Health & Social Marketing Workshop 1


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Day 1 of the Workshop material on Health & Social Marketing at Middlesex University Business School, London

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  • Explain with examples of variables.
  • Health & Social Marketing Workshop 1

    1. 1. Workshop 1 Health & Social Marketing Dr Stephan Dahl Middlesex University - London
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>History of Social Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Social Marketing Today </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Case 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
    3. 3. HISTORY OF SOCIAL MARKETING <ul><li>Part 1 </li></ul>
    4. 4. Application of Marketing Principles <ul><li>“ A process for influencing human behaviour on a large scale, using marketing principles for the purpose of societal benefit rather than commercial profit” (Pirani & Reizes, 2005). </li></ul>
    5. 5. It’s in the family… Health Promotion Health Education Social Marketing
    6. 6. History Advertising Communi- cation Social Marketing Information Driven: mass-media Promotion driven: media, pr and selling Commercial methods “4 Ps” 1950s 1960s 1980s Social IMC? Personalised Relevant Information?
    7. 7. Around the 1970s <ul><li>1969: Controversy over whether or not Marketing should be used for other than commercial causes (Luck) </li></ul><ul><li>1971: Marketing for “Social Change” (Kotler & Zaltman) </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the 1970s: Controversy continues </li></ul>
    8. 8. Contoversy <ul><li>Skepticism towards commercial marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulative? </li></ul><ul><li>Strange arguments: Marketing can affect undesirable change - but should not be used to affect desirable change? </li></ul>
    9. 9. 1980s - the decade of AIDS <ul><li>Mass panic/uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>A totally preventable infection = certain death at the time </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly fast/clear cause & effect </li></ul><ul><li>Well defined target group(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Desperation (Acceptance/Access/Prevention) </li></ul><ul><li>Over-proportionally affected a very active/activist community </li></ul><ul><li>Information was no longer enough! </li></ul>Marketing of a disease Marketing of a prevention
    10. 10. 1990s <ul><li>Increasing realisation of impact of preventable illnesses in the medical field </li></ul><ul><li>Move to use Social Marketing techniques on a wider scale </li></ul><ul><li>Still mostly health related </li></ul><ul><li>Low tech, media driven </li></ul>
    11. 11. 2000s <ul><li>Social Marketing leaves the health field – slowly </li></ul><ul><li>More technology driven, personally tailored intervention </li></ul>
    12. 12. WHAT AND WHERE IS SOCIAL MARKETING TODAY? <ul><li>Part 2 </li></ul>
    13. 13. Personal choices lead to societal costs <ul><li>“ The total annual cost to the country of preventable illness amounts to a minimum of £187 billion ... 19% of total GDP (gross domestic product) for England&quot; (National Social Marketing Centre, 2006: 5) </li></ul><ul><li>USA: approximately 1 million deaths per annum are attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors (Rothschild, 1999) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Responsible Regulation or ‘Nanny State’? <ul><li>What about individual choice and responsibility? </li></ul><ul><li>When and why should the State intervene and in what ways? </li></ul><ul><li>Many interventions are either ineffective or have the reverse effect to what was anticipated (reactance / boomerang effects). </li></ul>
    15. 15. Limited options <ul><li>Legislation (how effective?) </li></ul><ul><li>Education (often ineffective due to complacency, indifference etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion (social marketing: also uses elements of education) - some see it as unethical compared to education and law as tools for changing or maintaining behaviour (Rothschild, 2000) </li></ul>
    16. 16. Current Popularity <ul><li>Social marketers have moved “from snake oil salesmen to trusted policy advisors” (French & Blair-Stevens, 2006: 29) </li></ul><ul><li>White paper Choosing Health (Department of Health, 2004) acknowledged existing communication strategies were not effective </li></ul>
    17. 17. The Potential of Social Marketing <ul><li>The power of marketing has been proven to be able to be harnessed to help enhance social as well as economic </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable body of research provides evidence of success in areas such as anti-smoking, safer sex, diet and nutrition </li></ul>
    18. 18. (Source: Kotler, 2002) Issue Magnitude Alcohol use during pregnancy Estimated 5,000 infants born with fetal alcohol syndrome each year Sexually transmitted diseases 40% of sexually active high school students report not using a condom Diabetes About 1/3 of the nearly 16 million people with diabetes are not aware they have the disease Skin cancer Approximately 70% of American adults do not protect themselves from the sun’s dangerous rays Breast cancer More than 20% of females aged 50 and over have not had mammograms in the last two years Prostrate cancer Only about half of all prostrate cancers are found early Colon cancer Only about 1/3 of all colon cancers are found early Seat belts An estimated 30% of drivers and adult passengers do not always wear their seat belts Fires Almost 50% of fires and 60% of fire deaths occur in the estimated 8% of homes with no smoke alarms
    19. 19. Academic Research <ul><li>Still largely based on health related research </li></ul><ul><li>A lot of behavioural research (which might be useful for other areas?) </li></ul><ul><li>Message framing & Marketing strategies are “big themes” </li></ul><ul><li>But still heavy reliance on comms! </li></ul>
    20. 20. The Potential of Social Marketing <ul><li>Increasing recognition by health researchers (e.g. Fishbein et al.) that, while health behaviour models can be powerful tools in analysing factors underlying health-related behaviours, communication theory and specialist communication researchers are needed to work with them in developing effective ways of communicating with diverse populations </li></ul>
