What every teacher should know about cognitive science

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This is a 1 hour presentation for University of Oregon Science Literacy program on cognitive science and its' application to education.

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  • Many Thanks… - Marty G. for ceding his spot… I look forward to it in the spring I’m excited to be speaking with you all today and will be focusing on the field of PER, the broad reseach lines, and some specifics… Basically a bit of the how, when where going of PER --- with the caveat that this is my take. 15 min intor - through CC (10 intro 5 CC) 20 min reps/ analoogy 15 min tutorials 2 min conclusion.
  • Change Labels (Ack, Fac, etc..)
  • Why physicists is implicit… need to make more explicit? Include APS backing etc? #’s stats… etc
  • Why physicists is implicit… need to make more explicit? Include APS backing etc? #’s stats… etc
  • Time for 30 seconds and see how far we get
  • Time for 30 seconds and see how far we get
  • Time for 30 seconds and see how far we get
  • Galileo - Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences (early part of 17th C) This is thrm 1 of 6
  • In communication, new information should always be presented in familiar context = “given new principle”. As scientists, we carry context around with us, we have deep mental models of our discipline.
  • Fact memorization is what a lot of students see as their job in science class. This is what they fall back on, without context. Physics is a collection of equations on dead leaves. Flip through equations like a set of leaves until one finds the right equation. Want a living tree instead. But how to promote creation of useful mental models of science?
  • Need to flip over the E to see if there is an even number on other side Need to flip over 5 to see if there is mistakenly a vowel on the other side. Give out DVDs or pencils for giving an answer. Make sure to make it clear what the right answer is and why.
  • But it’s hard to change existing mental models. You have to offer an alternative that better matches reality than the old model. This is why having students predict outcome of demos is good idea. Gives opportunity for conflict. And, not all students come in with well-defined mental models – sometimes you can just hook onto a vaguely formed idea.
  • Bring up states of matter. Show real world stuff, and also scaffolding from simple to complex.
  • Demonstrate “waves” to show scaffolding Show a chemistry sim – Gas Properties?
  • Talk in your group about these two . Share out. Specific learning goals –both lessons have the same learning goals But this one meets our guidelines for example: First it, Connects to students’ experiences - cell phone Next there is a Connection to students’ knowledge – prediction in A. There are Minimal directions- B just says test, no specifics about sim features given Students are asked to reason and make sense Students self-check understanding- B To get the most out of this lesson, students would be working in collaborative groups.
  • Analogy to lecturing… students can’t make meaning without the context of laundry… A problem with powerpoint?
  • What do you see? Trace out the spiral Where is the spiral -- can it exist “decontextualized” I.e. w/o th ebackground?
  • Show sim. Attend to real life Make visual constrain
  • A. Analyze and graph data sets from classic memory experiements to find patterns. Requires analyzing contrasting cases. Then graph it again to see if missed patterns. Read book chapter and then write 1-2 page summary of ideas in chapter. Then hear lecture explaining experiments, results, and theories. Or, analyze and graph data, and then hear lecture on theory. Fact based test = “do people tend to remember the first thing they read?” To test this hypothesis, students in one condition analyzed the contrast-ing cases of data. In another condition, students read a modified book chapter that described the same studies and results (in words and graphs), and provided their theoretical significance. This latter group’s task was to write a one- to two-page summary of the important ideas in the chapter. A few days after students completed these tasks, both groups heard a com- mon lecture that explained the experiments, the results, and the theories that were designed to accommodate the results. The question was whether both groups of students had been equally prepared to learn from the lec- ture. We also included a third group that did not hear the lecture. This group also completed the data analysis activity, but instead of hearing the lecture, they analyzed the data a second time looking for any patterns they may have missed. All told, there were three conditions: Data Analysis + Lec- ture, Summarize Chapter + Lecture, Double Data Analysis.
