Induction2007 Plagiarism

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A workshop for citing, referencing and how to avoid plagiarism

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Induction2007 Plagiarism

  1. 1. Citing, Referencing & Plagiarism An introduction to correct academic writing
  2. 2. “ Standing on the shoulder of giants” Source: Wikipedia
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Understanding academic writing </li></ul><ul><li>Citing, paraphrasing and quoting </li></ul><ul><li>References- why? </li></ul><ul><li>Types of references </li></ul><ul><li>Referencing styles </li></ul><ul><li>Plagiarism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Academic Writing <ul><li>Demonstrate your reading & critical analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Give arguments supporting your hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Provide an overview over previous research </li></ul><ul><li>Give factual background information, e.g. market data </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate your understanding of the topic area </li></ul><ul><li>= Showing scholarship ! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Scholarship <ul><li>High level of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of critical understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Mastering of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Developing abstract theoretical and practical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Contributing to the body of knowledge </li></ul>
  6. 6. How to get to knowledge <ul><li>Popular sources: - books - magazines & newspapers - internet </li></ul><ul><li>NOT normally used for academic purposes: </li></ul><ul><li>Not peer reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Often one-sided </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently no clear methodology or basis for claims made </li></ul><ul><li>Sources often not given = lack of possible follow up </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility is often VERY low </li></ul>
  7. 7. Peer reviewed Academic Academic 1 Academic 2 Editor Publication
  8. 8. Peer reviewed Journals <ul><li>Highly credible (“double blind” review) </li></ul><ul><li>Refereed by other leading academics </li></ul><ul><li>Anonymous refereeing and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback “improvement loop” </li></ul><ul><li>Always includes sources and methodological data, limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Offers avenues for future research </li></ul><ul><li>Often a bit boring,… and never sensationalist </li></ul>
  9. 9. How to get it? <ul><li>Printed journals - available in the LRC - a bit tedious - easy to browse </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic sources - Athens authenticated sources - available 24 hours - download and read later - keyword search </li></ul>
  10. 10. The “scholar loop” Research Your work Practice extract <ul><li>feed back: </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul>
  11. 11. What will you present? Your work Reader reads more information further research follow up on source
  12. 12. Two problems: <ul><li>How do you “extract” knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the reader find and verify your knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Citing & Referencing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Two ways of presenting knowledge <ul><li>Paraphrasing/Citing: Saying what someone else said/wrote in your own words </li></ul><ul><li>Quoting: Literally transcribing what someone else said/wrote </li></ul><ul><li>But whatever you do: Reference the source! </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reference Styles <ul><li>Various styles are in use </li></ul><ul><li>All have one aim: - find the source - show that you are a true scholar - make your work more credible </li></ul>
  15. 15. Author Date <ul><li>Most popular in social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>In the text, refer to the author and date of publication (Miller, 2006) when citing or paraphrasing. </li></ul><ul><li>But give a page number “when quoting word by word” (Miller, 2006:9) </li></ul><ul><li>You can also say that Miller (2006) claims… to make nicer sentences </li></ul>
  16. 16. Authors <ul><li>Use only the last name (e.g Miller, never James Miller ) </li></ul><ul><li>Two authors should all be names (Miller & Smith, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>For more authors, use et al (Miller et al, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>No date is marked “n.d.” </li></ul><ul><li>More than one citation from one author in the same year: (Miller 2005a) and (Miller 2005b) </li></ul><ul><li>A new edition of a later edition is marked (Miller [1877] 2006) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Citing Journals <ul><li>Miller, J (2006). The Article’s Title. Journal Name 23 (3): 120-143 </li></ul><ul><li>Dahl, S and L Eagle (2006). Analyzing Advergames: Active Deception? Journal of Marketing Communications 11 (3): 120-131 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Citing Newspapers <ul><li>Miller, J (2006) “The Title”, Evening Standard, 18 September </li></ul><ul><li>Evening Standard (2006), “The Title”, 18 September </li></ul>
  19. 19. Citing Books <ul><li>Miller, J (2006): Title of Book, Place: Publisher </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter in a Book: </li></ul><ul><li>Miller J (2006): “Title of Chapter” in Title of Book, edited by E Jones, 120-145, London: Sage </li></ul>
  20. 20. Citing Websites <ul><li>BBC News (2006), “Title of the Page”, BBC, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2578.html [accessed 18.9.2006] </li></ul><ul><li>Miller, J (n.d.) “Title of the Page”, The Blog, http://www.blog.com/123.html [accessed 18.9.2006] </li></ul>
  21. 21. Plagiarism <ul><li>When you don’t reference: - you are not really a scholar - you are dishonest by passing off someone else’s work as your own - you demonstrate that you don’t understand the subject - you show you can’t critically evaluate knowledge and research </li></ul><ul><li>You should NOT be a (postgraduate) student </li></ul>
  22. 22. Plagiarism definition <ul><li>Various definitions,... but in essence: </li></ul><ul><li>Passing off someone else’s work, whether intentionally or unintentionally, as your own for your own benefit Carroll, J. (2002): A Handbook for Deterring Plagiarism in Higher Education, Oxford: Oxford Brooks : P.S.: Can also include your own work! P.P.S: Don’t quote several paragraphs – paraphrase & reference ! P.P.P.S: Ideas are also work – so reference them! </li></ul>
  23. 23. What happens if you get caught? <ul><li>Standard penalty: </li></ul><ul><li>a The reduction of a degree by a class or division; or </li></ul><ul><li>b Expulsion from the University, which incorporates failure of any and all assessment taken that academic year. (Middlesex Regulations, 2004, Section F) </li></ul>
  24. 24. How it “happens” <ul><li>Cut and paste from the internet, books, journals etc </li></ul><ul><li>Essays from “friends” - or “friends” just taking a look </li></ul><ul><li>The “friend” who did the course the year before... </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling your “old” papers </li></ul><ul><li>... and a very special service: </li></ul>
  25. 25. Buy one (and fail your degree free ) and many more,... Yes $10/page http://www.academon.co.uk/ Yes $14.95/page http://www.customresearchpapers.us/ Yes $10.55/page http://www.essaytoday.com/ Yes $136.00 http://www.research-assistance.com/ Yes $29.95 http://www.essaytown.com/ Yes £9.95/page http://www.essayrelief.co.uk/ Yes £29.95 http://www.papers4you.com/ Yes $169.00 http://essayfinder.com Yes £90 http://www.ukessays.com/ Detected? Price
  26. 26. Turnitin <ul><li>A massive database: </li></ul><ul><li>4.5 billion publicly accessible internet sites </li></ul><ul><li>40 million pages updated daily </li></ul><ul><li>15 million previously submitted assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: </li></ul><ul><li>All publications on the Proquest database </li></ul><ul><li>All universities in New Zealand, Australia; most universities in the UK, US </li></ul><ul><li>Many other international universities, colleges and further and higher education institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Books and other publications </li></ul>
  27. 29. Summary <ul><li>You must cite and show the sources of your knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Citing makes you a true scholar, whose work is based on reliable evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Not citing will make you fail your course </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t rely on popular sources, and remember to evaluate how credible your source is! </li></ul><ul><li>Never plagiarise! </li></ul>

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