type of system. The concept of lean production in a manufacturing organization basically means to try and maximise the use of materials to achieve optimum customer value and at the same time reducing waste and ensuring the same standard of quality in the finished product. Reducing the resources means it will cheaper for the organization to create the product plus also for the ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... * Takt time – The rate of production is aligned with the customer need. * Error proofing – Error detection to reduce defects * Kaizen – Having employees together to improve the manufacturing process. * Just–in–time – Most effective way of reducing inventory levels as it creates products based on customer demands. * Policy deployment – Focuses on having good communications through the whole structure of the organization. Through this concept of 'lean' to reduce waste and the many tools of lean production there are plenty of advantages to observe such as:– * It can reduce overhead fixed cost to 30% * It reduces the operational cost within an organization * It can also raise the competiveness of a manufacturing organization * It is also believed that the implementation of 'lean' can reduce the manufacturing time * It can also increase profit especially at the start and then helps maintain these earnings * Plus as we know it can cut nearly all types of waste * Since the manufacturing lead time is reduced it has a knock–on effect that reduces energy costs * Implementing 'lean' has a keen view of making the workspace as efficient as possible which is a primary factor in keeping the organization running effectively * The required workspace is also reduced * Productivity in a manufacturing organization can be increased as much as 80% * Customer relations improvements means again reduced waste * Frustration on the job is reduced ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 129. Components Of A Successful Manufacturing System INTRODUCTION During the course of history, manufacturing processes have changed radically. Instead of items being produced by hand, the owners of the facilities created ways to have machines produce the items. The impact of changing the way items were manufactured had a wide reach. Industries such as textile manufacturing, mining, glass making and agriculture all had undergone changes subsequently reducing production times and costs of producing material. In the modern age, manufacturers have been subject to tremendous pressures to initiate new and innovative manufacturing procedures for achieving a competitive edge for the development of the organization. One of the major approaches in bringing sustainable development is to provide ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Toyota's developments of ideas were later acknowledged as lean manufacturing principles. These principles emphasize on assisting the methods to control the flow of material and bring system wide improvement not only in the business wide division but also in the manufacturing division. Seven categories of waste or "muda" (Japanese word for waste) have been identified as follows: Figure 1 Categories of Waste Overproduction & Early Production Producing over customer requirements Producing ahead of demand Waiting Time Delays Idle Time(time during which value is not added to the product Transportation Multiple Handling Delay in Materials Handling Unnecessary Handling Inventory Holding or purchasing unnecessary raw materials Work in Process & Finished Goods Motion People or equipment moving or walking more than is required to perform the processing Overprocessing Unnecessary steps or work elements / procedures (non added value work) Defects The effort involved in inspecting for and fixing defects The greatest challenges to any manufacturer in implementing a lean manufacturing strategy is
  • 130. attacking those processes that cause one of the seven types of waste first, and second, creating a more synchronized manufacturing strategy. The major characteristics of this strategy are ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 134. Lean Production And Its Effect On Workplace Health And Safety Lean Production and Its Effect on Workplace Health and Safety Juan Alejo University of Houston–Clear Lake Lean Production and Its Effect on Workplace Health and Safety Lean production, or lean manufacturing, is a philosophy adopted in the Japanese manufacturing industry to help the automobile industry improve its processes. Today, lean production has enlarged in many different repetitive manufacturing industries and other organizations (de Treville & Antonakis, 2006). For example, lean production is now common in the healthcare industry to improve the processes in hospitals. Since remaining competitive in the increasing global market is of upmost importance to many organizations, adopting a lean manufacturing philosophy could be the difference in obtaining a competitive advantage and surviving in a global changing economy (Abdulmalek & Rajgopal, 2006). Also, managers have come to view lean as a way to improve operation and organizational performance (Longoni, Pagell, Johnston, & Veltri, 2013). Therefore, the goal of lean production is to improve efficiency by getting rid of unnecessary processes or waste en route to delivering a service or product to the customer that is of great quality. Lean production attempts to add value to the customer by removing waste that does not add value. Since lean production is dependent on how well it is implemented in the