  • From Efficiency and Innovation in Transfer As an approach to solving this problem, we asked students to analyzeand graph simplified data sets from classic memory experiments to find the “interesting” patterns. Table 1.1 provides a sample of the data sets the students analyzed. Afterward, we asked them questions about what they had studied and compared their performance to other students who had not seen the data but had read summaries of the studies. For example, given the true–false question, “Do people tend to remember the first thing they read?”, students who had graphed the data did not do well compared to students who had written a summary of a chapter on memory. Thus, by a standard (replicative) assessment of knowledge, our method of instruction fared poorly. To assess whether the students learned from the lecture, we employedtwo assessments about a week later as part of a class exercise. The first assessment measured transfer by asking students to read the description of a novel experiment. The students’ task was to predict as many of the out- comes from the experiment as possible. Eight possible predictions were covered in the previous lessons (e.g., primacy). The second assessment used a recognition test that included factual assertions from the lecture. For example, “When people understand something they have read, they tend to remember it verbatim. True or false?”
  • What if we add a transfer measure? A week later students received description of a novel experiment (no data). Had to predict outcomes, which were derivable from lecture. Very hard task, because the novel experiment was unlike what they had analyzed or read about.
  • So: Data analysis group learned from lecture, because did better than graphing data only group And graphing the data adds something on top of just summarizing a chapter (= unguided active engagement)
  • Without contrasts, it’s hard to know what information is relevant. what one notices about the circle depends on the contrast.  For example, the fact that it is not filled only becomes apparent when contrasted to the circle that is filled.  The information in the circle is infinite... it is on the projected screen, it is on earth, etc., etc., etc.  Without contrasts, it is hard to know what information is relevant.  Do not assume students already know what is relevant, given that is what you are trying to teach. Give them contrasts so they can figure it out.
  • The example with chinese character and letter A.  For people who do not know chinese, it is very hard to see that it is the same character in all the instances.  However, with expertise (in english), it is easy to see that they are all the letter A.  The point is that experts can see the underlying structure despite variation in surface features.
  • If students ask what reliability means, teacher encourages them to create definitely based upon characteristics a basebal coach would look for in purchasing a pitching machine. Uses contrasting cases. Different # of pitches so students notice solution has to handle different sample sizes. Prepares to understand why variability divide by n - Pitching machine with tight cluster of pitches, notice that variability is not the same thing as inaccuracy, which is a common confusion - There is more than one way to measure reliability, so they can generate many feasible solutions This is a form of exploratory behavior. Productive activities to get them to notice and account for contrasts. teracting with each group. We do not encourage teachers to guide students to the conventional solution, because this can shortcut the students’ opportunity to de- velop the prior knowledge that will help them understand the conventional solution at a later time. Instead, we suggest three primary moves for the teachers, which am- plify the three benefits of production previously stated. One move is to ask the stu- dents to explain what they are doing. This places a premium on clarity and consis- tency. A second move is to ask students whether the results of their mathematical procedures correspond to their “common sense.” This ensures that students pay at- tention to specific symbol-referent mappings, instead of simply computing arbi- trary values. The third move is to push students towards more general solutions. The teacher encourages the students to find solutions that generalize across differ- ent legitimate configurations of quantity.
  • College students solve transfer problem 12% of time; HS students 34%
  • :  The blue circles show that the examples differ on the surface, but the have the same ratio.  The red circles make a nice example of a contrasting case at work.  Most students start this by just counting the number of clowns.  But, by looking at the clowns in the red circles they discover that 2 can't be the right answer for both of them.   Using contrasting cases. Like tasting glasses of wine side by side, helps people notice aspects of a situation they might otherwise overlook
  • Why physicists is implicit… need to make more explicit? Include APS backing etc? #’s stats… etc
  • Spaced vs massed study. 1 hr for 5 days not 5 hrs for one day We learn by being tested, by retrieval. Explaining is a form of retrieval
  • Need to flip over the E to see if there is an even number on other side Need to flip over 5 to see if there is mistakenly a vowel on the other side. Give out DVDs or pencils for giving an answer.
  • Had students study a text, and then study it again. How much do they remember?
  • When no time pressure, spend time on more difficult items, which will take longer. With time pressure, study those things more proximal to learning. Often drop flashcards that they don’t really know. Will drop after one successful recall, but they are close to knowing those. Spaced study (e.g., pictures by an artist are interleaved) rather than massed (all shown at once) produces better learning. Self-testing is important, but should make retrieval difficult. But if fail to retrieve, doesn’t help recall. Overall, students do whatever is more urgent, and don’t study strategically. Learning by triage rather than what is most effecitve.
