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PR Research


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PR Research

  1. 1. <ul><li>& Evaluation </li></ul>PR Research
  2. 2. Two parts <ul><li>Academic Research areas </li></ul><ul><li>Research in practice </li></ul>
  3. 3. Academic Practitioner looks to & learns from looks to & learns from resolves problems from resolves problems from
  4. 4. but <ul><li>Less focus on results </li></ul><ul><li>Can be “unpopular” </li></ul><ul><li>Theory driven </li></ul><ul><li>Topic driven </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on bottom line </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial sense </li></ul><ul><li>Experience driven </li></ul><ul><li>Need driven </li></ul>Academic Practitioner
  5. 5. Academic research Effectiveness & Evaluation Topical research Applied research Remember: Many academics were practitioners!
  6. 6. Topic Research <ul><li>Driven by the area of research: </li></ul><ul><li>Often looks at practice </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to identify emerging tactics/topics </li></ul><ul><li>Case study and </li></ul><ul><li>Survey research </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Survey of CSR programs </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effectiveness Research <ul><li>Driven by the need to have better evaluation models: </li></ul><ul><li>Often looks at practice </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently comparative in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Learns from other disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Highly task oriented (how effective is PR?) </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental design </li></ul><ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><li>Survey research </li></ul><ul><li>(we will come back to this later!) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Applied Research <ul><li>Driven by a specific research question: </li></ul><ul><li>Usually combines evaluation & topic research </li></ul><ul><li>Often looks takes a problem/solution approach </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently based on problems outside of PR </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental research designs </li></ul><ul><li>Survey research </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness of xyz programs </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The importance of evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility of you! </li></ul><ul><li>Budget </li></ul>Evaluation
  10. 10. <ul><li>commercial - justification of budget </li></ul><ul><li>simple effectiveness - outputs ok? </li></ul><ul><li>objective effectiveness - meets objectives? </li></ul>Types of evaluation
  11. 11. <ul><li>Input </li></ul><ul><li>Output </li></ul><ul><li>Effect </li></ul>Types of measures
  12. 12. <ul><li>Column inches: output but no effect </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising Cost Equivalent (AVE): dito </li></ul>Traditionally
  13. 13. Cutlip: PII
  14. 14. Social and cultural change Number who repeat behaviour Number who behave as desired Number who change attitude Number who change opinion Number who learn message content Number who attent to messages and activities Number who receive messages and activities Number of messages places and activities implemented Number of messages sent to media and activities designed Quality of message and activity presentations Appropriateness of message and activity content Adequacy of background information Preparation Implementation Impact Cutlip: PII (1985)
  15. 15. MacNamara: Macro Model
  16. 16. Results Outputs Inputs
  17. 17. Inputs Quality of message presentation Expert review Feedback/Audience Surveys Awards Appropriateness of message content Readability tests Review Re-testing (Focus Groups) Appropriateness of the medium Case studies Pre-testing Adequacy of background information, intelligence & research Review Existing research data Benchmark research
  18. 18. Outputs Number who consider messages Reader-/Listener-/Viewership stats Attendance Inquiry/Response rate Number who receive messages Circulation figures Audience analysis Number of messages supporting objectives Analysis of media coverage (media content analysis) Number of messages placed in the media Media monitoring (Clipping services) Number of messages sent Distribution statistics
  19. 19. Results Objective achieved/ Problem solved Observation Quantitative research Number who behave in a desired manner Sales statistics,... Quantitative research Number who change attitudes Quantitative research (Cognition acceptance) Number who learn message content Quantitative research
  20. 20. Lindenmann
  21. 21. Advanced / Level 3 Measuring: -Behaviour change Attitude change - Option change Intermediate / Level 2 Measuring: - Retention - Comprehension - Awareness -Reception Output / Level 1 Measuring: -Targeted audiences / publics - Impressions - Media placements
  22. 22. Fairchild 1997 Objective Setting Measurement and the Planning Cycle 1: Audit Where are we now? Existing research / benchmarks 2: Objectives Where do we need to be? Overall Goals Measurable Objectives - Messages - Timescales 3: Strategy and Plan How do we get there Level of measurement 4: Measurement & Evaluation Are we getting there Measurement (L1,2,3?) Continue/Stop/Adjust doing? 5:Result How did we do? Quantity outcome Objectives met? Learning? Value?
  23. 23. <ul><li>vital to use scientific methods of data collection </li></ul><ul><li>“cross-over” from marketing research </li></ul><ul><li>draw on general research methods and </li></ul><ul><li>psychology! </li></ul>Whatever you do...