organization, it will be important to see what effects, if any, lean production has on worker health and safety as ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 138. Lean Manufacturing Introduction to Lean manufacturing: Principles of lean thinking have been broadly accepted by many manufacturing operations and have been applied successfully across many. Different authors define it distinctively. Lean manufacturing is most frequently associated with the elimination of seven important wastes to ameliorate the effects of variability in supply, processing time or demand defined it as a philosophy of manufacturing that focuses on delivering the highest quality product on time and at the lowest cost. Worley (2004) defined it as the systematic removal of waste by all members of the organization from all areas of the value stream. Briefly, it is called lean as it uses less, or the minimum of everything required to produce a ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... Lean manufacturing requires machines which are reliable and efficient. Inventories can be reduced when machine downtime is minimized. Work processes across the value stream should also be emphasized in lean manufacturing. Processes should be performed with a minimum of non value added activities in order to reduce waiting time, queuing time, moving time, and other delays Besides this, standardization of work processes is needed to facilitate efficient, safe work methods and eliminate wastes, while maintaining quality.Itensures a consistent performance and creates a foundation for continuous improvement. Nowadays, a product with high quality is a prerequisite for any manufacturer. Quality is a major focus in lean manufacturing because poor quality management would result in many wastes such as scraps and rejects. Appropriate quality management helps to control a manufacturing process, and this reduces "safety" buffers and exposes quality issues. Reduction of "safety" buffers will eventually lead to reduction of inventories. Employees who are motivated and empowered are essential since people are the key element in lean manufacturing. Japanese regard people as assets because they are the ones who are going to solve problems and improve processes in production. Another key area of lean manufacturing is layout which determines the arrangement of facilities in a factory. ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 142. The Story Of Lean Production : Toyota 's Secret Weapon Book Summary In the book "The Story of Lean Production – Toyota's Secret Weapon in the Global Car Wars That is Revolutionizing World Industry", published in 2007, James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones, and Daniel Roos generally introduce and discuss about three worldwide industrial manufacturing methods from the very first approach to the most current one, which are craft production, mass production, and lean production respectively. The Industry of Industries in Transition. they look through the history of the automobile manufacturing by spelling out Henry Ford and Alfred Sloan, who left behind the old–fashioned type of production, craft production, and began a new age of the world manufacture with mass production. Also, they mention about Eiji Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno, who initially started the conception, "lean production", which, nowadays, has been seeking by manufacturers of all kinds of industries on over the world. In addition, the writers provide a quick view in the comparison among craft production, mass production, and lean production in which they point out the drawbacks of craft production, the obstacles of mass production, and the advantages of lean production. The authors emphasize that no lean manufacturer has ever reached the ideal target of lean production, but they will continuously attempt to gain the perfections of lean production. This section, additionally, represents the impact of lean production on the professional careers and the working conditions of ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 146. Essay on Lebanon Gasket Lebanon Gasket Company | October 24 2012 | | Creating a Lean Enterprise | CREATING A LEAN ENTERPRISE: THE CASE OF THE LEBANON GASKET COMPANY I. Summary of facts * Lebanon Gasket Company's Topeka, Kansas Facility began operation in 1979. * The company had operated in using mass production. * In January of 2004 LGC had about 109 employees. * The LGC Topeka plant relies on two main manufacturing processes – injection molding and extrusion molding. * The injection molding process has three main product families– OS1, TX4 and KC13, more than 100 product models are produced across these three product families. * The extrusion molding process has two main product ... Show more content on Helpwriting.net ... In the following sections we present an analysis of operations and accounting data to find a solution to the problems at Topeka Plant. III. Discussion The Lebanon Gasket Company (LGC) hired Tom Walsh as the plant manager of its Topeka, Kansas, facility in 2004. LGC was impressed by Walsh's 20 years of experience as a manufacturing engineer, including four years of employment as a manager in Toyota's Georgetown, Kentucky, facility. Walsh's charge at Topeka was to turn around a plant that had been suffering from declining profits and margins, excessive waste and inventory levels, unsatisfactory on–time customer delivery performance, and shrinking market share. To overcome these problems, he focused on one core strategy, "operational