  • Why physicists is implicit… need to make more explicit? Include APS backing etc? #’s stats… etc
  • Study showed that trait of experts is that they work hard Survival trail
  • NOT AFFECT
  • Do we have any chaance of affecting student attitudes /beliefs: good news: yes Bad news worse
  • Demotivating, and gives the wrong message about what science is about.
  • Why physicists is implicit… need to make more explicit? Include APS backing etc? #’s stats… etc
  • Timely specific feedback Tests, homework, peers, clicker questions
  • What every teacher should know about cognitive science

    1. 1. What every teacher should know about cognitive research Or How People Learn Dr. Stephanie Chasteen Physics Department University of Colorado at Boulder Stephanie.Chasteen@Colorado.EDU
    2. 2. This presentation is copyrighted under the Creative Commons License Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike That means: Please watch it, share it, and use it in your presentations. Just give us credit, don’t make money from it, and use the same kind of license on the works that you create from it. More information about Creative Commons licenses here: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/Credit should be given to: Stephanie Chasteen and the Science Education Initiative at the University of Colorado, http://colorado.edu/sei
    3. 3. PER at ColoradoFaculty: Grad Students: Melissa Dancy Stephanie Barr Michael Dubson Kara Gray Noah Finkelstein Lauren Kost-Smith (PhD May 11) Valerie Otero May Lee Kathy Perkins Mike Ross Steven Pollock Ben Spike Carl Wieman (on leave) Ben Van DusenPostdocs/ Scientists: Bethany Wilcox Charles Baily Teachers / Partners / Staff: Danny Caballero Shelly Belleau Stephanie Chasteen Jackie Elser, Julia Chamberlain Trish Loeblein Kelly Lancaster Susan M. Nicholson-Dykstra Laurel Mayhew Sara Severence Emily Moore Emily Quinty Ariel Paul Mindy Gratny, Kate Kidder Rachel Pepper John Blanco, Sam Reid Noah Podolefsky Chris Malley, Jon Olson Benjamin Zwickl Oliver Nix, Nina Zabolotnaya
    4. 4. Major advances past 1-2 decadesConsistent picture ⇒ Achieving learningclassroom brain studies research cognitive psychology
    5. 5. Some big outcomes:• Learning is constructing understanding• People organize their experiences into patterns or mental models
    6. 6. Outline• What people know affects what they learn (context is important)• Preparing your students to learn• What we remember is affected by how our brain works (the limits of retention)If time• Motivation is important• Feedback is important
    7. 7. Outline• What people know affects what they learn (context is important)• Preparing your students to learn• What we remember is affected by how our brain works (the limits of retention)If time• Motivation is important• Feedback is important
    8. 8. Stroop test
    9. 9. Stroop Test ][
    10. 10. Stroop ///rot, grün, blau, gelb, rosafarben,orange, blau, grün, blau, weiß,grün, gelb, orange, blau, weiß,braun, rot, blau, gelb, grün,rosafarben, gelb, grün, blau, rot
    11. 11. Strong indication: Prior knowledge mattersSometimes prior knowledge gets in the way of learning
    12. 12. Tools allow thoughtA Story of Galileo: 6 theorems of a geniusTheorem: If a moving particle, carried uniformly atconstant speed traverses two distances, then the algebratime interval required are to each other in the ratio oftheir distances. (followed by 2 page geometric proof). d1 = r * t1 t1 d1 = d2 = r * t 2 t 2 d2 From diSessa (2000) Changing Minds
    13. 13. THE MONTILLATION AND USES OF TRAXOLINEIt is very important tolearn about traxoline. QUIZ:Traxoline is a new form of 1. What is traxoline?zionter. It is montilled inCeristanna. The 2. Where is it montilled?Ceristannians found that 3. How is traxolinethey could gristerlate large quaseled?amounts of fervon and then 4. Why is traxolinebracter it to quaseltraxoline. This new, more important?efficient bracterillationprocess has the potential tomake traxoline one of themost useful products withinthe molecular family oflukizes snezlaus.
    14. 14. So, lack of context inhibits students from building productive mental models. It encourages memorization of facts and pattern-matching.But… students are not always aware of the context of what they’re learning! Why?