    21. 21. Dangers in over-hyping <ul><li>Many simplistic ‘cookbook’ approaches advocated </li></ul><ul><li>Poorly designed or misdirected interventions may result in social marketing being dismissed as yet another management fad before its potential contribution to health and quality of life has been fully recognised. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Marketing is not an exact science – and never will be <ul><li>No single set of principles will be applicable in every situation </li></ul><ul><li>The key is understanding the attitudes and beliefs underlying current and likely future behaviour of of your target groups </li></ul><ul><li>Theory can help to develop models and guide campaign design </li></ul>
    23. 23. THEORIES IN SOCIAL MARKETING <ul><li>Part 3 </li></ul>
    24. 24. Role of Theory <ul><li>Theories don’t provide provide concrete answers or solutions to complex problems. </li></ul><ul><li>At their simplest, theories can simply describe processes … such as communication theory </li></ul><ul><li>Sender Message Receiver </li></ul>
    25. 25. Role of Theory <ul><li>Theories can be used to analyse what may have occurred , for example a campaign to change people’s behaviour which not only fails to achieve the desired behavioural change, but which seems to have strengthened existing behaviours may be explained by reactance theory (Brehm & Brehm, 1981; Ringold, 2002). </li></ul>
    26. 26. Role of Theory <ul><li>At its most powerful, theories can be used to identify the complex combination of factors that underlie specific behaviours and which need to be considered in planning an intervention. </li></ul><ul><li>Then theories can guide both the development and implementation of an intervention through identification of the key beliefs on which to focus. </li></ul>
    27. 27. Are theories valuable? <ul><li>Theory-driven approaches have been found to lead to more persuasive messages across the range of socio-economic groups (Schneider, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Different theories may be more useful than others under differing circumstances </li></ul>
    28. 28. Some Theory Examples
    29. 29. Health Belief Model Individual Perceptions Modifying Factors Likelihood of Action Perceived susceptibility to disease Perceived severity of disease Perceived threat of disease Cues to Action Education | Symptoms | Media Age, sex, ethnicity Person ality Socio econo mics Know ledge Self- efficacy* Perceived benefits of behaviour change Perceived barriers to behaviour change minus Likelihood of behaviour change Key interventions *added in 1988 to recognise one-time vs sustained change
    30. 30. Critical voices <ul><li>No temporal dimension </li></ul><ul><li>Little societal impact </li></ul>
    31. 31. Precaution Adaptation Process Model 1. Unaware of Issue 2. Unengaged by issue 3. Deciding about action 5. Decided to act 6. Acting 7. Maintenance 4. Decided not to act - Mass-media messages - Direct normative pressure - Personal experience <ul><li>Likelihood & Severity - Susceptibility - Precaution effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>- Behviour/Recomendations of others - Perceived Social Norms - Fear/Worry </li></ul>- Time/effort/Resource requirements - How-To knowledge - Reminders and cues to action - Assistance/Support ?
    32. 32. Critical voices <ul><li>Stages do not necessarily follow sequentially </li></ul><ul><li>Stages may not necessarily predict stage “in 12 months” etc </li></ul><ul><li>No clear guidance for “moving” across stages </li></ul><ul><li>Assumes personal experience – but what about observed/perceived societal norms? </li></ul>
    33. 33. Social Learning/ Cognition Theory Personal Factors Environ- ment Behaviour (Bandura, 1977) Reciprocal Determinism Self-efficacy
    34. 34. Thus <ul><li>Reinforcement can be vicarious (observed) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning can be based on observation We don’t learn by trial and error </li></ul><ul><li>We have considerable self-control and can use this to avoid punishment or achieve goals </li></ul>
    35. 35. Theory of Reasoned Action Aizen, 2006 Behavioural Beliefs Attitude toward the behaviour Normative Beliefs Subjective Norm Control Beliefs Perceived behavioural control Intention Behaviour Actual behavioural control
    36. 36. Integrated Model of Behaviour Change Distal variables Past behaviour Demographics and culture Attitudes towards targets (stereotypes and stigma) Personality, moods and emotions Other individual difference variables (perceived risk) Intervention exposure/ media exposure Normative beliefs and motivation to comply Attitudes Norms Self efficacy Environmental constraints Intention Skills and abilities Behaviour Behavioural beliefs and outcome evaluations Control beliefs
    37. 37. TRA: Points to note <ul><li>Used in around 1200 published cases </li></ul><ul><li>It can predict behavioural outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>It can guide intervention design, but lacks being a planning model! </li></ul>
    38. 38. Points about theory <ul><li>Gives informed insights into behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Gives different perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifies complex behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Builds on previously learned/researched observations </li></ul><ul><li>Can act as a check-list </li></ul>
    39. 39. Problems with Theory <ul><li>Numerous models of health behaviour, but few direct comparisons of their efficacy and predictive power (Garcia & Mann, 2003; Nigg, Allegrante, & Ory, 2002; Noar & Zimmerman, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Problems arise from the use of different wording when the constructs themselves are similar (Fishbein & Cappella, 2006; Noar & Zimmerman, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Different studies may not measure the same constructs, even if they are reported under the same labels (Yzer, Hennessy, & Fishbein, 2004). </li></ul>
    40. 40. [email_address] <ul><li>For more information </li></ul>