excellence". Walsh intended to abandon the mass production mindset that had guided the Topeka plant in favor of the lean thinking approach he had seen work effectively at Toyota. After practicing lean production 18 months on the job, two value streams and four manufacturing cells up and running, and other goal accomplishments, Walsh realized the financial results were disappointing. The absorption income statements showed that the plant's net operating income and return on sales had continued to decline from the 11.5% that was reported for the fourth quarter of 2004. In addition, organizational in– fighting was at an all–time high since the Finance Department blamed the Production Department for the plant's declining performance, and ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 150. Lean Production And Production Of Vehicles Lean production of vehicles was started in Japan by Toyota company. It has some similarities with the mass production; however, it is quite different from the craft production. One of the main similarities that the lean production shares with the mass production is that they both use the assembly line for the production of the vehicles, which was initiated by Ford. Unlike, mass production: "Ohno placed a cord above every work station and instructed worker to stop the whole assembly line immediately if a problem emerged that they couldn't fix" (56). In the mass production, if the problem occurred, and no one paid attention to it while the production process, then the car company had to fix the errors in all the vehicles that had been produced no matter how large the quantity was. In the lean production of vehicles: "Ohno instead instituted a system of problem– solving called "the five why's" (56). Taiichi Ohno, the founder of Toyota company, made sure that once the problem has been identified in the production process, then what kind of precautions company can take to prevent the problem, so it never occurs again, which saved a lot of time compared to mass production. One similarity that lean production has with the craft production is that the vehicles were not produced on a larger scale, rather they were diverse small vehicles, such as trucks and cars. In the mass production, changing the die cut process took months; however, in the lean production process reduced ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 154. Lean Production : Toyota 's Secret Weapon In their book The Story of Lean Production – Toyota's Secret Weapon in the Global Car Wars That is Revolutionizing World Industry, published in 2007, James P. Womack, Daniel T. Jones, and Daniel Roos generally introduce and discuss about three industrial manufacturing methods from the very first approach to the most current one, which are craft production, mass production, and lean production respectively. Basically, their main points are focusing on lean production and its development as well as related issues. Chapter 1: The Industry of Industries in Transition. They look through the history of the automobile manufacturing by spelling out Henry Ford and Alfred Sloan, who left behind the old–fashioned type of production, craft production, and began a new age of the world manufacture with mass production. Also, they mention about Eiji Toyoda and Taiichi Ohno, who initially started the conception, "lean production", which, nowadays, has been seeking by manufacturers of all kinds of industries on over the world. In addition, the writers provide a quick view in the comparison among craft production, mass production, and lean production in which they point out the drawbacks of craft production, the obstacles of mass production, and the advantages of lean production. The authors emphasize that no lean manufacturer has ever reached the ideal target of lean production, but they will continuously attempt to gain the perfections of lean production. This section, additionally, ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...
  • 158. Production Process And Lean Manufacturing Process INTRODUCTION Quality in manufacturing has become an integral part of the production process and lean manufacturing. The objective is to ensure that all customer project requirements are met to specification while eliminating waste. Some of the world's largest company's require suppliers to be on their approved supplier list prior to considering doing business with your company. One of the major requirements to get on an approved supplier list is to have a certified quality management system in place. Manufactures recognize the importance of quality certifications and lean processes and use them as a competitive advantage in gaining new business and retaining current customers. WHAT IS LEAN The core idea of lean is to relentlessly work on eliminating waste from the manufacturing process. Waste can be defined as any activity that does not add value from the customer's perspective. According to research conducted by the Lean Enterprise Research Centre (LERC), fully 60% of production activities in a typical manufacturing operation are waste – they add no value at all for the customer. Every company has an opportunity to improve, using lean manufacturing techniques and other manufacturing best practices. Techniques that enable you to deliver higher quality products at significantly lower costs (Vorne Industries Inc., 2010–2013). LEAN PRINCIPLES Lean Principles in manufacturing can improve operating performance by focusing on the uninterrupted flow of products and materials ... Get more on HelpWriting.net ...