    15. 15. Your brainYour students’ brains Images: pptudela on Wikimedia
    16. 16. The “dead leaves” model (a) Write down every equation or law the teacher writes down that is also in the book (b) Memorize these, together with end-of-chapter formula (c) Do enough homework and end-of-chapter problems to recognize which formula is applied to which problem (d) Pass the exam by selecting the correct formulas for the problems on the exam (e) Erase all information from your brain after the exam to make room for the next set of material.Redish, Implications of cognitive studies for teaching physics. Am. J.Phys. (1994).
    17. 17. Discussion• How have you seen this apply in your classroom?• Where can/do we take into account students’ prior knowledge?• Where does context come into our instruction?
    18. 18. How context can help… The card game Rule: If there is a vowel on one side, there is an even number on the other In order to verify the rule isn’t broken, which card(s) do you need to flip over? E 2 L 5
    19. 19. Adapted from Johnson-Laird ‘83 The bartender gameYou are a bartender and need to verifythat the following drink orders/ agesdon’t break the law: if you drink alcoholyou must be 21 or older. Whose IDs doyou need to check?Gin/ Age: Age: CokeTonic 16 52
    20. 20. If letter = vowel, then number = even E 2 L 5If drink = alcohol, then age>21 Gin/ Age: Age: Coke Tonic 16 52
    21. 21. So, prior knowledge can be used to help process information more readily.Prior knowledge can be accessed by providing useful, authentic context.It is easy to learn something that matches or extends an existing mental model!(And it is hard to learn something we don’t almost already know)Much learning is done by analogy
    22. 22. One example: PhET Simulations http://phet.colorado.edu Free online simulations• Engaging• Visual• Real-world
    23. 23. Visual Models & Analogies
    24. 24. Comparing Activity Design Make the man start at Sketch what you think the -5 meter mark, move with graphs will look like for this story that Jill told: constant speed to the 2 meter mark and then “Bobby was talking to me on his accelerates to the 8 meter cell phone standing by his car. mark. The phone signal was poor, so he walked toward his house A. Sketch the position, trying to get a better signal and velocity and acceleration then stood still so we could talk.” graphs that you see. A. Explain why each part of your B. How do the three graph makes sense. graphs relate? B. Test your ideas using theWhich activity are you more simulationlikely to use with students?B.Green. B. Red.
    25. 25. The importance of contextThe procedure is quite simple. First arrange items into different groups. Of course one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise, you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do too few things at once than too many. In the short run this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first, the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then, one can never tell. After the procedure is completed one arranges the material into different groups again. Then they can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually they will be used once more and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, this is part of life. * Bransford, & Johnson(1972). Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 11, 717-726
    26. 26. Foreground / Background From: R. McDermott ‘93
    27. 27. Circuit Construction Kit (CCK)
    28. 28. Outline• What people know affects what they learn (context is important)• Preparing your students to learn• What we remember is affected by how our brain works (the limits of retention)If time• Motivation is important• Feedback is important
    29. 29. “hooks” for memoryHooks for retention-- mental connections e.g. lesson on fasteners-- here are all the types and how they are used. vs. Here is an interesting job problem, here are possible types of fasteners for solving 6 kg problem, and here is how a certain type of fastener solved it.
    30. 30. If interactive engagement helps students learn… then is “telling” bad?
    31. 31. A study…• Population: cognitive psychology students.• Content: cognitive theories of memory• Question: How well do students understand theories of memory from… – reading a textbook about classic experiments? – analyzing and graphing simplified data sets from these classic experiments?
    32. 32. Data analysis task
    33. 33. Study design First… Second… AssessmentA Graph Data Graph Data Factual TestB Summarize Chapter Lecture on TheoryC Graph Data Lecture on Theory Which do you think did better on the test? A B C or D- otherSchwartz, Bransford and Sears, 2005. Efficiency and Innovation in Transfer.
    34. 34. Score on factual recall test A B CGraph data Reading + Graph Data +Graph data Lecture Lecture
    35. 35. So that means…• Data analysis activities are useless, lecturing is key. Right? “Wouldn’t it just be more efficient to tell them?”• No… this is the ‘conspiracy theory’. – Assessments designed to test efficient learning of facts make fact-based instruction look good.
    36. 36. Assessment Design Activity 1 Activity 2 AssessmentGraph Data Graph Data Factual TestSummarize Chapter Lecture on Theory Transfer TestGraph Data Lecture on TheoryAdd a new “transfer” assessment Asked to predict outcomes of a novel experiment.
    37. 37. Score on transfer test (predict new experiment) A B CGraph data Reading + Graph Data +Graph data Lecture Lecture
    38. 38. Assessment and Instruction• So, lectures can be an effective tool for instruction… IF the students are prepared to learn from them• What was so special about the “graphing the data” activity, especially compared to summarizing the chapter?
    39. 39. Creating a “time for telling”• Data graphing oriented students to key features• They needed to account for variation in the data = contrasting cases• This struggle towards meaning prepares them to learn from lecture, enabling better transfer
    40. 40. The importance of contrasts What is relevant?Circle Biggish Empty Solid White Line Left Side of Screen
    41. 41. But we do learn to perceive…Despite variations in surface features
    42. 42. The importance of contrast How do you teach Japanese speakers to hear “L”? How do you teach someone to taste the difference between Merlot and Cabernet? Do you give them the purest example of “L” ? Of a Cabernet?Learning depends on finding structure invariability.Need both positive and negative variations.But you can’t just throw contrasts at people
    43. 43. Invention Activities orient to key features • Before a lesson on deviation in statistics • Ask students to develop “reliability index” for pitching machines • Students don’t need to discover right answer. Prepares them to “get it” when you give them lecture. * Schwartz, D. L., Bransford, J. D., Sears, D. L. (2005). Efficiency andinnovation in transfer* Schwartz and Martin (2004), Inventing to Prepare for Future Learning
    44. 44. Pitching machine example• Create a reliability index that differentiates between these different machinesImplemented in high school Algebra 1.Himmelberger, K., & Schwartz, D. L. (2007). It’s a homerun! Usingmathematical discourse to support the learning of statistics. Mathematics Teacher, 101(4), 250-256.
    45. 45. A. Area covered by pitchesB. Perimeter using grid marksC. Average distances between pairs of pointsD. Average distance from random point to all pointsE. Frequency of balls in each of 4 quadrantsF. Average distance between all pairwise points
    46. 46. Pitching redux• Wide variety of sophisticated solutions• Solutions themselves not critical• Generates discussion about how to handle aspects of variability• Prepares to understand formula• 9th graders after invention did better on test than college students after a semester of statistics! ave deviation = å x- X n
    47. 47. Orienting Task:Inventing an Index Dan Schwartz
    48. 48. Worksheet: Invention activitiesA. Crowded ClownsB. PopcornWork through with two partners. 5 minutes.
    49. 49. Thinking about it allMight you use an “invention activity” like this in your class?B.Definitely (why?)C.It depends (on what?)D.Definitely not (why not?)Are there other ways you use contrasting cases in your teaching?Are there other ways to let students “struggle towards meaning”?
    50. 50. Summary of contrasting cases• Asking students to invent a description of different contrasting cases (e.g., crowded clown index) helps them learn the important features• Prepared them to learn from lecture, creating a “time for telling”• Helps them to transfer to new situations (but not necessarily in factual recall)
    51. 51. Outline• What people know affects what they learn (context is important)• Preparing your students to learn• What we remember is affected by how our brain works (the limits of retention)If time• Motivation is important• Feedback is important
    52. 52. How much do you remember from this talk already? Probably 10% of you remember any non-obvious fact from 15 minutes ago
    53. 53. Working Memory Capacity VERY LIMITED! every added demand hurts learning (“cognitive load”) (remember/process max 4-7 unrelated items) Without great care, exceeded in almost every lecture.Mr. Anderson, May I be excused?My brain is full.
    54. 54. What does help memory?Quiz:What is Traxoline? It’s a new form of…D.MontillationE.QuaselF.Zionter Testing is a learning event!G.Bracter
    55. 55. H. Roediger, J. Karpicke Psych. Sci. Vol.17 pg 249
    56. 56. Some interesting findings on studying… • Under time pressure, people study the easiest items • People often stop studying before they have learned the information • Spaced vs. massed practice is better • Self-testing is important • There are benefits to retrieval even if it fails, especially with corrective feedbackKornell and Bjork, The promise and perils of self-regulated study
    57. 57. Implications• Provide opportunity for retrieval in lecture• Space repetitions across lecture/homework• Help students learn how to study
    58. 58. Classroom application• What kinds of things might you do to help improve students’ memory of facts and vocabulary?
    59. 59. FinSlides will be at blog.sciencegeekgirl.com
    60. 60. Outline• What people know affects what they learn (context is important)• Preparing your students to learn• What we remember is affected by how our brain works (the limits of retention)If time• Motivation is important• Feedback is important
    61. 61. If you see no reason to learn, you won’t bother!• Learning takes effort• Why spend energy if there’s no reason?• Motivation is highly malleable!
    62. 62. “This class is very hard and many of you will fail so you need to study really hard.”How do you think this affects universitystudent motivation to learn the material?a. increases b. decreases Focus groups and interviews indicate is demotivating for university students. Psychology studies support.
    63. 63. What does motivate? •What have you found to be the most motivating to students? •What did you think would be motivating but wasn’t?c.Subject relevance (meaningful context)d.Instructor attitude. (respect and challenge) “Subject hard for everyone, but all can master with effort, and my goal for course is for all of you to succeed.”
    64. 64. Attitudes and Beliefs* Assessing the “hidden curriculum” - beliefs about physics and learning physics Examples: • “I study physics to learn knowledge that will be useful in life.” • “To learn physics, I only need to memorize solutions to sample problems”*Adams et al, (2006). Physical Review: Spec. Topics: PER, 0201010
    65. 65. How do you think a single introductory physics class affects students beliefs about physics?A. Not much. Their beliefs are pretty well set by college.B. Some students probably come out with a slightly more positive view of physicsC. It varies by students’ individual learning stylesD. Something else
    66. 66. Can we affect students’ beliefs? Shift (%) “CLASS” survey of Expert-like beliefsReal world connect... -6Personal interest........ -8 The good news: yes…Sense making/effort... -12Conceptual................ -11Math understanding... -10Problem Solving........ -7 Worse forConfidence................ -17 females!Nature of science....... +5 (All ±2%) Students come out of introductory classes with more negative views of physics than they came in with!
    67. 67. why does this happen?
    68. 68. Trad’l Model of Education Content Individual
    69. 69. Expert Tutors *1. Motivation major focus (context, pique curiosity,...)limited praise, never for person, all for process3. Understands what students do and do not know ⇒ timely, specific, interactive feedback5. Almost never tell students anything-- pose questions.7. Mostly students answering questions & explaining.9. Asking right questions so students challenged but can figure out. Systematic progression.11. Let students make mistakes, then discover and fix.13. Require reflection: how solved, explain, generalize,… *Lepper and Woolverton pg 135 in Improving Academic Achievement
    70. 70. Classroom application• How might you help motivate students to learn the material?
    71. 71. Outline• What people know affects what they learn (context is important)• Preparing your students to learn• What we remember is affected by how our brain works (the limits of retention)If time• Motivation is important• Feedback is important
    72. 72. actively engaging students is important Learning is changing our brain “constructivism!”
    73. 73. What makes an expert thinker?It’s not just that an expert knows moreAn expert thinks about a subject in different waysthan a novice does“New wiring!”We can see that the brain changes through brainactivation and imaging studies, and in what expertsdo
    74. 74. Feedback helps with constructing our own understanding If we’re to change how we think, we need feedback on our thinking What does that mean? What kind of feedback is most helpful? How can students get it?
    75. 75. No need for feedback in traditional model
    76. 76. Feedback through formative assessmentCompare and contrast what students experience during two different types of assessment activities.2. Does the assessment help students gauge what they know?3.Does the assessment build skills in feedback?4.How does the assessment motivate students to learn the material? Adapted from Handelsman, Miller & Pfund, 2007
    77. 77. It’s not about our teaching,it’s about student learning
    78. 78. Conclusions• Educational practice is a researchable endeavor – We can make systematic progress – Imperative to include physicists• Possible to achieve dramatic repeated results• CU model strongly couples: – Reform and research – Education and physics• Sustaining & Scaling reforms is possible – Requires theoretical framing – Both CONTENT and CONTEXT matter
    79. 79. FinMuch more at: per.colorado.edu

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